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by whom they were attacked, felt at once that they were surrounded and lost.

[here are two little rivulets which run from the Gualandra into the lake. The traveller crosses the first of these at about a mile after he comes into the plain, and this divides the Tuscan from the Papel territories. The second, about a quarter of a mile further on, is called “the bloody rivulet.. and the peasants point out an open spot to the left between the «Sanguinetto, and the hills, which, they say, was the principal scene of slaughter. The other part of the plain is covered with thick set olive trees in corn - grounds, and is nowhere quite level except near the edge of the lake. It is, indeed, most probable, that the battle was fought near this end of the valley, for the six thousand Romans, who, at the beginning of the action, broke through the enemy, escaped to the summit of an eminence which must have been in this quarter, otherwise they would have had to traverse the whole plain and to pierce through the main army of Hannibal.

The Romans fought desperately for three hours, but the death of Flaminius was the signal for a general dispersion. The Carthaginian horse thea burst in upon the fugitives, and the lake, the marsh about Borghetto, but chiefly the plain of the Sanguinetto and the passes of the Gualandra, were strewed with dead. Near some old walls on a bleak ridge to the left above the rivulet many human bones have been repeatedly found, and this has confirmed the pretensions and the name of the «stream of blood.

Every district of Italy has its hero. In the north some painter is the usual genius of the place, and the foreign Julio Romano more than divides Mantua with her native Virgil 1). To the south we hear of Roman names. Near Thrasimene tradition is still faithful to the fame of an enemy, and Han

1) Abont the middle of the XIIth century the coins of Mantua

bore on one side the image and figure of Virgil. Zecca d'Italia, pl. xvii. i. 6... Voyage dans le Milanais, etc, par A. Z. Millin. tom, ii. pag. 294. Paris, 1817.

nibal the Carthaginian is the only ancient name remembered on the banks of the Perugian lake. Flaminius is unknown; but the postilions on that road have been taught to show the very spot where Il Console Romano was slain. Of all who fought and fell in the battle of Thrasimene, the historian aimself has, besides the generals and Maharbal, preserved indeed only a single name. You over. take the Carthaginian again on the same road to Rome. The antiquary, that is, the hostler, of the posthouse at Spoleto, tells you that his town repulsed the victorious enemy, and shows you the kate still called Porta di Annibale. It is hardly worth while to remark that a French travel writer, well known by the name of the President Dupaty, saw Thrasimene in the lake of Bolsena, which lay conveniently on his way from Sienna to Rome.

But thou, Clitumnus.

Stanza lxvi. line 1. No book of travels has omitted to expatiate on he temple of the Clitumnus, between Foligno ind Spoleto; and no site, or scenery, even in Itay, is more worthy a description. For an account of the dilapidation of this temple, the reader is everred to Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.

37. Charming the eye with dread, a matchless cata


Stanza lxxi. line 9.

I saw the "Cascata del marmore, of Terni twice, It different periods; once from the summit of the recipice, and again from the valley below. The ower view is far to be preferred, if the traveller las time for one only; but in any point of view, ither from above or below, it is worth all the ascades and torrents of Switzerland put together: he Staubach, Reichenbach, Pisse Vache, fall of Arpenay, etc. are rills in comparative appearance.

Of the fall of Schaffhausen I cannot speak, not yet having seen it.

An Iris sits amidst the infernal surge.

Stanza lxxii. line 3. Of the time, place, and qualities of this kind of Iris the reader may have seen a short account in a note to Manfred. The fall looks so much like «the hell of waters, that Addison thought the descent alluded to by the gulf in which Alecto plunged into the infernal regions. It is singular enough that two of the finest cascades in Europe should be artificial - this of the Velino, and the one at Tivoli. The traveller is strongly recommended to trace the Velino, at least as high as the little lake, called Pie' di Lup. The Reatine territory was the Italian Tempe 1), and the an cient naturalist, amongst other beautiful varieties, remarked the daily raiubows of the lake Velinus?), A scholar of great name has devoted a treatise to this district alone 3).

The thundering lauwine.

Stanza lxxiii, line 5. In the greater part of Switzerland the avalanches are known by the name of lauwine.


I abhorr'd Too much, to conquer for the poet's sake, The drill'd dull lesson, forced down word by word.

Stanza lxxv. lines 6, 7, and 8. These stanzas may probably remind the reader of Ensign Northerton's remarks: "D-n Homo,» etc. 1) « Reatini me ad sua Tempe duxerunt. , Cicer. epist. ad

Attic. xv. lib. iv. 2) «In eodem lacu nullo non die apparere arcus. Plin. Hist

Nat. lib. ii. cap. lxii. 3) Ald, Manut. de Reatina urbe agroque, ap. Sallengre, The

saur. tom. i. p. 773.

but the reasons for our dislike are not exactly the same. I wish to express that we become tired of the task before we can comprehend the beauty: that we learn by rote before we can get by heart; that the freshness is worn away, and the future pleasure and advantage deadened and destroyed, by the didactic anticipation, at an age when we can neither feel nor understand the power of com. positions which it requires an acquaintance with life, as well as Latin and Greek, to relish, or to reason upon. For the same reason we never can be aware of the fulness of some of the finest pas sages of Shakespeare (“To be, or not to be,» for instance), from the habit of having them ham. mered into us at eight years old, as an exercise, not of mind but of memory, so that when we are old enough to enjoy them, the taste is gone, and the appetite palled. In some parts of the Conti. nent, young persons are taught from more common authors, and do not read the best classics till their maturity. I certainly do not speak on this point from any pique or aversion towards the place of my education. I was not a slow, though är idle boy; and I believe no one could, or can be more attached to Harrow than I have always been, and with reason; - a part of the time passed here was the happiest of my life; and my prereptor (the Rev. Dr. Joseph Drury) was the best und worthiest friend I ever possessed, whose warnings I have remembered but too well, though oo late when - I have erred, and whose counsels

have but followed when I have done well or visely. If ever this imperfect record of my feelings owards him should reach his eyes, let it remind im of one who never thinks of him but with ratitude and veneration -- of one who would more ladly boast of having been his pupil, if, by more losely following his injunctions, he could reflect iny honour upon his instructor.

The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now.

Stanza lxxix. line 5. For a comment on this and the two following

stanzas, the reader may consult Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.


The trebly hundred triumphs.

Stanza Ixxxii. line 2. Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the number of triumphs. He is followed by Panvi. nius; and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writers.

43. Oh thou , whose chariot rolld on Fortune's

wheel, etc.

Stanza lxxxiii. line 1. Certainly were it not for these two traits in the life of Sylla, alluded to in this stanza, we should regard him as a monster unredeemed by any ad. mirable quality. The atonement of his voluntary resignation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as it seems to have satisfied the Romans, who if they had not respected must have destroyed him. There could be no mean, no division if opinion; they must have all thought, like Euerates, that what had appeared ambition was a love of glory, and that what had been mistaken for pride was a real grandeur of soul ?).

44. And laid him with the earth's preceding clay.

Stanza lxxxvi. line 4. On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dunbar; a year afterwards he obtained «his crowning mercy, of Worcester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died.

1) "Seigneur, vous changez tontes mes idées de la façon dont

je vous vois agir. Je croyois que vous aviez de l'ambition, mais aucun amour pour la gloire : je voyois bien que votre âme étoit baute ; mais je ne soupçonnois pas qu'elle fut grande.. - Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate.

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