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rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.

Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero, The orator in two places seenis to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience re. meni bered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses he records that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed: and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without al. luding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, of the Abate's argument, hangs upon the past tense; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shows that the statue was not then standing in its former posi. tion. Winkelmann has observed, that the present twins are modern; and it is equally clear that there are marks of gilding on the wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make part of the ancient group. It is known that the sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by time or accident, but were put into certain under-ground depositaries called favissae 1). It may be thought possible that the wolf had beea so deposited, and had been replaced in some con. spicuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. Rycquius, without mentioning his authority, tells that it was transferred from the Comitium to the Lateran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Se. verus, it may bave been one of the images which Orosius ?) says was thrown down in the Forum by lightuing when Alaric took the city. That it is of very high antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; and that circumstance induced Winkelmann to believe it the wolf of Dionysius

1) Luc. Faun. ibid.
2, Sce note to Stanza LXXX. in Historical Illustrations,

The Capitoline wolf, however, may have been of the same early date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactantins 1) asserts that in his time the Romans worshipped a wolf; and it is known that the Lupercalia held out to a very late period ?) after every other observance of the ancient super. stition had totally expired. This may account for the preservation of the ancient image longer than the other early symbols of Paganism.

It may be permitted, however, to remark, that the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the wor. ship of that symbol is an inference drawn by the zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian writers are not to be trusted in the charges which they make against the Pagans. Eusebius accused the Romans to their faces of worshipping Simon Magus, and raising a statue to him in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had probably never heard of such a person before, who came, however, to play a considerable, though seandalous part in the church history, and has left several tokens of his aerial combat with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that an inscription found in this very island of the Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to be a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sangus or Fidius 3).

3) «Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et ferrem

si animal ipsum fuisset , cujus figuram gerit. , Lactant. de Falsa Religione, lib. 1. cap. 20. pag. 101. edit. varior. 1660; that is to say, he would rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. * His commentator has observed that the opinion of Livy cou

cerning Laurentia being figured in this wolf was not univer-
sal. Strabo thought so. Rycquins is wroug in saying that
Lactantius mentions the wolf was in the Capitol.
To A. D. 496. «Quis credere possit, says Baronius (Ann.
Eccles. tom. viii. p. 602. in ann. 496.) “viguisse adhuc
Romae ad Gelasii tempora, quae fuere ante exordia urbis al-
lata in Italiam Lupercalia ?, Gelasius wrote a letter which
occupies four folio pages to Andromachus the senator, and

others, to show that the rites should be given up. 3) Eusebius has these words : xai avdQLÉvti noo'

υμίν ως θεός τετίμηται, εν τω Τίβερι

Even when the worship of the founder of Rome had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to humour the habits of the good matrons of the city by sending them with their sick infants to the church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carried them to the temple of Romulus 1). The practice is continued to this day; and the site of the above church seems to be thereby identified with that of the temple: so that if the wolf had been really found there, as Winkelmann says, there would be no doubt of the present statue being that seen by Dionysius ). But Faunus, in saying that it was at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, is only talking of its ancient position as recorded by Pliny; and even if he had been remarking where it was found, would not have alluded to the church of Saint Theodore, but to a very different place, near which it was then thonght the Ficus Rumi. nalis had been, and also the Comitinm; that is, the three columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum.

ποταμό μεταξύ των δύο γεφυρών, έχων επιγραφήν Ρωμαϊκήν ταύτην Σίμωνι

Jew E yxta. Eccles. Hist. Lib. ii. cap. xiii. p. 40. Justin martyr had told the story before ; but Baronius himself was obliged to detect his fable See Nardini Roma

Vet. lib. vii. cap. xii. 1) «In essa gli antichi pontefici per toglier la memoria de'

giaochi Lapercali istituiti in onore di Romolo, introdussero
l'uso di portarvi Bambini oppressi da infermità occulte, ac
cio si liberino per l'intercessione di questo Santo, come di
continuo si sperimenta. » Rione xii. Ripa accurata e suc-
cincta descrizione, etc. di Roma Moderna dell'Ab. Ridoli.
Venuti, 1766.
Nardini, lib. v. cap. 11. convicts Pomponins Laetus crassi
erroris, in putting the Ruminal fig tree at the church of
Saint Theodore: bat as Livy says the wolf was at the Ficus
Ruminalis, and Dionysins at the temple of Romulus, he is
obliged (cap. iv.) to owu that the two were close together,
as well as the Lupercal cave, shaded, as it were, by the
fig tree.

It is, in fact, a mere conjecture where the image was actually dug up ?), and perhaps, on the whole, the masks of the gilding, and of the lightning, are a better argument in favour of its being the Ciceronian wolf than any that can be adduced for the contrary opinion. At any rate, it is reasonably selected in the text of the poem as one of the most interesting relics of the ancient city 2), and is certainly the figure, if not the very animal to which Virgil alludes in his beautiful verses:

«Geminos huic ubera circum Ludere pendentes pueros, et lambere matrem Impavidos: illam tereti cervice reflexam Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere linguâ 5).»


For the Roman's mind
Was modell'd in a less terrestrial mould.

Stanza xc. lines 3 and 4.

It is possible to be a very great man and to be still very inferior to Julius Caesar, the most complete character, so Lord Bacon thought, of all an. tiquity. Nature seems incapable of such extraordinary combinations as composed his versatile capacity, which was the wonder even of the Romans

1) “Ad comitium ficus olim Ruminalis germinabat, sub qua lu

pae rumam, hoc est, mammam , docente Varrone, suxerant
olim Romulus et Remus; non procul a templo hodie D. Ma-
riae Liberatricis appellato ubi forsan inventa nobilis illa
aenea statua lupae geminos puerulos lactantis, quam hodie
in capitolio videmus., Olai Borrichii Antiqua Urbis Roma.
nae facies, cap. x. See also cap. xii. Borrichius wrote af.
ter Nardini in 1687. Ap. Graev. Antiq. Rom. tom. iv.
p. 1522.
Donatus, lib. xi. cap. 18. gives a medal representing on one
side the wolf in the same position as that in the Capitol;
and in the reverse the wolf with the head not reverted. It

is of the time of Antoninus Pius. 3) Aen. viii. 631. See --Dr. Middleton, in bis Letter from Ro

me, who inclines to the Ciceronian wolf, but without examining the subject.

themselves. The first general — the only triumphant politician-inferior to none in eloquencecomparable to any in the attainments of wisdom. in an age made up of the greatest commanders, statesmen, orators, and philosophers that ever appeared in the world - an author who composed a perfect specimen of military annals in his tra. vel iag carriage at one time in a controversy with Cato, at another writing a treatise on punning, and collecting a set of good sayings - fighting i and making love at the same moment, and willing to abandon both his empire and his mistress for a sight of the Fountains of the Nile. Such did Jalias Caesar appear to his cotemporaries and to thase of the subsequent ages, who were the most inclined to deplore and execrate his fatal genins.

Bat we must not be so much dazzled with his surpassing glory, or with his magnanimous, his amiable qualities, as to forget the decision of his impartial countrymen:


h his death book, Lacas shows bis sprinkled with the blood of Pharsalia in the arms of Cleopatra,

Sanguine Thessalica: cladis perfases adulter

samist Venerem cauris, et misemit armis. After Seating with his mistress, be sits up all night to convesse with the serptian sages, and tells Acortas,

Spes sit mihi certa ridendi
Xalinons fontes, belles ile relinquas

Sit velut in tota secara pace trabchaat

Sectis ter medias Immediately afterwards, be is fighting again and defending evers pesetan.

Sed adest defensor sboque
Caesar et bas aditas gladiis, bos ignibus arcet
........... caeca secte carnis
Insaus Caesar semper feliciter asas

Praecepta curse bellorum et tempore rapto » Jure Caesus existimeter, says Saetonius, after a fair esti mation of his character, and making ase of a phrase which was a formula in Line's time. Welina jare caesas propantiksit etiam s regni crimine insoas fuerit, lib. iv. cap. 48.)

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