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that breathe and words that burn." His stands, although affected by the tide, and conceptions of beauty and grandeur, are navigable to the town for vessels not exat all times simple and vast. His works ceeding fifty tons' burden, is often ik are pervaded by the results of profound markably shallow at low water. This is thinking. His sentences have the power especially the case between the bighest of elevating things that are deemed little and the lowest of three stone bridges, by remarkable, and of lowering those which which the old town or burgh is connected successive submissions to over praise, with the new town. In this shallow part have preposterously magnified. Many of of the stream, parties of boys construct, the remarks on works of art, in his “ Notes on Hallow-eve, - the night when yaried of a Journey through France and Italy," superstitions engross most of old Scotia's will be wholly new to persons who never peasantry,-circular raised hearths, if I reflected on the subjects of his criti- may so term them, of earth or clay; borcism, and will not be openly assented to dered by a low round wall composed of by others thinking, as he does, who, for loose stones, sods, &c. Within these enthe first time, has ventured to publicly closures, the boys kindle on their hearths, dissent from received notions. If any bonfires, often of considerable size. From of his opinions be deemed incorrect, the the bridges, the appearance of these bondifference can easily be arbitrated. Taking fires, after nightfall, is singular; and atthe originals, whether corporeal or imagi- tracts, as spectators, many of the grownnary existences, as the standard, our pure up inhabitants of the place. The number sight and feeling may be relied on as un- and glare of the fires, their tremulous reerring judges of the imitations.

flection in the surrounding water, the

dark moving figures of the boys that NATURALISTS' CALENDAR

group around them, and the shouts and Mean Temperature .. 54 · 27. screams set up by the youthful urchins in

testimony of enjoyment, might almost

make one fancy that the rites and incasSeptember 26.

tations of magic, or of wizardry, were ST. CYPRIAN. OLD Holy Rood. taking place before one's very eyes. What For these remembrances in the church is the origin of this custom, or how long of England calendar and alınanacs, see

it has prevailed, I do not know.

Ere I relinquish my pen, allow me to vol. i. p. 1324.

describe to you another singular custom,

which obtains in the largest town of Edg. Communications of local customs are land, north of the Trent.* No one is always received and inserted with satis- better acquainted than, Mr. Hone, are faction. It is with peculiar pleasure that you, with the existence of the wake or the editor submits the following, from a feast, still held annually in some of the gentleman with respect to whom he has towns, and nearly all the parocbial vilnothing to regret, but that he is not per- lages of the midland and nortoern mitted to honour the work, by annexing counties. In many of the larger towns, the name of the respectable writer to the the traces of the ancient wake are, inletter.

deed, nearly worn out, and this is pretty much the case with that particular towe,

to which reference has just been made, PAISLEY HALLOW-Eve FIRES.

namely, Sheffield; our great national emSHEFFIELD SCOTLAND Feast.

porium for cutlery, files, edge-tools, and Paisley, September 21, 1826. the better kinds of plated goods. Only

in a few ancient and primitive families, To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.

do roast beef, plun-pudding, and an extra Sir,-Having been a subscriber to your allowance of Yorkshire stingo, gracing, on Every-Day Book from its first appear. Trinity Sunday, a large table, begirt with ance in this town, up to the present time, some dozen of happy, and happy-faced I reproach myself with neglect, in not having sent you before now, an account of a rather singular custom prevalent place here referred to, is larger and more populous

I speak advisedly. As a town, Sheffield, the here, and, as it should seem, of ancient than Leeds. In 1&1 it contained with its suburts date.

but without including either out-hamlets, or ite

country part of the parish, at least 18,000 ishati The river White Cart, on which Paisley wants ;-meds no more than 48,000,

town and country cousins, show, that the and so on. By five or six in the morning, venerable head of the family, and his an- Scotland-street, which is not very wide, tique dame, have not forgotten Sheffield has the appearance of a grove. And feast-day. But if the observance of Shef- soon, from ropes stretched across it, three, field feast itself be thus partial, and four, or five, superb garlands delight the verging towards disuse, amends is made eyes, and dance over the heads of the for the circumstance, in the establishment, feast-folk. These garlands are composed and pretty vigorous keeping up of sundry of hoops, wreathed round with foliage local feasts, held on different days, within and flowers, Auttering with variously the town, or in its suburbs. Besides coloured ribands, rustling with asidew, * those of the Wicker and little Sheffield,' and gay with silver tankards, pints, which are suburban, Broad-lane and watches, &c. Before the door of the prinScotland-street, in the town itself, have cipal alehouse, the largest tree is always their respective feasts too. At Little planted. The sign of this house is, if Sheffield and in Broad-lane, the zest of memory do not deceive me, the royal oak.t the annual festivity is often heightened But be this as it may, certain it is, that by ass-races; foot-races, masculine, for a duly ensconced among the branches of hat; foot-races, feminine, for a chemise; the said tree, may always be seen the efgrinning-matches; and, though less fre- figy, in small, of king Charles the Second : quently, the humours and rattle of a to commemorate indeed the happy conmountebank and his merry andrew. Oc- cealment and remarkable escape of the casionally too changes, in imitation of merry monarch, at Boscobel, should seem those on the church bells, are rung, by to be the object of creating a sylvan scene striking with a hammer, or a short piece at "Scotland feast;" while that of holding of steel, on six, eight, or ten long bars the feast itself on the anniversary of his each suspended by twine from the roof of restoration is, there can be little doubt, a workshop, and the entire set chosen so to celebrate with honour the principal as to resemble pretty nearly, a ring of event in the life of hin, after whose anbells, both in diversity and in sequence cient and peculiar kingdom the street itof tone. *

self is named. To the particulars already Scotland feast, however, in point of in- given, it needs scarcely be added, that terest, bears away the bell from all the dancing, drinking, and other merry-makother district revels of Sheffield. It is so ing are, as a Scotsman would say, rife,I called from Scotland-street, already men at the annual commemoration thus briefly tioned; a long, hilly, and very populous described. one, situated in the northern part of the Thanking you for much instruction, as town. On the eve of the feast, which is well as entertainment, already derived yearly held on the 29th of May, the an from your book, and wishing you success niversary of the restoration of our second from its publication, I remain, Sir, Charles, parties of the inhabitants repair

Your obedient servant, into the neighbouring country; whence,

GULIELMUS. chiefly however from Walkley-bank, celebrated as Sheffield schoolboys too

Asidew. well know for birch trees, they bring home, at dead of night, or morning's

In vol. i. col. 1213, arsedine is noticed earliest dawn, from sixteen to twenty as having been in use at Bartholomew well-sized trees, besides a profusion of fair, and Mr Archdeacon Nares's suppobranches. The trees they instantly plant sition is mentioned, that arsedine, crsadine, in two rows; one on each side of the or orsden, as it was variously called, was street, just without the kirbstone of the a corruption of arsenic, or orpiment. The flagged pavement. With the branches, editor then ventured to hazard a different they decorate the doors and windows of suggestion, and show that the word might houses, the sign-boards of drinking-shops, be saxon, and expressive of “ pigments

. When the period for which an apprentice is • Asidew. The orthography of this word may be bound (seven years) expires, his “loosing" is held wrong. I never, to my kvowledge, saw it written. by himself, and shopmates. Then are these steel It is used in Sheffield 10 express a thin, very thin bells made to jangle all day. At night the loosing brass leaf, of a high gold colour. is farther celebrated by a supper and booze. The 1 In my boyish days, one Ludlam kept it. Was parochial ringers frequently attend festivities with it be to whom belonged the dog which gave occaa set of hand-bells, which, in the estimation of their sion to this proverbial saying? As idle as Ludlam's anditors, they make “discourse most eloquent dog, that lay down to bark in


* Abundant.

obtained from minerals and metals.” Since ties, became unable to work, he carried then, a note in Mr. Sharp's remarkably on the business, and provided a comfortinteresting “ Dissertation on the Country able subsistence for the old man and his Mysteries," seems to favour the notion. family.

Mr. Sharp says, “At the end of Gent's About this time Bennet was employed * History of York, 1730,' is an advertise in constructing an engine paper-mill, the ment of numerous articles, sold by Ham- first of the kind that had been attempted mond, a bookseller of that city, and in these parts; but, as he was likely to amongst the rest occurs ' Assidue or horse- fail in the execution of it, Mr. Brindley, gold,' the very next article to which, is without communicating his design, set out 'hobby-horse-bells.'- A dealer in Dutch on Saturday evening after the business of metal, Michael Oppenheim, 27, Mansell- the day was finished, and having inspected street, Goodman's-fields, thus described the work, returned home on Monday hinıself in 1816—'Importer of bronze morning, after a journey of fifty miles, powder, Dutch metal, and OR-SEDEW,' informed his master of its defects, and and upon inquiry respecting the last are completed the engine to the entire satisticle, it proved to be that thin yellow faction of the proprietors. He afterwards metal, generally known by the name of engaged in the mill-wright business on his tinsel, much used for ornamenting child- ' own account.

The fame of his inventions ren's dolls, hobby-horses, and some toys, in a little while spread far beyond his own as well as manufactured into various neighbourhood. In 1752, he was emshowy articles of dress. The word orse- ployed to erect a curious water-engine at dew is evidently a corruption of oripeau Clifton, in Lancashire, for the purpose of 1. e. leaf (or skin) gold, afterwards brass. draining coal-mines, which had 'before The Spaniards call it oropoel, gold-skin, been performed at an enormous expense. and the Germans flitter-gold."*

The water for the use of this engine was Through Mr. Sharp we have, at length, conveyed from the river Irwell by a subattained to a knowledge of this substance terraneous channel, nearly six hundred as the true arsedine of onr forefathers, and yards long, which passed through a rock; the asidew of the Sheffield merry-makers and the wheel was fixed thirty feet below at present.

the surface of the ground.

In 1755, he constructed a new silkNATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

mill at Congleton, in Cheshire, according Mean Temperature ...55 · 57.

to the plan proposed by the proprietors, after the execution of it by the original

undertaker had failed; and in the comSeptember 27

pletion of it he added many new and use

ful improvements. He introduced one CHRONOLOGY,

contrivance for winding the silk upon the

bobbins equally, and not in wreaths; and On the 27th of September, 1772, died another for stopping, in an instant, not at Turnhurst, in Staffordshire, James only the whole of this extensive system, in Brindley, a man celebrated for extra- all its various movements, but any indiordinary mechanical genius and skilful dual part of it at pleasure. He likewise labours in inland navigation. He was invented machines for cutting the tooth born at Tunsted, in the parish of Worm- and pinion wheels of the different engines, hill, Derbyshire, in 1716, where he contri- in a manner that produced a great saving buted to support his parents' family till he of time, labour, and expense. He also was nearly seventeen years of age, when introduced into the mills, used at the pothe bound himself apprentice to a wheel- teries in Staffordshire for grinding Aintwright named Bennet, near Macclesfield, stones, several valuable additions, which in Cheshire. In the early period of his greatly facilitated the operation. apprenticeship, he performed several parts In 1756, he constructed a steam-engine of the business without instruction, and at Newcastle-under-Line, upon a so satisfied the millers, that he was always plan. The boiler was made with brick consulted in preference to his master, and and stone, instead of iron plates, and the before the expiration of his servitude, water was heated by fire-places, so coriwhen Mr. Bennet, by his age and infirmi- structed as 'to save the consumption of

fuel. He also introduced cylinders of • Mr. Sharp's Dissertation, p. 29.

wood instead of those of iron, and substi


tuted wood for iron in the chains which was then extended to Manchester, where worked at the end of the beam. But from Mr. Brindley's ingenuity in diminishing these and similar contrivances for the im- labour by mechanical contrivances, was provement of this useful engine, his at- exhibited in a machine for landing coals tention was diverted by the great national upon the top of a hill. object of " inland navigation.” In plan The duke of Bridgwater extended his ning and executing canals his mechanical views to Liverpool; and obtained, in genius found ample scope for exercise, 1762, an act of parliament for branching and formed a sort of distinguishing era his canal to the tide-way in the Mersey. in the history of our country.

This part is carried over the river Mersey Envy and prejudice raised a variety of and Bollan, and over many wide and obstacles to the accomplishment of his deep vallies. Over the vallies it is condesigns and undertakings; and if he had ducied without a single lock; and across not been liberally and powerfully pro- the valley at Stretford, through which the tected by the duke of Bridgwater, his Mersey runs, a mound of earth, raised for triumph over the opposition with which preserving the water, extends for nearly a he encountered must have been consider- mile. In the execution of every part of ably obstructed. The duke possessed the navigation, Mr. Brindley displayed an estate at Worsley, about seven miles singular skill and ingenuity; and in order from Manchester, rich in mines of coal, to facilitate his purpose, he produced from which he derived little or no advan- many valuable machines.

His economy tage, on account of the expense attending and forecast are peculiarly discernible in the conveyance by land carriage to a suit- the stops, or flood-gates, fixed in the able market. A canal from Worsley to canal, where it is above the level of the Manchester, Mr. Brindley declared to be land. They are so constructed, that if any practicable. His grace obtained an act of the banks should give way and occafor that purpose; and Brindley was em- sion a current, the adjoining gates will ployed in the conduct and execution of rise merely by that motion, and prevent this, the first undertaking of the kind ever any other part of the water from escaping attempted in England, with navigable than that which is near the breach between subterraneous tunnels and elevated aque- the two gates. ducts. At the commencement of the bu Encouraged by the success of the duke siness it was determined, that the level of of Bridgwater's undertakings, a subscripthe water should be preserved without the tion was entered into by a number of usual obstruction of locks, and to carry gentlemen and manufacturers in Stafford, the canal over rivers and deep vallies. It shire, for constructing a canal through was not easy to obtain a sufficient supply that county. In 1766, this canal, “The of water for completing the navigation, Grand Trunk Navigation," was begun; but Brindley, furnished with ample re- and it was conducted with spirit and sucsources, persevered, and conquered all cess, under the direction of Brindley, as the embarrassments, occasioned by the long as he lived. nature of the undertaking, and by the After this, Brindley constructed a canal passions and prejudices of individuals. from the Grand Trunk, near Haywood, in Having completed the canal as far as Staffordshire, to the river Severn near Barton, where the river Irwell is navigable Bewdley, connecting Bristol with Liverfor large vessels, he proposed to carry it pool and Hull. This canal, about fortyover that river by an aqueduct thirty-nine six miles in length, was completed in feet above the surface of the water. This 1772. His next undertaking was a canal was considered as a chimerical and ex- from Birmiugham, which should unite travagant project; and an eminent en- with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire gineer said, " I have often heard of castles canal near Wolverhampion. It is twentyin the air, but never before was shown six miles in length, and was finished in where any of them were to be erected.” about three years. To avoid the inconThe duke of Bridgwater, confiding in the venience of locks, and for the more effecjudgment of Brindley, empowered him to tual supply of the canal with water, he prosecute the work; and in about ten advised a tunnel at Smethwick; his admonths the aqueduct was completed. vice was disregarded ; and the managers This astonishing work commenced in were afterwards under the necessity of September, 1760, and the first boat sailed erecting two steam engines. He executed over it the 17th of July, 1761. The canal the canal fron Droitwich to the Severn,

for the conveyance of salt and coals ; and generally right. His want of literature, planned the Coventry navigation, which indeed, compelled him to cultivate, in an was for some time under his direction; extraordinary degree, the art of memory; but a dispute arising, he resigned his and in order to facilitate the revival, in his office. Some short time before his death, mind, of those visible objects and their he began the Oxfordshire canal, which, properties, to which his attention was uniting with the Coventry canal, serves as chiefly directed, he secluded himself from a continuation of the Grand Trunk navi- the external impressions of other objects, gation to Oxford, and thence by the in the solitude of his bed. Thames to London.

Incessant attention to important and inMr. Brindley's last undertaking was teresting objects, precluded Mr. Brindthe canal from Chesterfield to the river ley from any of the ordinary amuseTrent at Stockwith. He surveyed and ments of life, and indeed, prevented his planned the whole, and executed some deriving from them any pleasure. He miles of the navigation, which was finished was once prevailed upon by his friends in five years after his death by his brother-in- London to see a play, but he found his law, Mr. Henshall, in 1777. Such was ideas so much disturbed, and his mind Mr. Brindley's established reputation, that rendered so unfit for business, as to infew works of this kind were undertaken duce him to declare, that he would not on without his advice. They are too numer- any account go to another. It is not imous to be particularized, but it may be probable, however, that by indulging an added that he gave the corporation of occasional relaxation, remitting his appliLiverpool a plan for clearing their docks cation, and varying his pursuits, his life of mud, which has been practised with might have been prolonged. The multisuccess; and proposed a method, which plicity of his engagements, and the conhas also succeeded, of building walls stant attention which he bestowed on against the sea without mortar. The last them, brought on a hectic fever, which conof his inventions was an improved machine tinued, with little or no intermission, for for drawing water out of mines, by a some years, and at last terminated his losing and gaining bucket, which he after- useful and honourable career, in the 56th wards employed with advantage in raising year of age. He was buried at New cuals.

Chapel, in the same county. When difficulties occurred in the exe Such was the enthusiasm with which cution of any of Mr. Brindley's works, he this extraordinary man engaged in all had no recourse to books, or to the labours schemes of inland navigation, that he of other persons.

All his resources were seemed to regard all rivers with contempt, in his own inventive mind. He generally when compared with canals.

It is said, setired to bed, and lay there one, two, or that in an examination before the house three days, till he had devised the expe- of commons, when he was asked for what dients which he needed for the accom- purpose he apprehended rivers plishment of his objects; he then got up, created, he replied, after some deliberaand executed his design without any tion, “ to feed navigable canals.” Those drawing or model, which he never used, who knew him well, highly respected him except for the satisfaction of his employ. “ for the uniform and unshaken integrity

His memory was so tenacious, that of his conduct; for his steady attachment he could remember and execute all the to the interest of the community; for the parts of the most complex machine, pro- vast compass of his understanding, which vided he had time, in his previous survey, seemed to have a natural affinity with all to settle, in his mind, the several depart- grand objects; and, likewise, for many ments, and their relations to each other, noble and beneficial designs, constantly In his calculations of the powers of any generating in his mind, and which the machine, he performed the requisite oper- multiplicity of his engagements, and the ation by a mental process, in a manner shortness of his life, prevented him from which none knew but himself, and which, bringing to maturity.” perhaps, he was not able to communicate to others. After certain intervals of consideration, he noted down the result in

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. figures; and then proceeded to operate Mean Temperature ...55 · 50 upon that result, until at length the complete solution was obtained, which was

Rees's Cyclopædia. Biog. Brit.



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