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can form : but I also believe that a large minority, | fessing only his country's end pursues only his perhaps a majority, of the tradesmen and bourgeoi.own. sie would prefer a Constitutional Monarchy. All Isaac Adolphe Cremieux, provisional minister of expression of such opinion it meant to suppress by Justice, is an appearance the least prepossessing influence of office and intimidation. All who hold and least imposing of the members of the New such opinions, and even those--Thiers, Odillon Government. Diminutive in statue, his crisp imBarrot, and others who fermed the liberal opposi. practicable locks, his small turned-up nose, half lion under the late government-friends of the opened mouth, and repulsive physiognomy, give Constitutional Monarchy then, but who have since him the distinction of being a very, very ugly man. declared their adhesion to the Republic, are if pos. His insignificant person is clothed in the most slovsible to be excluded from the Assembly. This is enly manner, in utter contempt of the mode: and not merely unjust, but it is impolitic and will be the his whole bearing and air is that of an essentially source of much future disorder and perhaps rebel. vulgar and low-bred man. How unlike his tall, lion; affording as it will a pretext for those who graceful, elegant, exquisitely dressed and distingué desire one, lo say that the sense of the people was colleague de Lamartine! France could not produce not fairly taken, and that the Republic has been two persons less resembling in appearance than forced upon the country by intimidation. And such the courtly Lamartine and the democrat Cremeer. a position will not be without reasonable founda-1 But if the ugliness of M. Cremieux is incontesti. tion. None but republican opinions can now be ble, his ability is equally so. After speaking for a safely expressed in France.

few moments in a cause which claims his interesi Young Carnot participated in his father's exile his auditors insensibly forget the contemptible per under the restoration, leading with him a wander- son of the orator, and borne away by a flood of ing, onsettled life. Upon the death of his father, in impassioned and real eloquence, give to him the 1823, he returned to France, and being without for- hearty and enthusiastic tribute of admiration. His tune he betook himself to the study of law. He was triumphs of this sort at the bar and in the tribaze. licensed, and nothing remained but to take the oath are without number. M. Cremieux is a Jew: and for him to enter upon the practice. This he could was born at Nismes on the 30th April, 1796. He not prevail upon himself to do. He was deeply was a precocious genius, took premiums from all republican in politics; the government he would competitors at school where, from a very early age have to swear to support was illiberal and des- his prodigious memory and remarkable fluency of potic—it had moreover proscribed his father, com- speech obtained for him the sobriquet of le petih. pelling him to live and die in exile. Young Car- avocat. The smart boy was of course destined ta not prepared at last to forego the honor and emo- the bar. He studied law at Aix, and in Augest, luments which seemed to beckon him to enter upon 1817, was admitted avocat at the bar of Nismes, the legal profession : and devoted himself to litera- his native town. His success at the bar vai ture, instruction, and St. Simonism. He pursued prompt and of the niost flattering character. He is a highly respectable but not illustrious course as mediately rose to the head of his profession and 22homme de Lettres and professor, till the revolution quired a reputation that made him known throughof 1830. The 27th July, 1830, found him in the out France. Unamiable and unprepossessing as is professor's chair. He promptly went down into his appearance the amiable and obliging disposithe streets and assisted by his arm in the erection Lion of M. Cremieux made him a universal favorite. of the throne of the barricades which he has just He immediately took the liberal side in politics assisted to overthrow. About this time he left the and has ever been the consistent and able advocate St. Simonians who were dividing into sects and at the bar and in the chamber of every cause, and adopting opinions which his good sense and honesty every man that required a bold, chivalric and libu induced him to reject. H. Carnot made his first eral defender. He was sent for from all parts of appearance in the Chamber of Deputies as repre- France to undertake the defence of political offendsentative of the 6th Arondissement of Paris, in ers. Not a man accused of republican lendencies, 1839. He took his seat on the extreme left and projects, not a journal that make itself feared by at once formed intimate political relations with Du-government, could be brought before the tribunals pont, Lafite and Arago. He has always in the of the country but the petit avocat was forthwith chamber shown himself a consistent liberal, but sent for, and in almost every case the accused was has acquired no distinction in the tribune. He has triumphanıly acquitted. In 1830 he removed to no very brilliant qualities, and has not, I fear, the Paris and at once took rank at the head of the high intelligence and statesman-like views, which Court of Appeals. He had contributed powerfully united with his honesty of intention, would prevent to the revolution of 1830, and gave his frank apă his running by the side of Ledru- Rollin to perni- cordial adhesion to the constitutional monarchy cious extremes. Carnot is dignified in manners, which was then established: but when with Laamiable and benevolent. If he errs it will not be fayette, Dupont, and Arago, and other patriots from ambition. It is not a demagogue who pro-'he saw that the promises of the charter were no?




to be kept he abandoned the support of Louis 1o Liberty has died singing the Marseillaise bePhilippe, and has ever since been one of the most neath the very axe of the executioner! But, genactive and most efficient of the opposition. Since Ilemen of the jury, that Marseillaise was the cry then he has hardly made a secret of his republican death to our enemies! It was the cry of salvation sympathies. He greatly increased his reputation to our country! Honor then to the Marseillaise ! and popularity by the bold letter which he ad- Listen, gentlemen, and judge.” dressed 10 Louis Philippe in behalf of Curry, convicted of revolutionary attempts soon after the

“LA MARSELLAISE. accession of Louis Philippe.

“Sire," exclaimed the intrepid advocate, “let it Dot be said, that during your reign, a patriot's head bas rolled beneath the axe! King of ihe barricades

Allons, enfants de la patrie, of July! pardon the barricades of June! King of

Le jour de Gloire est arrivé: the people! Let not a child of the people die by

Contre nous, de la tyrannie the hand of the executioner for a political offence,” L'étendard sanglant est levé. &e. Cremieux possesses in a high degree pro

Entendez-vous dans ces campagnes fessional courage. Early in his career before re- Mugir ces feroces soldats? moving to Paris, he was called to defend in the

Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras

Egorger vos fils et vos compagnes ! appeal an old officer of Napoleon who had been

Aux armes ! Citoyens! formez vos bataillons ! arrested and condemned for having shonted “ Vive

Marchons, marchons, qu'un sang impur l'Empereur !" and he thrilled his auditory by a

Abreuve nos sillons ! daring and eloquent eulogy, thrown thus in the

Marchons, Marchons, qu'un sang impur face of the functionaries of the Restoration, of those

Abreuve nos sillons ! glorious armies which had borne the triumphant tri-color over nearly all the capitals of Europe. But perhaps his most distinguished success at the "Que veut cette horde d'esclaves

De traitres, de rois conjurés ? bar took place upon the occasion of the arrest of

Pour qui ces ignobles entraves three young men who were charged with having pub

Ces pers dès longtemps préparés ? hely sung the Marseillaise. Cremieux of course

Français ! pour nous, ah! quel outrage! few to the defence. “It is not gentlemen of the Quels transports il doit exciter! jury," said the orator, without the profoundest in- C'est nous qu'on ose méditer dignation that I have read a decree of accusation De rendre à l'antique esclavage ?

Aux armes, Citoyens ! &c. dragging before this court three citizens who have sang the Marseillaise. I declare it boldly—the Marseillaise is, in my opinion, one of the very finest songs which the political history of nations has

Quoi! des cohortes étrangères

Feraient la loi dans nos foyers! preserved. The ancients would have erected

Quoi! des phalanges mercenaires staloes to the poet who had found in a great crisis

Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers ! of the country so marvellous inspirations. While Grand Dieu! par des mains enchainées 30 illustrivas captain of engineers * is organizing Nos fronts sous le jong se ploieraient : fourteen armies, which suddenly start like one man

De vils despotes deviendraient

Les maîtres de nos destinées ! from our heaving soil, a simple citizen, inspired by

Aux arınes! Citoyens! &c. his love of country, produces a hymn, a sublime bymn, which is soon chanted by every man from the Rhine to the Pyrennes, which is destined soon to waken ancient Egypt amid its sands, and whose

Tremblez, tyrans, et vous perfides,

L'opprobre de tous les partis-terrible accents, high and loud, will swell amid the

Tremblez! vos projets parricides tumult of battles—that hymn is the Marseillaise ! Vont enfin recevoir leur prix. It was its cry, “To arms, citizens !" that was Tont est soldat pour vous combattre raised simultaneously by a whole people of heroes !

S'ils tombent nos jeunes héros, And it is this Marseillaise that you have dared to

La France en produit de nouveaux drag before the tribunals! But you have not read

Contre vous tout prêts à se battre

Aux Armez! Citoyens ! &c. it! Have you no French blood in your veins ? No, no, they who censure the Marseillaise cannot have read it—they don't know it, they don't understand it! They think of nothing but the days of

Français, en guerriers magnanimes,

Portez, ou retenez vos coups : Terror—they confound the Marseillaise with the

Epargnez ces tristes victimes, scaffold! Ah! without doubt more than one martyr A regret s' arnant contre nous. * He alludes to Carnot the father of the present Min. of

Mais ces despotes sanguinaires, Pub. Instruction.

Mais les complices de Bouillé,






Tous ces tigres qui, sang pitié
Déchirent le sein de leur mère.
Aux Armes ! Citoyens ! &c.”

With my Miniature.

The world is salse-oh basely false indeed, It is impossible to describe adequately the effect which the recitation of this spirited production had

As ost, alas, too bitterly I've proved!

And those whom once most servently I loved, upon the court, jury and whole audience. Cremieux read it as well as Talma himself could have

Have caused my heart with deepest wounds lo bleed. done-his little form dilated-his eye sparkled

And she who held that heart-dow baply freed, his face blazed with feeling-the orator seemed

Th' Original would lenderly behold, actually inspired. At the fourth couplet every

Until the rich man came, and then for gold

'Twas spurned : she deemed, to gain the golden mneed, man in the house started to his feet, and held his breath till the recitation was completed. " This,

'Twas light, indeed, to sacrifice a heart ! this"--concluded the orator, " which has been de.

Ah, tho' sull many thus have ruthless been,

I feel thou ’dst shrink to act a treacherous part : clared criminal-criminal! Call it admirable ! Call it sublime! Let us cradle our children, and

And, when thou look'st on it in lovely mien,

Believe the tender love thou bearest me lull them to sleep with the noble accents of the Marseillaise !"

Is fondly answered by this heart to thee! It is hardly necessary to add that the three young Charleston, S. C. men were acquitted : and the triumph of Cremieux was complete.

M. Cremieux entered the chamber of deputies in 1842 as one of the representation from the department of the Inde-and-Loire. He would be

THE FEUDAL ARMIES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND. hard to beat upon the stump in the United States, and during the reform agitation in France last year Our readers will recollect the discussion, by an able con he was perhaps the ablest and most active. respondent in our January number, of the battles of Crecy.

M. Cremieux has thus far every thing in his Agincourt, &c. We commend the following article from favor. He is universally liked and esteemed. another pen on the same subject-Ed. Mess. Let us hope that in the wider career, upon which Editor of Messenger: he has just entered, he will preserve his reputation

Dear Sir,-) perceive that a flippant question, as an honorable man and patriot, and entitle himself to the lasting gratitude of his country.

in a note of one of your correspondents, bas led

to a discussion of the reasons of the English sucW. W. M.

cesses at the battles of Cressy, Poictiers and Agincourt. “How did the English manage to win these ancient baliles against such odds ?" seems to your correspondent a good answer, thrown into the Yankee shape of question, to the allegation

that, but for the Prussian forces, France would SONNETS.

have won the field of Waterloo. The discussion that has arisen, however idly-stirred, is an interesting one.

The great national cause of the English successes at Cressy, Poictiers and Agincourt, is to be

found in the following passage from Lord Bacon's On Receiving a Purse.

“ True Greatness of Kingdoms.” How beautiful the work of Woman's hand

“Let States that aim at greatness take heed how E'er wearing on its face the sweet impress

their nobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast; Of her own purity and loveliness!

for that maketh the common subject grow to be a Her rosy.fingers ware that Magic Wand

peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and E'en with whose slightest touch she may command, in effect, but a gentleman's laborer. Even as you At the sweet pleasure of her will, to rise

may see in coppice woods; if you leave your staEnchantingly before the raptured eyes,

dles too thick, you shall never have clean upderThe dazzling beauties of bright Fairy-land!

wood, but shrubs and bushes. So in countries, if Fond Token! of the dear regard I hold,

the gentlemen be too many, the commons will be Well-favored, in her true and tender heart,

base; and you will bring it to that, that not the Wert thou o'erflowing with the purest gold

hundredth poll will be fit for an helmet; especially Thou coulds't not be more valued than thou art : as to the infantry, which is the perve of an army: For me thou hast a treasure which will prove and so there will be great population and little More precious far than gold a gentle being's love ! - strength. This which I speak of hath been no



where better seen than by comparing of England the whole account of the battle of the French and France; whereof England, though far less in makes it clear that they were miserably commandterritory and population, hath been, nevertheless, ed. As they were advancing from Abbeville to an overmatch; in regard the middle people of Eng- the position of the English, the king (Philip) land make good soldiers which the peasants of changed his design, determined to postpone the atFrance do not. And herein the device of King tack until morning, and ordered a halt and encampHenry VII. (whereof I have spoken largely in the ment. Froissart says: “ The foremost stood still bistory of his life) was profound and admirable ; and would have abided but those who were behind in making farms and houses of husbandry of a would not but rode forward, and said that they standard; that is, maintained with such a propor- would in no wise halt till they had advanced to the tion of land unto them as may breed a subject to front; and when the front saw the rear advanced live in convenient plenty, and no servile condition; they continued to proceed ; so that neither the king and to keep the plough in the hands of the owners nor his marshals could rule them. So they proand not mere hirelings. And thus, indeed, you ceeded without any order until they came in sight sball attain to Virgil's character which he gives to of their enemies; and as soon as the foremost saw ancient Italy: “Terra potens armis atque ubere them they retreated in disorder; at which those in glebæ.'”

the rear were astonished and terrified, and thought England not only cherished her yeomanry, of that the foremost company had been fighting: then shich class of population France, divided into the they might have had leisure and room to have gone two extreme classes of nobles and peasants, was forward if they had wished : some advanced and wholly devoid, but looked carefully to its instruc-others remained still,” &c. tion in the use of that most formidable of ancient If this is not a picture of an ill-commanded milWeapons, the bow. Legislation, and prizes award- itary “rabble” there never was one. ed by kings and the great peers, filled rural Eng. Again, at this battle of Cressy, the English, land with archers able to strike the smallest mark under the wise and hardy generalship of which I

long distances, and to pierce any but the very have spoken, were posted at great advantage. best Italian armor of the men-at-arms.

Moreover they numbered a large force, in prois of the particular causes of the English suc- portion to their muster-roll, of the best archers of

cesses in the ancient ballles, Froissart gives a very their country, renowned as it was for unapproach.

elear account in telling the stories of Cressy and able excellence in this department of military 1. Poictiers. The English were con manded at Cres- strength; against which terrible array of bowmen

sy by Edward III., a gallant knight and eminent the French had no similar force to oppose except general, and his son the Black Prince, with the their “Genoese cross-bowmen” who came into batrenowned earls of Warwick and Oxford, fought in tle “so fatigued," " Froissart says, “with marchthe van. So generalled, the English fought with ing on foot that day six leagues, armed with their

the utmost precision, good order, and effect of dis- cross-bows, that they said to their constables, we scipline. An instance of this strict order is, in the are not well ordered to fight this day, for we are

Following statement of Froissart : "The same day not in a fit condition to do any great deed of arms, the French king had given a great black courser we have more need of rest." These Genoese lo Sir John of Hainault, who made the Lord of became very soon so disorderly and mutinous that Fussels to ride on him and bear his banner; the the French men-at-arms assailed them as enemies, same borse was taken restiff, and brought him rode on amongst “the rascal roul” hacking and through all the scouts of the English; and as he hewing, whilst upon the mass so confused, fell the would have returned again he fell into a great dike" fiery hail” of the English cloth-yard shafts, and was much hurt, and he would have died there" piercing through heads, arms, and breasts." A if his page had not been present, who followed him small advantage may be mentioned here : the Eng. through all the divisions, and saw where his mas- lish shot with the sun at their backs and conse. ter lay in the dike, with no other obstruction ex- quently shining into the faces of their enemies. cept his horse, for the Englishmen would not issue Finally the chivalry and stout yeomen of Eng. out of their ranks for the sake of taking any pri- land fought a battle of despair, whilst France might Soner ; then the page alighted in front of the Eng. fail in the one attempt, fall back safely, and come lish and relieved his master and bore him off.” on again at better occasion. It was with such sug

The French on the other hand were very badly gestions that Sir John of Hainault, cheered the commanded. Philip, their king, was a poor gen- French king. • If you have received a loss at this eral, perhaps even a craven.

Froissart says that time you will recover it again at another season." on " riding forward toward the Englishmen his The English, I say, fought a batile of despair. blood changed.” Whether this means that he They stood as one to eight against their enemies. showed a cowardly fear is not certain, but Frois. They fought chained in by the towus, strong forsart gives him no credit, and he delighted to give tresses, and teeming population of their enemy, it to kings, anywhere for one gallant action. But and only victory could break the chain. Defeat in

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the face of such a muster of the military of France, the battle of Poictiers, “Sir Edward, of Rooey," must result in annihilation. But it was the despair Froissart tells us “ fled alone which stimulates to superhuman action, not that pursued by an English knight who continually which depresses valor. Even the English yeo. cried to him'turn again. Sir Knight, it is a shame man, desperate of winning a day against such vast to fly away in this manner;' then the knight turned odds, had kindled his nature to a lordly pitch, and back"-and, to curtail Froissari's story, uphorsed was only ambitious to die like the gallant gentle. the English pursuer, and, turning the tables, took man who dismounted from his war horse, unbuckled him prisoner. “A squire of Picardy," in the same his spurs and took post by his side.

rout, "called John de Helenes," did a similar deed These are the causes of the English success on in turning and, man to man, making a captive of the field of Cressy; and they apply, in principal, the Lord Berkeley who pursued him. The pages to the victories of Poictiers and Agincourt. In of Froissart abound with proof of this sort, that these latter battles the English were commanded Frenchman and Englishman (practice in military by the greatest generals in the world—the Black exercises, and the influences of honor being the Prince and Henry V. In both battles great ad. same) were any thing but the monkey and lion, vantage of position was laken, hedges, stakes and which a purblind conceit had made some Engʻishditches made a means of defence against the charg- men believe them to have been, and to be. ing horse of the enemy. In both the bowmen, pro. But whatever effect the inferiority of the French tected in their position, shot for the honor of Eng. peasantry to the English yeomanry may have had land, and did terrible execution. In both the Eng- upon the issue of the ancient ballles at Cressy, lish were so far out-numbered that nothing but the Poictiers, and Agincourt-no argument can be memory of Cressy at Poictiers, and of Cressy and drawn from it at all bearing upon the issue of the Poictiers at Agincourt, opened a hope to victory; battle of Waterloo. Napoleon's gallant conscripts, and such memories, in preventing despair, did not, burning with martial ardor, were very different we may be sure, depress valor. Finally in both from the ancient base and ignoble peasantry. The the enemy was a disjointed force, chiefly of pea- English might well have won Cressy, Poictiers, santry, led on in a tumultuous manner. John, of and Agincourt, and lost Waterloo. France bad France, did his devoir as a good knight at Poic- greatly changed from her ancient condition us tiers, but there is not a word in any history com- early as the beginning of the sixteenth centory. : plimentary to his wisdom and skill as a leader. Sir Thomas Hanmer, in 1648, found the country

There is nothing in these battles, gained by Eng-“very full of money-silver and gold—the towns land against great odds, to show that the French and villages not decaying, but the houses full of were (even at that day of the highest renown in people, and the streets swarming with children, arms of the "fierce islanders”) constitutionally in- which no man could well believe but he that saw ferior as a race, in the manly virtues and powers, it.” The French Revolution removed the last to the English. The lower classes in England traces of that oppressive and debasing predomi. and France presented, for the causes which Lord nance of the high over the low, to which so wise Bacon has stated, the difference between a hardy a man as Lord Bacon traced the weakness of martial yeomanry, and a debased peasantry; but France in her wars with England. I repeat that it was not the better blood but the better institu- France might have very well, under one condition tions that gave superiority to the Englishman. of the manhood of her population, lost the ancient Where not debased into sollen indifference to honor battles, and yet under another won Waterloo. and love of country, the French character equalled Whether she had done so, or would have done so, the English or any other. Froissart is full of but for the Prussians is another question, and one proof of this. The knights and squires of France with which I have nothing to do. I am only anwere inferior to none on earth. It was the delight swering the argument of the writer of the note, of the chivalry of England to male in deeds of who asked you the question about these ancient arms, claiming or achieving no superiority with battles. their “gentle enemies.” Sir Eustace, of Rybe. In conclusion I have little more to say than that mont, struck the third Edward to his knee in a fair I have the greatest admiration for England, ancient encounter of swords under Calais ; the king, like and modern. The Portuguese ambassador at the a gentleman, gave him much honor and a chaplet court of Cromwell, rejoicing in the name, hard to of pearls for the good blow, saying that he was the write, of Don Juan Roderiguez de Saa Meneses, best knight he had ever interchanged buffeis with. Conde de Penaguaia, presented the Protector with At Sandingseld five French knights hield open lists a panegyric of him, written in Latin by a learned Jeand gave courteous reception, for love of arms, 10 suit, chaplain of the embassy—a panegyric which the chivalry of all chrisiendom, and running sev- has been considered so fine, as to be worthy of beeral hundred courses, did gallantly in all, losing ing attributed to “Mr. John Milton, Latin secrehonor in none. Some scores of enierprising Eng. tary to Cromwell;" in this panegyric England is lishmen went off the worse for their powers. After nobly eulogized as “a generous country, the mother

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