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the cowslips and the meadows: it is this without recurring to something that has which shines like an earth-star from the an interest in our hearts; such are the grass by the brook side, lighting the hand primrose, the cowslip, the May-flower, to pluck it. We do indeed give the name the daisy, &c. &c. The poets have not of primrose to the lilac flower, but we do neglected to pay due honours to this this in courtesy : we feel that it is not the sweet spring-Hower, which unites in primrose of our youth; not the primrose itself such delicacy of form, colour, with which we have played at bo-peep and fragrance; they give it a forlorn in the woods; not the irresistible prime and pensive character. The poems of rose which has so often lured our young Clare are as thickly strewn with primfeet into the wet grass, and procured us roses as the woods themselves; the two coughs and chidings. There is a senti- following passages are from “ The Village ment in flowers: there are flowers we Minstrel." cannot look upon, or even hear named,

“0, who can speak his joys when spring's young morn

From wood and pasture opened on his view,
When tender green buds blush upon the thorn,

And the first primrose dips its leaves in dew.

" And while he pluck'd the primrose in its pride,

He ponder'd o'er its bloom 'twixt joy and pain ;
And a rude sonnet in its praise he tried,

Where nature's simple way the aid of art supplied."

the fresh and open air, which never NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

comes to town. Residents in cities, Mean Temperature ...39 • 54.

therefore, must seek it at some distance

from their abodes; and those who cannot, March 8.

may derive some pleasure from a sonnet, At this season there is a sweetness in by the rural bard quoted just now.

Approach of Spring.
Sweet are the omens of approaching Spring

When gay the elder sprouts her winged leaves ;
When tootling robins carol-welcomes sing,

And sparrows chelp glad tidings from the eaves.
What lovely prospects wait each wakening hour,

When each new day some novelty displays,
How sweet the sun-beam melts the crocus flower,

Whose borrow'd pride shines dizen'd in his rays :
Sweet, new-laid hedges flush their tender greens :


the arum-leaves their shelter screens :
Ah ! sweet is all that I'm denied to share :
Want's painful hindrance sticks me to her stall;-

But still Hope's smiles unpoint the thorns of Care
Since Heaven's eternal spring is free from all !


Mean Temperature ... 40.05

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VISIT TO MR. CROSS, PROPRIETOR OF THE ELEPHANT. The most remarkable incident in the that each produced what is commonly metropolis, since “ the panic” in the called " a sensation" in town and counneighbourhood of the Royal Exchange, try, and that each originated in peculiar in January, 1826, was the death of the excitement. celebrated elephant at Exeter Change, in Wishing to record the death of the March of the same year; not that it is elephant in this work, and to relate only attempted to insinuate comparison be- what is true, I resorted to Mr. Cross, tween these events, as to their nature or con- whose menagerie has sustained a bereavesequences, but it may fairly be observed, ment that can only be supplied, if it ever

VOL. II.-63.


can be supplied, at a vast expense, and or rather to construct a new one. The after a long lapse of time. On explaining bars of the old one were not thicker than my wish and purpose, Mr. Cross readily a man's arm. With Mr. Harrison, the assented to furnish me with the informa- carpenter, who built his new den, and tion I desired, and communicated the fol- with whom he had formed a previous inlowing particulars. I committed them to timacy, he was remarkably docile, and paper during my interviews, and after accommodated himself to his wishes in digesting them into order, submitted the every respect.

He was occasionally whole to his revision. Except as to mere troublesome to his builder from love of language and occasional illustrations, the play, but the prick of a gimblet was an narrative is, in fact, the narrative of Mr. intimation he obeyed, till a desire for Cross. It differs in many essential re- fresh frolic prompted him to further interspects from other accounts, but it only so ference, and then a renewal of the hint, differs, because every statement is accu- or some trifling eatable from the carpenrately related from Mr. Cross's lips. Cir- ter's pocket, abated the interruption. In cumstances which occurred during his this way they went on together till the temporary absence at the critical moment, work was completed, and while the elewere supplied to me in his presence phant retained his senses, he was happy by Mr. Tyler, the gentleman who in every opportunity that afforded him the arranged and cooperated with Mr. Her- society of his friend Harrison. The den ring, during the exigency that rendered thus erected will be particularized prethe destruction of the elephant imperative. sently: it was that wherein he remained The first owner of the lordly animal, till his death.

no more, was Mr. Harris, pro- About six years ago this elephant indiprietor of Covent-garden sheatre. He cated an excitement which is natural to purchased it in July, 1810, for nine hun. the species, and which prevails every year dred guineas on its arrival in England, for a short season. At the period now aboard the Astel, Captain Hay, and the spoken of, his keeper having gone into elephant “came out” as a public per- his den to exhibit him, the animal refused former the same year, in the procession obedience; on striking him with a slight of a grand pantomime, called “Harle- cane, as usual, the elephant violently quin Padmanaba.” Mrs. Henry John- threw him down: another keeper seeing stone was his graceful rider, and he was the danger, tossed a pitchfork to bis com“played up to " by the celebrated colum- rade, which the animal threw aside like bine, Mrs. Parker, whose husband had a a straw. A person then ran to alarm joint interest with Mr. Harris in the new Mr. Cross, who hurried down stairs, and performer. During his “engagement” at catching up a shovel, struck the animal This theatre, Mr. Polito“ signed articles” violently on the head, and suddenly seizwith Messrs. Harris and Parker for his ing the prostrated man, dragged him from further“

appearance in public” at the the den, and saved his life. Royal Menagerie, Exeter Change. On This was the first appearance of those the death of Mr. Polito, in 1814, Mr. annual paroxysms, wherein the elephant, Cross, who for twenty years had been whether wild or confined, becomes insuperintendent of the concern, became furiated. At such a period it is customits purchaser, and the elephant, thus ary in India to liberate the elephants and transferred, remained with Mr. Cross till let them run to the forests, whence, on the termination of his life. From the conclusion of the fit, they usually rehis “ last farewell ” to the public at turn to their wonted subjection. Such Covent-garden theatre, he was stationary an experiment being impossible with Mr. at the menagerie, from whence he was Cross, he resorted to pharmacy, and, in never removed, and, consequently, he was the course of fifty-two hours, succeednever exhibited at any other place. ed in deceiving his patient into the

On the elephant's first arrival from In- taking of twenty-four pounds of salts, dia he had two keepers ; these accompa- twenty-four pounds of treacle, six ounces nied him to Exeter Change, and to their of calomel, an ounce and a half of tartar controul he iinplicitly submitted, until the emetic, and six drams of powder of gamdeath of one of them, within the first year boge. To this he added a bottle of after Mr. Cross's proprietorship, when the croton oil, the most potent cathartic peranimal's increasing bulk and strength haps in existence; of this, a full dram rendered it necessary to enlarge his den, was administered, which alone is suffi

To a

cient for at least sixty full doses to the additional medicine became necessary, human being; yet, though united with the and Mrs. Cross conceived the thought of preceding enormous quantity of other giving it to him through some person medicine, it operated no apparent effect, whom the elephant had not seen, and At this juncture Mr. Nyleve, a native whom therefore he night regard as a East Indian, and a man of talent, sug- casual visiter, and not suspect. gested to Mr. Cross the administration of certain extent the feint succeeded. She animal oil, as a medicine of efficacy, sent some buns to him by a strange lad, Şix pounds of marrow from beef bones in one of which a quantity of calomel were accordingly placed within his reach, had been introduced. He ate each bun as if it had been left by accident; the from the boy's hand till that with the liquorish beast, who would probably have calomel was presented; instead of conrefused it had it been tendered him in veying it to his mouth, he instantly his food, swallowed the bait. The result dropped the bun, and crushed it with his justified Mr. Nyleve's prediction. To foot." In this way he was accustomed to my inquiry whether the marrow had not great every thing of food that he disliked. accelerated an operation which would It was always considered that the ele have succeeded the previous administra- phant's den was of sufficient strength and tion, Mr. Cross answered, that he believed magnitude to accommodate, and be proof the beef marrow was the really active against any attack he was able to direct medicine, because, after an interval of against it, even in his most violent displeathree weeks, he gave the same quantity sure. In the course of the four preceding wholly unaccompanied, and the same years the front had sustained many hundred aperient effect followed. He never, how- of his powerful lounges, without any part ever, could repeat the experiment; for having been substantially injured, or the the elephant in successive years wholly smallest portion displaced, or rendered refused the marrow, however attempted rickety in the slightest degree; but on this to be disguised, or with whatever it was morning, (Wednesday,) about ten o'clock, mixed.

he made a tremendous rush at the front, In subsequent years, during these pe wholly unexcited by provocation, and riods of excitement, the paroxysms suc- broke the tenon, or square end at the top cessively increased in duration ; but of the hinge story-post, to which the gates there was no increase of violence until are hung, from its socket or mortise in the present year, when the symptoms be- the massive cross beam above; and, concame more alarming, and medicine pro- sequently, the strong iron clamped gates duced no diminution of the animal's which had hitherto resisted his many heightened rage. On Sunday, (the 26th furious attacks upon them, lost their secuof February,) a quarter of a pound of cal- rity. Mr. Cross was then absent from the omel was given to him in gruel. Three menagerie, and, in the urgency of the grains of this is a dose for a man; and moment, his friend Mr. Tyler, a gentlethough the entire quantity given to the man of great coolness and faculty of arelephant was more than equal to six hun- rangement, gave orders for a strong massy dred of those doses, it failed of pro- piece of timber to be placed in front of ducing in him any other effect than ex- his den, as a temporary fixture against treme suspicion of any food that was the broken story-post; and offered every tendered to him, if it at all varied in ap- thing he could think of to pamper, and, pearance from what he was accustomed if possible, to allay the animal's fury: On to at other times. On Monday morning Mr. Cross's arrival he rightly judged, that some warm ale was offered him in a another such lounge would prostrate the bucket, for the purpose of assisting the gates; and, as it was known that Mr. operation of the calomel, but he would Harrison, the carpenter of the den, who not touch it till Cartmell, his keeper, formerly possessed great influence over drank a portion of the liquor himself, him, had now lost all power of controulwhen he readily took it. The Auid did ing him, it was morally certain, that not appear to accelerate the wished for if any other persons attempted to reobject; and, in fact, the calomel wholly pair the mischief in an effectual way, failed to operate. Though in a state of their lives would be forfeited. Mr. constant irritation, he remained tolerably Cross, under these circumstances of quiet throughout Monday and Tuesday, inminent danger, instantly determined until Wednesday, the 1st of March, when to destroy the elephant with all pos


sible despatch, as the only measure he proboscis, which, if tendered to him, he could possibly adopt for his own safety would have refused ; and this habit sugand the safety of the public. Having gesting the possibility that he might so formed his resolution, he went without dispose of this, which, it was quite cera moment's delay to Mr. Gifford, chemist tain, if presented would have been rein the Strand, and requested to be sup- jected, the ball was placed so that he plied with a potent poison, destitute if might find it; but the instant he perceived possible of taste or smell. Mr. Gifford, it he seemed to detect the purpose; he sensible of the serious consequences tó hastily seized it, and as hastily letting it Mr. Cross in a pecuniary point of view, fall, violently smashed it with his foot. entreated him to reflect still further, and The peril was becoming greater every not to commit an act of which he might minute. The elephant's weight was uphereafter repent. Mr. Cross assured him wards of five tons, and from such an ani. that whatever irritation he might mani- mal's excessive rage, in a place of insefest, proceeded from his own feelings of cure confinement, the most terrible conregard towards the elephant, heightened sequences were to be feared. Mr. Cross by a sense of the loss that would ensue therefore intrusted his friend, Mr. Tyler, upon

his purpose being effected; to direct and assist the endeavours of the adding, that he had a firm conviction that keepers for the controul of the infuriated unless the animal's death was immediate- beast. He then despatched a messenger ly accomplished, loss of human life must to his brother-in-law, Mr. Herring, in the

Mr. Gifford replied, that he had New Road, Paddington, a man of deter-' never seen or complied more reluctantly mined resolution, and an excellent shot, with his wish on any occasion, and he stating the danger, and requesting him to gave

him four ounces of arsenic. come to the menagerie. As he arrived Mr. Cross declares that on his way without arms, they went together to Mr. back, the conflict of his feelings was so Stevens, gunsmith, in High Holborn, for great at that moment, that he imagines no rifles. On their way to him they called person comtemplating murder could en- at Surgeons-hall, Lincoln's-Inn Fields, dure greater agony;

The arsenic was where they hoped to see the skeleton of mixed with oats, and a quantity of sugar an elephant, in order to form a judgment being added by way of inducement, it was of the places through which the shots offered to the elephant as his ordinary would be likeliest to reach the vital parts. meal by his keeper. The sagacious In this they were disappointed, the college animal wholly refused to touch it. of surgeons not having the skeleton of

His eyes now glared like lenses of glass the animal in its collection ; but Mr. reflecting a red and burning light. Clift, who politely received them, commuIn order to soothe him, some oranges, to nicated what information he possessed on which fruit he had great liking, were re- the subject. Mr. Stevens lent him three · peatedly proffered; but though these were rifles, and at his house Mr. Cross left in a pure state, he took them, one after Mr. Herring to get the pieces ready, the other, as they were presented to him, after instructing him to cooperate with and dropping each on the floor of his den Mr. Tyler, in attempting the destruction instantly squelched it with his foot, and of the animal, if it should be absolutely having thus disposed of a few he refused necessary before he returned himself. to take another. This utter rejection of From thence Mr. Cross hastened to Great food, with amazing increase of fury, Marlborough-street, for the advice of Mr. heightened Mr. Cross's alarm. He again Joshua Brookes, the eminent anatomist, went out, and in great agitation procured He found that gentleman in his theatre, half an ounce of corrosive sublimate to delivering a public lecture. Sense of be mixed in a quantity of conserve of danger deprived Mr. Cross of the attenroses, securely tied in ą, bladder, to tions due to time and place under ordiprevent, if possible, any scent from the nary circumstances, and he immediately poison, and with some hope that if the addressed Mr. Brookes; “Sir, a word animal detected any effluvia through the with you, if you please, immediately: air-tight skin it would be the odour of I have not an instant to lose." Mr. roses and sugar, which were substances Brookes concluded his lecture directly, peculiarly grateful to him. The elephant and knowing Mr. Cross would not have

accustomed to swallow several intruded upon him except from extreme things lying about within reach of his urgency, withdrew with him, and gave


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