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with what rich and lovely spirits, did the endow. So that he who is donning a beaver for life,

Should be sure at the start to well stock it wi:h sense. ments of these men bring them! The shafts of

But some, I've no doubt, are quite ready to say, misfortune were blunted against the panoply of se

That the poet belongs to the class he describes, rene thought and foiled aside by elevation of sen- And his own imperfections should closely survey, timent or blitheness of fancy. There is a noble- When others he dares to assail with his gibes; ness in their lives which all they endured from pain Well, be in all frankness acknowledges pat, and calumny, only more clearly developed. That That there is something wrong in the crown of his hat! they " dwelt apart,” like stars, was no infelicity; for the radiant glow that still comes to us from those ideal heights, is our best assurance that they did not suffer in vain !



The conditions which are favorable or unfavora. ble to the development of human character have

always formed a subject of interesting speculation. THE SOURCE OF MAN'S ERRORS.

All, from the fatalist who utterly denies moral responsibility to his antipode who makes free agency the entire basis of his system, admit the powerful

influence of surrounding circumstances in elevating As the poet advises, I oft study man, And have noted each trait that his nature displays,

or debasing men. Despotism or liberty, mountains And though I must leave him where first I began,

or plains, wealth or poverty, city, village, or coun. (Since truly but little is known of his ways)

try residence, with a thousand other things, give a For the good of mankind I'll record what I've seen, coloring to man's existence, and leave their imWith the sage-like conclusions to which I have come;

press on human morals. Nor let any doubt me, I speak what I mean,

Nothing can be more remote from my intention And of all my observings give this as the sum : The main source of trouble, when justly come at,

on the present occasion, than an examination of Will always be found in the crown of the hat!

this wide field of speculation, in all its aspects, mor

al, metaphysical and religious; I design on the conThe world was made rightly, and, well understood, tary a very cursory view of a single corner. Will be found in all parts to fulfill its design,

The abominations of a great city have been the And we, like its Maker, should still call it “good,"

theme of satire or lamentation, from the days of Though all its dark pbases we may not define; For if, like the earth, man would keep in his sphere,

Juvenal to those of John Foster. In them the He would ne'er have occasion at fortune to fret;

masses of vice have always been so much larger, And e'en should his eye be suffused with a tear,

the temptations to it so much stronger, its abysses 'Tis a gem dropped from Heaven that brings no regret; so much more profound and horrible, as to strike Whoe'er then, is fretting with this or with that,

the most casual observer. So deeply has this been Must have something wrong in the crown of his hat!

impressed on the minds of men, that most persons The modern reformer, self-righteous and wise,

imagine that the young have escaped from the very Who deems that the world was ne'er blest with the light, jaws of templation, the moment they leave the enTill he on its darkness was seen to arise

virons of a city, for some country retreat or sweet Like the sunbeains of morning dispelling the night, Auburn." With clamor denounces both system and creed,

But the discriminating and experienced observer As vile impositions wherewith to deceive, But proclaims to the world that his own they must heed,

sees that a village has its disadvantages and danAnd thunders at any, who dares disbelieve ;

gers, as well as its advantages and exemptions. The poor silly wight is as blind as a bat,

The temptations to destructive vices are certainly For all has gone wrong in the crown of his hat!

weaker and less frequently presented in a village ;

bot, on the other hand, we are brought into more The éléve of fashion believes the Creator,

immediate and necessary contact with them. In a When he first made the sex from the rib of the man, Had no standard of beauty by which he could rate her,

city we have a larger field of selection, and can, So she tries to improve the original plan.

if we choose, easily find amid the multitude, given The waist is too large, and the hips are too small, up to dissipation, our own circle of virtuous friends.

These she shapes with a bustle and that with a lace, In a village, where every inhabitant knows every And finding a fault in the chief point of all,

other, it is difficult, without an appearance of puriDefaces with rouge the divine human face: Now, if the poor ninny was not such a fat,

tanism or repulsive hauteur, to avoid giving into She'd find ber defects in the crown of her hat!

its prevalent follies or vices.

The selfishness of the inhabitants of cities is proAnd thus every failure and folly and strise,

verbial. It proceeds from several causes, which That bothers us here, has its origin thence,

coöperate in making the heart cold and insensible.

Dissipation, in the most favorable sense of the Learning and advancing liberty have always had term, viz. distraction of thought among various their warmest and most efficient friends in cities. amusements, always disinclines us to fix our alien- Freedom once obtained in the country, especially a ljon on what excites our real sympathies, and there- mountainous country, is more courageously and by checks the current of our pleasures. When tenaciously maintained; but inhabitants of cities dissipation sinks down the facilis descensus Averri have commonly led the van in shaking off the yoke into the depths of brutal and degrading vice, it of long-established oppression. It is in the history hates virtue, as its opposite and its reproach, and of the cities of Greece and Italy, that we find the makes us disregard the sufferings of our fellow- ancient exemplars of organized popular freedom. creatures, in our vain pursuit of the phantom plea- The wild liberty of the woods may have existed s'ire, which always eludes our grasp.

elsewhere; but it was not the liberty of civilizaAvarice, when it completely possesses its victim, tion, protected by wise laws. makes him sacrifice the very heart of humanity to But it must be admitted that ancient freedom the idol which he worships ; it is in cities, in the found its grave, where it had its cradle, in cities, hearts of its great speculators, gamblers and debau- when they had become degenerale and corrupt. chees, that this passion is most fearfully developed. The fierce barbarians from the northern forests, pu

The very number of persons with whom we min. rified the fætid atmosphere, by the tempest of their gle in a great city, lessens the amount of our feel. invasion. Yet it was again in the cities of Italy ing towards each. There must be some limit 10 first, and of other European countries afterward, human sensibility, however capable it may be of that freedom awoke from the gloomy sleep of the coliivation and expansion. When we see only a dark ages. few persons, with whose joys, sorrows and inter- The reason of this is obvious. It is in cities, ests our own are intimately blended, it is a wise that the lower classes most easily acquire knowand kind provision of nature that we should be ledge and wealth, which sooner or later must unwarmly attached to them. But when we are brought dermine the privileges of an hereditary aristocracy. into perpetual contact of business or pleasure with They have there most ready access to books, most multitudes, our quantum of altachment for each frequent intercourse with men, both of their own and becomes very small-our affection, like water other countries, they there soonest shake off uld and spread over a wide surface, exceedingly shallow. unfounded prejudices, soonest become fully aware It is true that more courily and affectionate man- of their rights, and deterinine to vindicate them. ners prevail in cities; but they are meant to be It was at Athens, and in Rome, that all those herce agreeable, and mean nothing more: the impression conflicts and disturbances which shook their respecmade by the absence or death of a friend to whom tive countries originated. It was in Paris and the our professions have been warmest, is, like an im- other cities of France, that the old revolution had pression on water, immediately lost in the waves its earliest and warmest advocates, and at the sanie of business or pleasure.

time the friends who most disgraced the cause by Sensitiveness to human suffering is greatly dead-their excesses; and the same is doubtless true of ened in those who, like the inhabitants of cities, the present. have it presented to their eyes, in many forms, The light of freedom and truth is slowest in penreal or pretended. It may be that some noble ex. etrating to remote hamlets, where old superstitions ceptions, whose hearts are filled with true benevo- and prejudices longest linger, and last appear. la lence,-like the physician whose pain in beholding these situations, heathenism held out longest against human suffering is diminished, when his capacity the spreading influence of christianity, as is proved to relieve it is increased,—find in cities the largest by the well-known origin of the words Pagans and and best field for exercising and improving their Paganism. powers of doing good. But the great mass, unin- li has often been remarked, that we are more fluenced by such principles, becomes indifferent to solitary in a large city, where we are not known, human pain and sorrow. This indifference is not than in a desert. We are tantalized by the appearconfined to suffering, but, what is even worse, ex. ance of society which seems within our reach, but tended to vice.

which we cannot enjoy. The horror which a novice feels at the mon- In large cities, for the same reason, criminals ster's frightful mien,” wears away, when his fea- most easily escape the eye of justice. Where men tures become familiar in daily intercourse. Take of all descriptions josile us in every thoroughfare, a young man of twenty raised in a city, and ano- unnoticed even those individuals who wear ther of the same age in a village, and you will the mark of Cain on their brows, and whose very commonly find the latter shocked at depravily which appearance in times of suspicion would lead to their would only provoke a smile or a leer in the former. arrest in villages. In villages privacy is impossi

But in considering the moral dangers which be- ble. Wo be to the thief or murderer who seeks set the inhabitants of cities, we must not forget an asylum, in such a situation, however remote. their advantages.

The spirit of Aunt Charity animales the whole

we pass

population, and the death or incarceration of the succession of new objects which there attracts the poor wretch will be inevitable, wherever convic- public gaze. ljon of crime is possible in these days of packed In a retired village or hamlet, however, a family or juries, and executive pardons.

party feud, once originaled, descends from generaBut while this effect of village curiosity is bene- tion to generation, and makes society the prey of the ficial, its ordinary and every day influence is a most diabolical passions; it blasts like a simoon the horrible scourge and tyranny. The hired police of purity, calm and peace which seem naturally to beFouché was not a whit more vigilant and prying, long to the situation. than the volunteer corps of spies and eavesdrop- Some speak, as if there were actually no temppers which infests every village. These, although tations at all in villages. There may be no theathey have not the murderous intentions of pirates, tres, no splendid ealing or drinking houses, no ought to be ranked with them, as hostes humani elegant incitements to debauchery; but there are generis. The injury which they inflict is indis- never wanting means amply sufficient 10 seduce criminate, falling alike on friend and foe, old and frail humanity. Burke's famous expression, “vice young, and sparing neither sex nor age. Indeed loses half its evil in losing all its grossness,” is they commonly have greatest power to injure, and dangerously false, when we look at the influence do actually most injure their dearest friends. They of example on others; the seductive power of vice betray private confidence with more eagerness, than is increased ten fold by stripping it of its grossness. Arnold would have betrayed West Point, though Still when applied to the vicious themselves, the with less criminal intentions. Yet this treachery opinion, if not actually true, is at least more plauof tongne is far more fatal to the peace of so-sible. This is more especially the case in cities, ciety, than the loss of that fortress could have where those who are seduced, by general example, proved to the cause of our revolutionary fathers. into the fashionable vices, often redeem them by Losing it then, they would have required a longer elegant manners and accomplishments, as well as time and greater effort, to secure their independence; other more substantial qualities. but it was not in the power of treachery to prevent But those who are vicious at all in villages, are ils ultimate advent. The wounds inflicted on friend- usually coarsely and disgustingly vicious, so that ship and good neighborhood, by careless or malig- they soon become completely brutalized. nant tale-bearing, are often incurable.

The inhabitants of villages, must therefore beThe most attached friends and relatives seldom ware of sitting down in the security, that they have consider each other perfect, and occasionally, in nothing to do but “ eat, drink" and be good. Permoments of provocation or mere indiscretion, give petual vigilance is the price of moral, as well as utlerance to their sentiments. Such is the com- civil purity and freedom. mon impatience of reproof or censure, especially

A VILLAGER. when uttered in our absence, that a communication of it wil often alienate friends who are prepared to stand by each other to the death.

This may be the case, even when the naked truth only is communicated. But the truth, usually passing in such cases, through several strongly refrac

THE STRANGERS. ting lenses, before it reaches the mental vision is violently distorted, even if no glass be used to produce an absolute inversion. The most harm

“One of those forms which flit by us, when we less jest thus becomes the deadliest insult; the sor- Are young, and fix our eyes on every facerowful and reluctant admission of faults in a friend,

Whose course and home we know not, nor shall know, proof of positive malice.

The buzzing of these insects, always annoying Like the lost Pleiad 'seen no more below.”– Beppo. and injurious, becomes absolutely insufferable, when a village community happens to be divided into fac

There is a beauty on that brow of light, tions by some fierce local controversy. If man

Changing like shadows on a moonlit sky, were endowed with the same unerring instinct of

When the transparent clouds, serenely bright, self-preservation, as the horse, they would be ex

In magic numbers vanish swiftly by. terminaled or driven out, before they had time to deposit those fatal eggs, from which are hatched There is a beauty, soft, and calm, and pure, the most malignant controversies.

Within the sweet depths of those azure eyes, We are not to imagine these vermin absolutely Like the reflection of a twilight shore, incapable of living and doing "their dirty work" That in the lake's untroubled bosom lies. in large cities; wherever man exists they are found; but they are comparatively unnoticed and harmless, Thou art a stranger: yet a spell of pow'r, amid the din of a large population, and the rapid Comes o'er my soul as thus I gaze on thee,

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God rest the soul of poor Menage !
He was a worthy personage-

His loss we needs must weep!
Here, in bis turn, let him repose,
Whose poetry and eke whose prose,

Oft put us all to sleep!

Pellegrin was one of those ingenious individuals The following compilation, we deem it proper to say, is who strive to serve God and Mammon. He was the work of two contributors ; the selections from the Latin

a priest and a poet, and wrote both for the church and French having been made by the same hand, that sur- and the theatre. His enemies accused him of wrinished the striking epigrams in our last number, while the ling most for the party that paid him best ; and translations are from the pen of an esteemed correspondent pelted him with the following epigram: who has heretofore writien only in prose. They are very spirited and faithful, and will be highly acceptable to the

Le matin Catholique, et le soir idolâtre, general reader.---[Ed. Mess.

ll dine de l'Autel, et soupe du Théâtre.

A pagan at night, though a Christian by day, Those of our reader who have perused the Les

He dines on the wafer, and sups at the play. Femmes Savantes of Moliere will recollect the ex

He published an edition of Horace with an inclamation of Philaminte, at the sight of the illus

different metrical translation. La Monnoye, on trious savant, Vadius,

seeing the Latin and the French, side by side, on Du grec! ô ciel! du grec! Il sait du grec, ma sæur!

its pages, penned the subjoined :

my dear!

and the ecstacy of delight with which she greeted

On devroit, soit dit entre nous, him when he was presented to her.

A deux divinités offrir les deux Horares;
Le Latin à Vénus, la déesse des graces,

Et le Français à son epoux.
Quoi! monsieur sait du grec! Ah! permettez, de grâce
Que, pour l'amour du grec, monsieur, on vous embrasse.

Two deities may well divide

Your work, as an oblation : “ The Greek ! ob heavens! the Greek! bę knows the Greek,

To Venus give the Latin, and

To Vulcan the translation. “ What, monsieur knows the Greek? Allow me, sir, but this

It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader that Just for the love of Greek, your learned lips to kiss !" Vulcan was the husband of Venos.

Isaac Peyrere, first a Protestant and then a CathIf our readers possess any thing approaching to olic, was always undecided in his views of religion. this enthusiasm, in favor of the epigram, they will He at one time denied that Adam was the first man, not be displeased at the opening of another budget and sustained his notion in a book entitled Præadof these literary delicacies.

amilæ. We give his epitaph.

La Peyrere ici git, ce bon Isräelite

Of a very different character is the epitaph on Huguenot, Catholique, enfin Préadamite :

Raphael, by Cardinal Bembo.
Quatre religions lui plurent à la fois,
Et son indifférence eloit si peu commune
Qu'après quatre-vingts ans qu'il eut à faire un choix,

Ille hic est Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinci
Le bon-homme partit, et n'en choisit pas une.

Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori.

With Raphael, living, Nature dared not vie,
Here lies La Peyrere, first a good Israelite,

Yet dreaded, in his death, herself to die !
Then Huguenot, Catholic, Pre-adamite :
Four religions he tried, till, perplexed with so many,

The epitaph of De Mercy is well known-
At eighty he died, and went off without any!

Sia viator, heroem calcas. John Picus de Mirandula was a prodigy even

Stop! traveller, and knowamong the scholastics. At the age of 24, he chal

A liero sleeps below! lenged the whole world to discuss with himn, de omni re scibili, in 900 Theses. Such a worthy merited

With this we may contrast the modest epitaph an epitaph ; and here it is.

of the unfortunate Rathere, composed by himself.

Conculcate, pedes hominum, sal infatuatum.
Johannes jacet hic Mirandula : cætera nôrunt
Et Tagus et Ganges; forsan et Antipodes.

Roy, a French poet and Chevalier of the order of John Mirandula's dead, whose acquaintance extends,

St. Michael, published some verses on the sickFrom Tagus and Ganges, to where the world ends.

ness of the king, which gave occasion for the fol.

lowing epigram. We contrast with the above, the distich on Polydore Virgil, who is said to have shown little exact

Notre Monarque, après sa maladie, ness in his multifarious researches.

Etoit à Metz attaqué d'insomnie :

de gens l'auroient guéri d'abord !

Roy le Poete à Paris versifie.
Virgilii duo sunt, alter Maro, tu Polydore

La piéce arrive; on la lit... le Roi dort...
Alter: tu mendax, ille poeta fuit.

De St. Michel le Muse soit bénie.

Ah, que

The Muses in their bounty,

Our king is sick, and cannot sleep-
Two Virgils did inspire :

His servants anxious vigils keep,
Historian this, and poet that,

Strong anodynes a-pouring :
But both could play the lyre! (liar.)

Roy's verses now their poppies shed
Around the monarch's restless head,

And straight he falls a-snoring ! The Abbé de Pons was a warm friend of the poet La Motte, whom he defended against Madame Michael Nostradamus essayed to pass for a Dacier. This circumstance drew forth from Ga- prophet in the sixteenth century, and would have con an epigram.

succeeded, but for one unfortunate drawback: his

predictions all proved false. Jodelle takes him off L'Abbé de Pons, ce petit homme,

in an epigram, which certainly may claim the praise Vante La Motte, et le renomme

of ingenuity, if nothing more.
Grand Poëte, grand Ecrivain ..
Tout est géant aux yeux d'un nain!

Nostra damus cum falsa damus, nam fallere nostrum est

Et cum falso damus, nil nisi Nostra damus.
De Pons, a dwarf, declares La Motte

The greatest man alive :
So, five feet, two, a giant seems

Piron was remarkable, among other things, for
To him, that's two feel, five.

his antipathy to the French Academy, whom he

used to denominate “les Invalides du bel-esprit.” Among the various epigrammatic epitaphs which He composed for himself the following epitaph. have been written on the celebrated French jester, Rabelais, the following is worthy of preservation :

Cy gît Piron, qui ne fut rien,

Pas même Académicien.
Pluton, Prince du sombre Empire,
Où les tiens ne rient jamais,

Platine, librarian of the Vatican, wrote a treatise
Reçois aujourd'hui Rabelais,

on the art of preserving health and the science of Et vous aurez tous de quoi rire.

cookery, which Sannazar greeted with an approPluto! thou prince of gloomy shades,

priate salutation. Whose subjects nerer smile! Receive to-day, our Rabelais,

Ingenia et mores, vitas obitusque notasse And let them laugh an bile !

Pontificum, argutae lex fuit historiae,

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