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at crime by a white person was punishable at all!

To take away or secrete another's child, from SCRAPS FROM A PORT-FOLIO. any person having lawful charge of its person, is punished by confinement in the penitentiary. (We

NO. IV. question if the words in italics are wisely put in.)

A stage-driver, or rail-way conductor, boat-cap- You tell us your wine is bad, and that the clergy tain, or other public carrier, willingly or ne gent- do not frequent your house, which we look upon to ly injuring any person, is punished as for a misde. be tautology.-Gay in letter to Swift. meanor-i. e. by fine and imprisonment. " Benefit of clergy” is entirely abolished. A felony is declared not to merge or stay the

BY ROBERT BRUCE. civil remedy of any person injured.

Ah! freedom is a noble thing, Bail in a criminal case is allowed to surrender

Freedom makes men to have liking, his principal, as in civil cases.

To man all solace freedom gives, We would gladly extend this mention of chan

He lives at ease who freely lives, ges in the law; but time and space fail us.

The

And he that aye hath lived free,

May not know well the misery, newspapers would do the public a great service,

The wrath, the hate, the spite, and all and interest their readers more than any ordinary

That's compassed in the name of thrall. speech could do, by publishing copious selections from this new code. Constantly, through more than twenty years of close attendance opon courts, and We make laws, but we follow customs. of frequent converse with all sorts of people, we

Lady Montague. have been freshly surprised by their ignorance of the laws that bind them. Did we edit a newspaper, this is one point on which we would make the Boswell asked Burke what he thought of some light of the Press shine. There are few points imitators of Dr. Johnson. “Sir," answered Burke, about which light is more important.

" they have all the nodosities of the oak, without lodeed the Legislature ought to adopt some its strength, all the writhing contortions of the symeans for effectually diffusing a knowledge of the bil, without her inspiration.” laws among the people. But how can that body be relied upon for any such thing? Even more than balf the magistrates are not furnished with a An idle moment furnishes at all times a nidus for Revised Code, or a Justice's Guide-Book. temptation.—Legh Richmond.

M.

To most men experience is like the stern-lights of a ship, which illume only the track it has passed.-Coleridge.

SONNET.

There is no place like London to take conceit out of a man.-Lord Byron.

POWERS' GREEK SLAVE.

Extract from a letter by Pope on occasion of a visit to Oxford. “I found myself received with a sort of respect, which this idle part of mankind the learned pay to their species, who are as considerable here, as the busy, the gay and the ambitious are in your world.”

O woman, in thy modest meekness hold,

When first I saw thy sad averted face,

I missed the winning air, the conscious grace,
That so enchant in sculptured marbles old, ;
But soon, in thy calm mien, despondent, cold,

With growing sympathy, I saw the trace
Of the deep woe that still could not debase,
And all thy tale of suffering was told.
Lost now is Nature's lovely wish to please,

And faultless though each limb, each feature fair,
Abides the nameless charm no longer there,
Bafiled are they who would thy beauties seize,

Turned into stone. thou standest cold and pure,
Clothed in thy modesty, steadfast to endure.

C. C. L.

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Nor peace nor ease the heart can know,

That like the needle true,
Turns at the touch of joy or woe,

But turning trembles too.

A young lady being told that St. Paul said that " they who married did well, but they who did not marry did better," replied, that "she did not want to do better than well."

Staunton, Va., 1848.

Vol. XIV-69

If on my theme I rightly think,

in my life, which is one of those lies one is always There are five reasons why men drink,

glad to hear.-Lady Montague.
Good wine, a friend, because I'm dry,
Or lest I should be by and by-
Or any other reason why.

London is the best place in winter, and in san

mer there is no living out of it.- Lord Chesterfield. Words are the counters of wise men, and the money of fools.—Hobbes.

A French Lady remarked," I don't know how it

happens,—but I am the only person of my acquaintHow much pain have those evils cost us that ance that is always in the right.” have never happened. --Jefferson.

Three degrees of latitude upset all the principles One day at the table of the Dean of Ely, just as of jurisprudence; a meridian determines what is the cloth was about to be removed, the discourse

truth or a few years of settled authority.— Pascal. happened to turn on the recent extraordinary mortality among the lawyers. “We have lost,” said a gentleman, “not less than six eminent barristers

Sir Henry Saville was asked by my lord of Es. in as many months.” The dean, who was quite sex, his opinion touching poets ? He answered my deaf, rose as his friend finished his remarks, and lord, that “ he thought them the best writers nest

to them that writ prose.” gave the company grace :-“ For this and every olher mercy, the Lord's name be praised."

C. C.

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Robert Hall remarked of a miserly rich man :“Yes, yes, he would listen and incline his head. He

may lend a distant ear to the murmurings from the vale beneath, but he remains like a mountain covered with perpetual snow.”

He shuns the pavement's crowded throng,

And bates the gleesome laugh and smile, But when he hears a boyhood song,

Ah! bitterly he weeps the while

He sadly, madly weeps the while.
He loves the dewy, rank green sod,

In still and lonely church-yard ground,
And loves to see the heaped-up clod,

And tomb-stones standing thick around

The pale stones gleaming all around.
He loves to urge me to the spot,

Where waters flow, so calm and deep,
Where willows droop, and steps come not,

And sings the stream a chant to sleep-
A low sweet chant, " forever sleep!"

I would not exchange my love of study for all the wealth of the Indies. — Gibbon.

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The Universe is an infinite sphere, whose centre is every where, and whose circumference is nowhere.— Pascal.

M. P

I hear it said that I look better than ever I did

Bethany, Virginia.

BY LIEUT. M. F. MAURY.

had no right to do such a thing, because Congress THE DEAD SEA EXPEDITION.

had never directed it to be done. Among other places, that officer caused the bar and mouth of

the Coatzacoalcas to be accurately surveyed, but Unfeltered by the trammels of party, the Mes because that river happened to be connected with senger is devoted to the high callings of Litera- the projected canal of Tehuantepec, no one ever ture, of Science, and of whatever tends to ennoble dreamed of holding up Commodore Perry as an the mind, or to advance the prosperity and happi- offender against the Constitution or the law ness, the honor and the glory of this great Republic. for doing it. He did it without any special au

The Navy always has been and we hope ever will thority or instruction whatever; he did it in he, above the reach of party. It gallantly fought consequence of the duties and responsibilities itself into being : a few fir-built frigates, with a which attach to him merely in virtue of his “ bit of striped bunting" at the mast-head, enacted commission as an officer in the American Nadeeds which won the admiration of a gallant peo- vy. Nay, had the youngest midshipman in the ple ; and since the war of 1812, the Navy has been Navy, the merest stripling in the service, been the pride and boast of every true-hearted Ameri- sent into that river in an open boat, and while there, can, of whatever political faith.

had he of his own head found it practicable to run In former times, Navy matters and Navy mea- lines and take soundings without interfering with sures have occupied prominent places on the pages the special duties which called him there, not only of this journa!. Discussions of such subjects here would his right to do it have been acknowledged, have always been free from party. They have ever but he would have felt it his duty to do it ; for the been so condacted as to leave the Navy as far be- regulations of the Navy themselves make it the yond the reach of the political battles of the day duty of every officer to survey and map every foreign as they found it; and for this we have been en place visited by them, provided the survey can be couraged with the loud halloo of many a gallant made without interfering with other duties. These yeoman in the land.

surveys are honorable to Commodore Perry and We have taken up this Expedition with a double his officers, creditable to the country and useful to aim : first to snatch it away from party and the the world. politician where it does not belong, and then to We should grieve to see the energies of officers place it where it does belong-viz: on that page damped, and the usefulness of the Navy crippled, whereon are recorded those deeds by which the by any attempt to bring them and their surveys into country has most been honored by its Navy. disrepute, for mere party purposes, or for the sake

What is the Navy for, and what are the duties of connecting naval operations abroad with the of its officers ? The Navy is for protection and questions of internal improvement at home, which safety both in peace and in war, and among the du- so much vex the rulers and lawgivers of the land. ties of its officers is legibly written the obligation to A ship cannot pursue her path across the ocean cultivate those branches of science and to under- without running her lines of soundings and contake those researches, upon the results of which ducting a series of observations of high interest the art of navigation is founded and the safe con- 10 science and of the first importance to the duct of vessels from one part of the globe to safety of the vessel and the encouragement of

navigation. Among those observations the presPirates infest the sea; the commissioned ves- sure and the temperature of the atmosphere, the sels in the Navy wait for no special law of Con- force of the wind and the set of corrents, the depth gress to go and chase them away. A man-of-war, of the sea, its temperature and the character of its while cruising on her station the other side of bottom, the height of mountains, the depression the world, discovers a danger to navigation : she of valleys, the co-ordinates of place on the globe, does not wait even for the formality of an order all that relates to the perfection of Hydrography, from home, but proceeds forth with to survey, ex- or tends to the improvement of geography, with a amine and report upon it, as a matter of recogni- host of other matters near of kin to the science

of navigation-come within the sphere and scope Nay more: squadrons of American ships are sent of Navy duty without special act of legislation. abroad to make war, or maintain peace; and the It exists ex necessitate rei. The mere law that esofficers do not hesitate, when the nature of the tablished the Navy, the appropriation bill which anservice admits, to survey ports and harbors, and nually passes Congress for the support of the Naval even to make charts of entire foreign coasts. service, give the executive the power and make it

Conmodore Perry while blockading the ports of the duty of officers to try currents, sound the ocean, Mexico in the Gulf and waging war, occupied him- measure altitudes and to do all those things which self also with the survey of long lines of foreign are necessary and convenient for the safety of navcoast

, as well as of foreign ports and harbors ; igation and the successful issue of present, as well and there has been no one so captious as to say he'as for the benefit of future voyages.

another depends.

zed duty.

From these views and consideration, it will read-fvate properly, build forts, and do many other things ily be perceived that the power which rests with which the public good requires, even in a foreign the Navy of making surveys in the Mediterrane- territory, which, lo-morrow, after the retara of an—which has been exercised since the Tripolitan peace, no power under the sun has the right to do war, we might have said since the foundation of such is the character of some of the incidental por. the government, and which has never been called ers which the bills for the support of armies and in question before, -is derived from a source alto. navies draw afier them. gether different from that whence flows the power It remains now to show how the Dead Sea Es. lo pull up snags and improve the navigation of our pedition is connected with the well-being of the own rivers and “inland seas."

navy or the interests of navigation, in order to take The power to do the one is incidental. The mere away from party purposes and party abuse, this act io maintain and support a Navy draws after it this enterprise with its enlightened and patriotic propower; it follows the Navy in all parts of the world. jectors. Its exercise is necessary to the safety of vessel and There are many phenoinena presented in the crew; for without charts, without the results of Mediterranean and on its borders of exceeding inscience, without the power and the right to con- terest to navigation. Among these may be meoduct a series of scientific observations, the Navy tioned the saliness of the water, and the presence could not be maintained. Without the lights and of a current which runs out through the Straits of guides of science, a vessel of war could not be con Gibraltar. Notwithstanding the well known fact that ducied from place to place—seas would be as im- the rivers and visible sources of supply to that sea, passable as an ocean of flame, by vessels of war. do not afford water enough to supply evaporation

The survey of a shoal, or the removal of a wreck from it, there is a current which runs with great vi. from a dangerous place in a distant sea, tends to olence from it into the Atlantic. For years the source improve navigation. So also does the clearing out of this current has perplexed navigators and puzzled of snags from the western rivers, or the deepen- philosophers. What effect might a conjectured ing of their channels. But the power to do the difference of level between that sea and the Dead, one and the other does not arise in the same way. have upon this current, and other phenomena! The former is incidental to a greater power, viz: An expedicion there would improve geography, to that of maintaining a navy; the latter is special and therefore Navigation; for by giving the height and is to be derived only from the constitution and of the mountains along the coast, you afford the by special legislation.

navigator the means to determine his distance from The Cumberland dam may have a great deal to them and to fix the place of his ship at sea, when do with commerce, but no one will pretend that the the lights of heaven themselves may fail him in his shoals of that river have any thing to do with the straights. maintenance of the Navy, and curious indeed must He who elicits a fact from nature, often makes he the constitution of that miod which can re- a discovery, says Humboldt, of more value than cognize in an order from the Executive to a Navy he who discovers an island in the sea. Here was officer to survey a sheet of water up the Mediter- presented a bundle of facts the importance and ranean, any principles applicable to improving the value of which, like the bearings of every new fact navigation of the Ohio.

gathered from nature, it is impossible to foresee. Suppose that by some convulsion of nature the This expedition could be accomplished without agy, present channel from the Navy Yard at Norfolk to the least inconvenience to the public service, and the sea should be filled up and a new one opened. at a cost so trifling that the sum expended opon Would any one doubt the right of the Executive the pole which was stuck up on the top of the forthwith and of his own accord to order the Navy Capitol, to be taken down again as a nuisance, to survey and buoy it out, in order that the men-of-would defray the expenses of twenty such expediwar which might be there, and which it is his duty tions. The spot to be explored was a mysteto keep afloat, might get to sea ? Suppose the same rious one; those who had visited it before, had convulsion should alter the channel, or change the died, and by their fate invested it with deeper incourse of the Mississippi river, would it not require a terest and shrouded it in darker mystery. From special act of Congress to enable him to expend infancy up, associations of terror and awful veaeven so much as a dollar in finding out a new chan- geance, were, in the minds of millions, associated nel there?

with the name of that spot, and throughout the Special powers may become incidental and the entire length and breadth of Christendom, there reverse, and officers of the government may tv- was an eager, not an idle, curiosity with regard to day trave incidenial powers to do ceriain things, it; 10 explore it would redound to the glory of the which, Congress itself by special acı, has no right navy and the honor of the nation. Expeditions to give. Thus Congress voies supplies for an from other countries had been attempted and bad army in Mexico: the commanding officer of that failed. The American navy never fails; and one of army has the right to bridge streams, destroy pri- 'its most accomplished officers, willing to risk his

And an op

life and reputation upon success, appeared entreat- He promised to consider the matter as soon as a ing for leave to go. His request came before an favorable opportunity should occur. officer of the government, a brother statesman, as portunity did occur which made the expedition high-minded, as generous and as true-hearted as most apropôs : The Spanish government had withhimself. It was therefore entertained with respect. drawn the privilege hitherto allowed us of having

Lieutenant Lynch has redeemed his pledge: he at Port Mahon a depot of stores for our squadron bas surveyed the Dead Sea, returned in safety, he in the Mediterranean. It was therefore found neand bis party, to their sbip, and may ere long be cessary to send out a store-ship to that sea, and to expected to arrive in the United States with the keep her there with provisions, &c. on board, 10 rich fruits of their labor.

supply the wants of the squadron as they arose. Lyneh, who planned this expedition, is a Virgi- The store-ship “Supply" was fitting out at New nian; Masop who authorized it, is a Virginian, and York for this purpose. After delivering to the could we envy the patriot any of the fruits of his squadron enough to satisfy for the time, a large labor, we should most of all covet the honors which portion of her stores would still be left on board, Mason deserves for the “ Dead Sea Expedition." and she would have to remain in port for several

We have some notes which we have treasured months, waiting for the first delivery to be consum. up for the benefit of our readers, and of all whoed. If she continued in port her officers and crew look with longing eyes and eager minds for the re- would continue with her of course, dragging out a sults of this interesting and honorable service. profilless and tedious time, if not contracting idle We offer a few of them now, perhaps we will give habits from the mere want of occupation. more of them at another time.

Lieut. Lynch was a most accomplished seaman. In the spring of 1847, Lient. Lynch first ad- Officers were scarce, for most of them had been dressed the Secretary upon the subject. “In the sent down to the Gulf, and the cargo of the “Suphopes," said that officer, " that it may receive your ply” was a valuable one. It therefore occurred to sanction, I respectfully submit a proposition to cir- the practical and business mind of the Secretary, cumnavigate and explore lake Asphaltites or Dead to send Lieut. Lynch in command of the “Supply," Sea, and its entire coast.

with his party as a part of her crew to the Medi* The expense will be trifling and the object terranean-10 let her report to the Commodore, easy of attainment.

meet the wants of the squadron, and then, instead "Our ships frequently touch at Acre in Syria. of lying idle in port, doing nothing but wait for the

"That place is forty miles distant from the foot men-of-war to eat up what she had given them, to of Lake Tiberias, or Sea of Galilee. Through allow hier to proceed with Lieut. Lynch up the Leand from the last, the river Jordan runs and de- vant, and land him and his party, taking care that bouches into the first named sea.

after landing them, men enough should be left on "The frame of a boat with its crew and their board to manage the ship. provisions, can be transported on camels frorn Acre Instead therefore of idleness, here was active, to Tiberias. At the latter place, the boat can be useful and creditable occupation for a part of her put together, and the crew embark and accomplish crew, while the remainder could, as well as a thouthe desired work in fifteen days.

take care of the ship in port, or in her Arms and a tent, a few mathematical instru- short and pleasant trips of a few days from place ments, provisions and water are all that will be re- to place. The arrangement was admirable. Lynch quired. The tent can be made on board ship, tem- was in the very nick of time with his proposition, porarily used, and the canvass afterwards applied and the opportunity presented was a glorious one. to other purposes on board ship. The arms from While, therefore, the preliminary arrangements the ship, and the ordinary rations will suffice; and are in progress here, let us take a glance at what the boat itself can be safely returned.

was transpiring in another quarter of the globe, " The Dead Sea has been circumnavigated but with regard to the same subject. by one traveller, Mr. Costigan. He very nearly At the very time that Lieut. Lynch was engaged accomplished it in eight days. Unfortunately he with his preparations in New York, Lieut. Molyundertook it at a most insalubrious season of the neux, a gallant officer of the British Navy, was acyear and died at the termination of the voyage, tually engaged in transporting on the backs of without leaving a journal or notes behind. camels and from the very poiot suggested by Lieut.

This proposition pertains to a subject maritime Lynch, a boat for the survey of the Dead Sea. in its nature, and therefore peculiarly appropriate The plans of these two officers for approaching to your office; and it is involved in mystery, the and exploring that sheet of water were remarkably solution of which will advance the cause of sci- similar. Neither knew that the thoughts of the ence and gratify the whole Christian world.” other were in that direction at all. But, that two

The proposition came at a time when the Sec. Navy officers of different services, and in parts of retary was collecting all the available forces of the the world far remote, should each without the Navy for the combined attack upon Vera Cruz. knowledge of the other, be engaged with the same

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