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“It is said, king Charles seemed con- upon him. But the place that Falkland cerned at this accident, and that the lord stumbled upon was yet more suited to Falkland observing it, would likewise try his destiny* than the other had been to his owo fortune in the same manner, the king's; being the following expreshoping he might fall upon some passage sions of Evander upon the untimely that could have no relation to his case, death of his son Pallas, as they are transand thereby divert the king's thoughts lated by the same hand :from any impression the other might have
O Pallas ! thou hast failed thy plighted word
Prelude of bloody fields and fights to come. Æneid, b. xi. 1. 230. Remarkable 30th of January Sermon.
obliged myself to use the form prescribed On the 30th of January, 1755, the rev. in the Book of Common Prayer. The John Watson, curate of Ripponden, in office for the 30th of January is no part of Yorkshire, preached a
there the Liturgy of the church of England. which he afterwards published. The By the liturgy of the church I mean the title-page states it as “proving that king contents of The Book of Common Prayer Charles I. did not govern like a good and Administration of the Sacraments, king of England He also printed “An and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Apology for his Conduct yearly on the Church, &c., established by the act of 30th of January." In these tracts he uniformity, in the year 1662; and whatsays, “ For some years last past I have ever has been added since, I suppose no preached on the 30• of January, and my clergyman ever bound himself by sublabours were employed in obviating the scription to use; the reason is because mistakes which I knew some of my con- the law requires no more." gregation entertained with regard to the Mr. Watson then says, on the authocharacter of king Charles I.; and in rity of Wheatly, in his “ Illustration of proving that if it was judged rebellion in the Common Prayer,” Johnson in his those who took up arms against that un “ Clergyman's Vade Mecum,” and the fortunate prince, who had made so many author of “The Complete Incumbent," breaches in the constitution, it must be that the services for the 30th of January an aggravation of that crime, to oppose and the 29th of May are not confirmed the just and wise measures of the present by act of parliament, and that penalties father of his country, king George. The do not attach for the non-celebration of chief reason for publishing the sermon is the service on those days. “I cannot in to confute a commonly received opinion conscience read those prayers,” says Watthat I applauded therein the act of cut- son, “wherein the king is called a Martyr. ting off the king's head, which any one I believe the assertion to be false, and may quickly see to be without foundation. therefore why should I tell a lie before For when I say that the resistance he met the God of Truth! What is a martyr ? with was owing to his own mal-adminis. He is a witness, for so the word in the tration, nothing else can be meant than original imparts. Robert Stephens tells the opposition he received from a wise, us, that they are martyrs who have died brave, and good parliament :--not that giving a testimony of divinity to Christ : shown him by those furious men who de- but if this be true king Charles can be no stroyed both the parliament and him, and martyr, for he was put to death by those whose conduct I never undertook to vin- who believed in the divinity of Christ as dicate. It has been observed that I al- well as he. What were the grounds then ways provide a clergyman to read prayers for giving him this glorious title? his for me on the 30th of January; but not dying rather than give up episcopacy? I to read that service is deemed criminal, think lord Clarendon hath proved the because in subscribing the 36th canon I contrary: he consented to suspend epis
• Lord Balkland engaged in a thoughtless skirmish and perished in it.
copacy for three years, and that money cre, wherein above three hundred, thoushould be raised upon the sale of the sand protestants were murdered in cold church lands, and only the old rent should blood, or expelled out of their habitations. be reserved to the just owners and their (Vide • Temple's Irish Rebellion,' page 6.) successors. My charity leads me so far, I say, we, at this period of time, should that I hope king Charles meant well when not have thought such a one worthy to be he told the princess Elizabeth that he deemed a martyr for the cause of protestshould die a martyr, and when he repeat- antism ; but that it has been a custom in ed it on the scaffold. But this might be the church for near a century to call him nothing else but a pleasing deception of so. However, it is time seriously to conthe mind; and if saying that he died a sider whether it is not proper to correct martyr made him such, then the duke of this error; at least, it should be shown to Monmouth also was the same, for he died be no error if we must keep it, for, at with the same words in his mouth, which present, many of the well-meaning memhis grandfather, king Charles, had used bers of the church are offended at it.” before. King Charles II. seems to have The writer cited, goes on to observe, had no such opinion of the matter; for “My second objection against reading when a certain lord reminded his majesty this service is, that I judge it to be conof his swearing in common discourse, the trary both to reason and the contents of king replied, "Your martyr swore more the Bible, to say that the blood of king than ever I did,' which many have deem- Charles can be required of us or our posed a jest upon the title which his father terity? There is not, I suppose, one man had got. In fact, we, of this generation, alive who consented to the king's death. should never have judged, that he who We know nothing of it but from history, swore to preserve the religion, laws, and therefore none of us were concerned in liberties of his country inviolate, and yet the fact; with what reason then can it be broke through every one of these re- averred that we ought to be responsible straints—that he, who put an English for it, when it neither was nor is in our fleet into the hands of the French to crush power to prevent it. But what if we disthe protestants there, who were struggling claim the sins of our forefathers, or are the to maintain their religion and liberties- posterity of those who fought for the king, that be, who contrary to the most solemn are we still to be in danger of suffering? promises, did sacrifice the protestant in- Such seems to be the doctrine of this serterest in France—that he, who concurred vice, where all, without exception, are with Laud in bringing the church of Eng- called upon to pray that they may be land to a kind of rivalship, for ornaments, freed from the vengeance of his righteous &c., with the church of Rome—that he, blood.' I could prove, from undoubied who could consent, when he married the records, that the family I came from were French king's daughter, that their chil- royalists; but I think it sufficient to say, dren were to be educated by their mother that I never did nor ever will consent, until thirteen years of age—that he, who that a king shall be beheaded, or othergave great church preferments to men wise put to death; therefore let others say who publicly preached up popish doc- what ihey will, I look upon myself to be trines; and that protected known papists innocent, and why should I plead with from the penalties of the law, by taking God as if I thought myself guilty ? But several very extraordinary steps in their we are told that they were the crying behalf-that he, who permitted an agent, sins of this nation which brought down or a kind of núncio from Rome, to visit this heavy judgment upon us. I think it the court publicly, and bestowed such is more clear, that a series of ill-judged offices as those of lord high treasurer, se- and ill-timed acts, on the part of the king, cretary of state, chancellor of the exche- brought him into the power of his opposquer, &c., on papists--that he, who byers, and that, afterwards, the ambition of proclamation could command the Lord's a few men led him to the scaffold. Let day to be profaned (for I can call it po it only be remembered, that at the beess) by revels, plays, and many sorts of ginning of his reign he entered into a war in-timed recreations, punishing great for the recovery of the Palatinate against numbers of pious clergymen for refusing the consent of his parliament; and when to publish what their consciences forbad he could not get them to vote him money them to read : and to name no more enough for his purpose he extorted it illethat lie, who could abet the Irish massa- gally from his subjects; refusing to join
the parliament in redressing the grievan- yoke ? No, surely; for had they done ces of the nation; often threatening them; so, they had deserved the worst of evils; and even counteracting their designs; and the bitter effects thereof, in all prowhich, at last, bred so many disputes, bability, had not only been derived to us, that he overstepped all bounds, and had but our posterity. Happy Britons, that the misprudence to attempt the seizing of such a just and noble stand was made! five members in the house; on which the May the memories of those great patriots citizens came down by land and water, that were concerned in it be ever dear to with muskets on their shoulders, to defend Englishmen; and to all true Englishmen the parliament: soon after which so great they will! a distrust arose between the two houses “ In the same hymn it is likewise afand him, that all likelihood of agreement firmed that False witnesses rosc up against wbolly ceased. This was the cause him, and laid to his charge things that he whereon to make war-sending the queen knew not. Which on this occasion cannot to Holland to buy arms, himself retiring be truly said, because as the chief fact to from the capital, and soon after erecting be proved was the king's being in arms, it his standard at Nottingham. Not suc cannot be supposed that out of more than ceeding, he was made prisoner, and when 200,000 men who had engaged with him, many expected his restoration, a violent a sufficient number of true witnesses could opposition in the army broke forth ; a be wanting. What, therefore, Mr. Wheatly design was formed to change the mo could think when he said that his hymn is narchy into a republic, and to this, and as solemn a composure, and as pertinent nothing else, he fell a sacrifice. If the to the occasion as can be imagined or real cause of the king's death was the contrived, I cannot tell. I am sure a wickedness of those times, does it not broad hint is given therein, that the clergy follow that his death was permitted by in king Charles's time were a set of wicked God as a punishment for that wicked- people, and that it was through their unDess; and if so, why should we fear that righteousness, as well as that of the laity, God will still visit for it? Will the just that the king lost his life. The words are and merciful Judge discharge his ven- these, · For the sins of the people, and geance on two different generations of the iniquities of the priests, they shed the men for the offences committed by one ? blood of the just in the midst of JeruSuch doctrine as this should be banished salem. Let those defend this passage from every church, especially a christian who are able, for I own myself incapable one ; for it has no foundation in reason of doing it consistently." or revelation.” The reasons of this cler
Mr. Watson says,
“I am not by myself gyman of the established church for his in thinking that this service for the 30ih of dissent from the established usage are still January needs a review; many sensible, further remarkable.
worthy men think further that it is time Mr. Watson states other objections to to drop it; for they see that it is unseathis service. “In the hymn used instead sonable now, and serves no other end than of Venite exultemus, it is said, They fought as a bone of contention in numberless against him without a cause : the co parishes, preventing friendship, and good trary of which, when it is applied to king will being shown towards such of the Charles, I think has been owned by every clergy as cannot in all points approve of historian. The parliament of England it; excepting that (as I have found by were always more wise and good, than to experience) it tends to make bad subjects. raise armies against the kings who gave A sufficient argument this, was there no them no occasion to do so; and I cannot other, why it should either be altered, or but entertain this favourable opinion of taken away ; but I presume not to dictate; that which began to sit in the year 1640. and, therefore, I urge this no further: There is nothing more true than that the had' I not a sincere regard for the church king wanted to govern by an arbitrary of England, I should have said less; but power. His whole actions showed it, and notwithstanding any reports to the conhe could never be brought to depart from trary, I declare myself to be a hearty this. Either, therefore, his people must well-wisher to her prosperity. Did I not have submitted to the slavery, or they prefer her communion to that of any other, must have vindicated their freedom I would instantly leave her, for I am not openly; there was no middle way. But so abandoned as to play the hypocr:te : should they have tamely received the that I detest, and have often detested it
to my great loss. But I am not of that very sensible how tender a point I am opinion, that it is for the interest of the discussing. However, I cannot but obchurch to conceal her defects; on the serve, that for my own part, upon the contrary, I think I do her the greatest maturest and most sober consideration, I service possible by pointing them out, so take him to be a greater friend to Christhat they may be remedied to the satisfac- tianity in general, and to this church in tion of all good men. She ought not to particular, who studies to unite as many be ashamed of the truth, and falsehood dissenters as may be to us, by a reasonwill never hurt her."
able comprehension, than he who is
against it." It appears that Mr. Watson's conduct It is urged by Mr. Watson, that the obtained much notice; for he preached church of England herself does not claim another sermon at Halifax, entitled “ Mo- a perfection which is insisted upon as her deration; or a candid disposition towards distinguishing quality by some of her those that differ from us, recommended over zealous advocates. He says, “ The and enforced.” This he also printed, first reformers were wise and good men, with the avowed view of “promoting but the Common Prayer they published of that moderation towards all men which was little better than popery itself; many becometh us as Christians, is the orna- indeed have been the alterations in it ment of our profession, and which we made since then ; but as, through the should therefore labour to maintain, as unripeness of the times, it never had any we desire to walk worthy of the vocation but imperfect emendations, we may reawherewith we are called, with all lowli- sonably suppose it capable of still further ness and meekness, with long suffering, improvements.” Deeming the service apforbearing one another in love, endeavour: pointed for this day as inappropriate, and ing to keep the unity of the spirit in the referring to suggestions that were in his bond of peace.” He proceeds to observe time urged upon public attention for a in this discourse, that " whoever reflects review of the liturgy, he proceeds to say, upon the nature of human constitutions, “ There may be men at work that misrewill readily allow the impossibility of per- present this good design; that proclaim, fection in any of them; and whoever con as formerly, the church's danger; but let siders the mutability of human things, no arts like these deceive you; they must will grant that nothing can be so well be enemies in disguise that do it, or such devised, or so sure established, which, in who have not examined what they object continuance of time, will not be corrupted. to with sufficient accuracy. What is A change of circumstances, to which the wished for, your own great Tillotson himbest constituted state is liable, will require self attempted : this truly valuable man, such alterations as once would have been with some others but little inferior to himneedless : and improvement of observa- self, being sensible that the want of a tion will demand such regulations as sufficient review drew many members nothing else could have discovered to have from the church, would have compromised been right. Of this the wise founders of the difference in a way detrimental to no the established church of England were one, beneficial to all; and had he not very sensible; they prudently required been opposed by some revengeful zealots, no subscription to perfection in the church, had certainly completed what all good well knowing that they but laid the foun-' men have wished for." dation stone of a much greater building than they could live to see completed. The Editor of the Every-Day Book The Common Prayer, since it was first has Mr. Watson's private copies of these properly compiled, in the year 1545, has printed tracts, with manuscript additions undergone sixteen alterations, as defects and remarks on them by Mr. Watson became visible, and offence was thereby himself. It should seem from one of these given to the promoting of separations and notes, in his own hand-writing, that his divisions: noble examples these-fit for opinions were not wholly contemned. the present age to imitate ! for, as pinety Regarding his latter discourse, he observes years have elapsed since the last review, that “the late Dr. Sharp, archdeacon of this experienced age has justly discovered Northumberland, in a pamphlet, called that the amendments, at that time made, 'A Serious Inquiry into the Use and Imwere not sufficient. I could produce you portance of External Religion;' quotes many instances; but I forbear; for I am this sentence, “ TV here unity and peace are
disregarded, devotion must be so too, as it and hoped that it was not too harsh a
The Calves-head Club.
On the 30th of January, 1735, certain lege, Oxford, where he obtained a fellow
young noblemen and gentlemen met at a ship. He wrote a History of Halifax, in French tavern in Suffolk-street, (Charing 2 vols. 4to., 1775; and a History of the Cross,) under the denomination of the Warren Family, by one of whom he was « Calves-head Club." They had an enpresented to the rectory of Stockport, where tertainment of calves' heads, some of he died, aged 59 years He also wrote a
which they showed to the mob outside, review of the large Moravian hymn book, whom they treated with strong beer. In and several miscellaneous pieces. There the evening, they caused a bonfire to be is a portrait of him by Basire.
inade before the door, and threw into it
with loud huzzas a calf's-head dressed By those who believe that Charles was “guiltless of his country's blood,” and napkins in red wine, and waved them
up in a napkin. They also dipped their that the guilt “ of his blood" is an entail from the windows, at the same time upon the country not yet cut off, it may drinking toasts publicly. The mob huzbe remarked as a curious fact, that at zaed as well as “ their betters,"—but about that season, eighty years after the
at length broke the windows, and became king“ bowed his head” on the scaffold at
so mischievous that the guards were called Whitehall, it was a very sickly time.”
in to prevent further outrage.* It is recorded, that in 1733 “ people were
These proceedings occasioned some afflicted this month with a head-ach and
verses in the “Grub-street Journal," fever which very few escaped, and many wherein are the following lines :died of; particularly between Tuesday, the twenty-third, and Tuesday, the thir- Strange times! when noble peers secure tieth of January, there died upwards of from riot fifteen hundred in London and Westmin- Cann't keep Noll's annual festival in quiet. ter."* On the twenty-third of January, Through sasbes broke, dirt, stones and 1649, the king having peremptorily de
brands thrown at em, nied the jurisdiction of the court, the pre- Which, if not scand was brand-alumsident, Bradshaw,“ ordered his contempt
magnatumto be recorded : on the
thirtieth of January Forced to run down to vaults for safer he was beheaded.” During these days,
quarters, and the intervening ones, the fatal LonAnd in cole-holes, their ribbons hide and
garters. don head-ach prevailed in 1733.
They thought, their feast in dismal fray
thus ending, On the second of March, 1772 Mr. Themselves to shades of death and hell Montague moved in the house of com
descending : mons to have so much of the act of 12th This might have been, had stout ClareC. II. c. 30, as relates to the ordering market mobsters the thirtieth of January to be kept as a With cleavers arm'd, outmarch'd St.James's day of fasting and humiliation, to be re
lobsters; pealed. His motive he declared to be, to Numscalls they'd split, to furnish other
revels, abolish, as much as he could, any absurdity from church as well as state. He And make a calves-head feast for worms
and devils. said that he saw great and solid reasons for abolishing the observation of that day,
British Chronologist, 177.
• Gents. Mag .and Brit. Chron.