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statue of Jupiter when required to sacri- mented, carrying a lance in one hand, fice to it; this foot has been a relic in high and in the other the standard of the abbey, esteem ever since. Afterwards his head on which were the arms richly embroiwas cut off, and the head became another dered; he wore a rich scarf, and his horse relic of very high value. Various miracles had a housing of white damask, Ornaare reported to have been wrought at his mented with blue crosses. This cavalier tomb, particularly in the cure of de intended to represent St. Victor. moniacs.
He was preceded by twelve cavaliers It is also related that the tomb of the carrying lighted tapers, and accompanied emperor Maximian, who died and was by a band of music with drums and interred at Marseilles, was discovered trumpets. Six pages followed him. As about the middle of the eleventh century, soon as the people heard the music, and and recognised to be his by an inscrip- saw the standard, they flocked in crowds tion. The body was in a leaden coftin, to join the procession.
As it passed and found entire, having been preserved along the quay of the port, all the vessels by an odoriferous liquor with which it hoisted their colours, and saluted it with was anointed without, and filled within a discharge of cannon and musquetry; Two chalices of gold, full of the same and the consuls, with the rest of the maliquor, were placed on each side of the gistrates, met it at an appointed place, to head. As a persecutor of the christian pay their homage to the saint, and attend church, his body was by order of Raim- him back to the abbey. baud, archbishop of Arles, thrown into This ceremony had been observed the sea; and it is alleged that for some every year from time immemorial, till time after the water of the spot where it monsieur de Belsunce, the bishop of was thrown bubbled furiously, as if Marseilles, who distinguished himself so boiling over a fire, and cast up smoke much in the great plague of 1720, preand flames from the bosom of the deep. vailed upon the magistrates to consent to
the abolition of it, for the following reason. There is a tradition respecting St. Victor the bishops, his predecessors, from the
He was about to publish a biography of in the archives of the abbey, that a first conversion of the town to the chrisdragon of the wood adjoining devoured tian faith, among whom it was necessary every thing that came in his way, human to include St. Victor; and not wishing beings as well as animals; whereupon him to appear otherwise than a christian St. Victor went forth to fight him, armed bishop and martyr, he thought he would cap-à-piè, and mounted on a mettled
not be considered in these lights only, courser, and that he slew him and freed while the people were accustomed to see the country from so terrible a scourge. him every year in a character directly An effigy of the saint, engaged with his opposite; so that no way appeared of fearful antagonist, was carved in stone, making the impression he desired, except and placed over the porch of the great by abolishing the annual ceremony. church : and the same device was adopted Until then the relics of St. Victor, who as the great seal of the monastery. The carving over the church porch remains to seilles were always borne in the pro
was esteemed the patron saint of Marthis day, though somewhat defaced : it cession. They were likewise carried in is the exact counterpart of the English procession at the time of any public.com St. George and the dragon. Underneath lamity; but on these occasions the armed is inscribed
cavalier did not make his appearance. Massiliam vere. (VICTOR) civesque tuere.
The grotto, which for a short time had On the St. Victor's day, which is the been the residence of Mary Magdalen, twenty-first of July,there were formerly held was, on the foundation of the monastery, at Marseilles a festival and procession in converted into a chapel, and a tomb honour of him, called “ La Triomphale." erected to her memory. It was said that The relics of the saint were carried round no woman could enter this chapel without the town by the prior of the monastery, being immediately struck blind ; and for attended by the whole community. At some centuries no female attempted to the head of the procession marched a penetrate the sanctity of the place
, till cavalier in complete armour, highly orna- the celebrated queen Joan insisted on
admission, when it is said slie had sooner paternal side. From that time the founpassed the portal than she was deprived dation assumed the title of “the noble of her sight. It was afterwards restored, and illustrious collegiate church of St. on her putting a balustrade of solid silver Victor." round the image of the virgin. This In a few years afterwards, the new caimage has been preserved, and a place nons, being all nobles, petitioned the king has been allotted her in the church ; but for a badge to distinguish them from the one of the remarkable effects of the French other chapters of the province; and they revolution is, that a woman can now look obtained permission to wear a cross, or at it without experiencing the least in- rather a star of enamel, similar to that convenience.
worn by the knights of Malta, slung On the tomb of the Magdalen, which round the neck with a deep red ribband. was of white marble, were many curious In the centre of the cross was represented figures carved in relief-among others on one side the figure of St. Victor with a wolf suckling two children; and in the the dragon, and round it “ Divi Victoris inferior church were seven very fine Massiliensis," and on the other, the great marble columns of the Corinthian order. church of the abbey, with the words These are supposed to have been some of “ Monumentis et nobilitate insignis.” the many spoils of the Pagan temples, The luxury and libertinism of the new which the monks of St. Victor are known canons were matter of notoriety and scanto have appropriated to their own use. dal, and in the great overthrow of the
It was formerly a popular belief, that sceptre and priesthood, the abbey of St. in this place were deposited the bodies Victor became one of the first objects of of seven brothers who were not dead, but popular vengeance. So complete was lay there to sleep till the general resurrec- the demolition of many parts of the buildtion. What became of them at the de- ings, that even the very stones were carmolition of the abbey does not appear. ried away ; but in the greater part frag
ments of the walls are still left standing.
Among the ruins are many fragments of Among the curiosities of the abbey of carved work, which the monks had St. Victor was a well, with a small column appropriated to the decoration of their of granite on each side of it. On one of monastery. The most beautiful of these the columns was a figure which was called remains were deposited in the Lyceum at the impression of the devil's claw; and Marseilles.* the story concerning it was, that the old gentleman, being envious of the superior sanctity of the holy fathers, stole one day
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. into the monastery with a malicious in Mean Temperature ...61 · 87. tention to corrupt them. What form he assumed is not stated by the record, but he was soon discovered, and obliged to make his escape; in doing which he
MAGDALENE. stepped over these two columns, and left the impression of his claw upon one of
This name is in the church of England them. The truth was, that the columns calendar and the almanacs. were ancient ones, and the devil's claw The character of Magdalen is ably vinthe remains of an acanthus' leaf.
dicated from the common and vulgar imputation by the illustrious Lardner, in a
letter to the late Jonas Hanway, wherein The abbey of St. Victor was secularized he urges on the eminent philanthropist, under Louis XV. Formerly none but the manifest impropriety of calling a renatives of Marseilles could be members ceptacle for female penitents by the name of the community, and the city had the of Magdalen. right of placing in it, a certain number of youth for education free of expense.
St. Mary Magdalen. These valuable privileges were surrendered, and the canons were in future only
Sainte Beaume near Marseilles is a vast to be chosen from among such families of cavity in a mountain, thence called the Provence, as could produce a title of a hundred and fifty years' nobility on the
• Miss Plumptre.
mountain of the Sainte Beaume. Here ceived. Though great numbers of the Mary Magdalen has been reputed to trees were cut down during the revoluhave secluded herself during the latter tion, sufficient still remain to form a years of her life, and to have died. The thick shade. spot is considered as holy ground; and On arriving at the convent, we found in former times the pilgrimages under- that the appearance we had observed taken to it from very distant parts, from below, was a deception occasioned occasioned the cavern to be converted by the distance ; that it was built on a into a chapel dedicated to the Magdalen. narrow esplanade on the rock, which just About the end of the thirteenth century, afforded room for the building and a a convent of Dominican friars was built walk before it, guarded on the side of close to the cavern, and the chapel was the precipice by a parapet. It was infrom that time served by the monks of deed a formidable sight to look over this the convent. Afterwards an hospice, or upon the precipice below.
Both the inn, for the accommodation of pilgrims, convent and the inn were pillaged in the and travellers, was added, and in this revolution, and little more than their state it remained till the revolution. shells remain.
The grotto is a fine specimen of the
wild features of nature. The roof is a Miss Plumptre describes an intereste natural vault, and the silence of the place ing visit to Sainte Beaume :
is only interrupted by the dripping of From Nans we soon began to ascend water from the roof at the further end, the lesser mountains, which form the base into a basin formed by the rock, which of the principal one, and, after pursuing receives it below. This water is remarka winding path for a considerable dis- ably clear and limpid, and is warm in tance, came to a plain called the Plan winter, but very cold in summer. It is d'Aulps, at the foot of the great mountain. considered of great efficacy in the cure of The whole side of this latter is covered diseases, from the miraculous powers with wood, except an interval in one with which it is endowed through the spot, which presents to the eye an enor- sanctity of the place. The cures it permous rock, almost perpendicular. As forms are confined, therefore, to those this opened upon us in crossing the plain, who have faith enough to rely upon its monsieur B who was acquainted efficacy. The great altar of the chapel with the spot, said, “ Now you can see was very magnificent, all of marble, enthe convent." We looked around, but closed within an iron balustrade. The saw no signs of a habitation : “ No,” iron is gone, but most of the marble resaid he," you must not look round, you mains, though much broken and scattered must look upwards against the rock.” about; and what appeared remarkable We did so, and to our utter astonishment was that a great many fleurs-de-lys in descried it about half way up this tremen- mosaic, with which the altar was decodous precipice; appearing, when beheld rated, were left untouched. Behind the in this point of view, as if it had no foun- altar is a figure in marble of the Magdadation, but was suspended against the len, in a recumbent posture, with her rock, like any thing hung upon a nail or head resting upon her right hand. peg. The sensation excited by the idea of a human habitation in such a place was very singular; it was a mixture of Another point of the mountain, directly astonishment mingled with awe, and an above the grotto of the Sainte Beaume, involuntary shuddering, at the situation is called St. Pilon: it is nearly six hunof persons living in a spot which had the dred feet higher than the esplanade on appearance of being wholly inaccessible : which the convent stands, and between it seemed as if the house could have been two-thirds and three-quarters of an Engbuilt only by magic, and that by magic lish mile perpendicular height above the alone the inhabitants could have been level of the sea. It is said, that while the transported into it,
Magdalen was performing her penitence Having crossed the plain, we entered in the grotto, she was constantly carried the wood through which the pathway that up to St. Pilon by angels seven times a leads up to the grotto and the convent day to pray; and in aftertimes a chapel winds. A more complete or sublime in form of a rotunda was erected there in scene of solitude can scarcely be con commemoration of this circumstance; but
this is now destroyed. Very small models Cabassole, bishop of Cavaillon, he says, of it in bone, containing a chaplet and “We passed three days and three nights crucifix, used to be made at the convent, in this holy and horrible cavern. Wearied which were purchased by visiters.
with the society of persons whom I had accompanied spite of myself, I often wandered alone into the neighbouring forest. I
had even recourse to my usual remedy Among the illustrious visiters to Sainte for chasing the ennui which arises from Beaume, were Francis I., with his being in company not perfectly agreeable mother, the queen his first wife, and the to me. My imagination at such moments duchess of Alençon his sister. In comme recurs to my absent friends, and repremoration of this visit, which was in 1516, sents them as if present with me : though a statue of Francis was erected in the my acquaintance with you was not then grotto: it remained there nearly to the of long standing, yet you came to my time of the revolution. In 1517, the assistance; I fancied that you were duchess of Mantua, accompanied by a seated by me in the grotto, and invited numerous train of attendants, made a me to write some verses in honour of the pilgrimage thither, as she was passing holy penitent, towards whom you had through Provence; sixteen years after- always a particular devotion; when I wards it was visited by Eleanor of Austria, immediately obeyed, and wrote such as second wife to Francis, with the dauphin first occurred." The verses
are little and the dukes of Orleans and Angou- more than a poetical description of the lème. In 1660 it was honoured with the place. presence of Louis XIV., his mother, the duke of Anjou, and the numerous train A carmelite friar of the seventeenth by whom they were attended in their century, whose name was Jean Louis progress through the south.
Barthelemi, but who always called himSince this period it does not appear self Pierre de St. Louis, determined to that any persons of note visited the shrine amuse his solitary hours with writing a from devotional motives ; but it has poem upon some illustrious saint. He always been a great object of the devo- hesitated awhile between Elias, whom he tion of the Provenceaux, particularly of considered as the founder of his order, the lower class. It was often made a part and Mary Magdalen, a female with whom of the marriage contract among them, he had been enamoured before his retirethat the husband should accompany the ment. Love at length decided the queswife in a pilgrimage thither, within the tion, and he composed a poem in twelve first year after they were married; but books, which he entitled, “ The Magdaeven if no express stipulation was made, lenéide, or Mary Magdalen at the Desert the husband who did not do so was of the Sainte Beaume in Provence, a Spithought to have failed very much in the ritual and Christian Poem.” This work attention and regard due to his wife, cost five years of close application, and canne Whitsun week was the usual time for forth one of the most whimsical effusions making these visits, and all the avenues tha ever flowed from the pen of pious to the grotto were at this time thronged extravagance.
Some idea of it may with company, as if it had been a fair. All be collected from a few extracts literally the way from Nans to the grotto are little translated oratories by the road side at certain Having treated at large of the Magdadistances, in which there used to be len's irregular conduct in the early part pictures of the Magdalen's history. of her life, and of her subsequent conver
sion, he says, “ But God at length changed this coal into a ruby, this crow into a
dove, this wolf into a sheep, this hell into Among the most illustrious guests the a heaven, this nothing into something, grotto ever received, must be reckoned this thistle into a lily, this thorn into a Petrarch. He went at the solicitation rose, this sin into grace, this impotence of Humbert, dauphin of the Viennois, into power, this vice into virtue, this cal. and of cardinal Colonna, very much dron into a mirror.” Again, speaking of against his own inclination. In a letter the thirty years which she is reputed to which he wrote thirty-four years after- have passed in the grotto and the woods wards to his intimate friend Philip of adjoining, deploring the sins of her youth,
he says, “ The woods might make herceived too late for insertion on the fifteenth pass for a. Hamadryad, her tears might of the month, under which day the reader make her to be thought a Naiad ;-come will be pleased to consider it to belong. then, ye curious, and you may behold an
For the Every-Day Bouk. aquatic nymph in the midst of a forest." And again, in a panegyric upon her peni
JULY 15. tence, is the following very extraordinary
On the fifteenth of July, 1757, a violent passage:
“ While she occupies herself in shock of an earthquake was felt on the expatiating the offences of her preterite western part of Cornwall. Its operations time, which was but imperfect, the future extended from the islands of Scilly, as far is destined to repair the loss ;--the pre- east as Leskeard, and as far as Camelford sent is such that it is indicative of a north. The noise exceeded that of thunlove which mounts to the infinitive, and der; the tremours of the earth were heard in a degree always superlative, turning and seen in different mines, particularly against herself the accusative.” The poet the following :-In Carnoth Adit in St concludes his work by saying, “ If you Just, the shock was felt eighteen fathoms desire grace and sweetness in verses, in
deep; and in Boseadzhil Downs mine, mine will you find them;
and if you seek thirty fathoms. At Huel-rith mine in the ingenious thoughts, you will find that the parish of Lelant, the earth moved under points of these are not blunted."
ihe miners, quick, and with a trembling
motion. In Herland mine, in the parish NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. of Gwinear, the noise was heard sixty Mean Temperature ... 62 · 47. fathoms deep. In Chace-water mine,
near Redruth, at seventy fathoms deep, a dull and rumbling sound. The effect on
the miners may easily be conceived; they LONGEVITY.
are generally a very superstitious race of Died, at Elderslie, on the twenty-third of July, 1826, Hugh Shaw, at the great
Cornish Hurling age of 113 years. Till within the pre “ Hurling matches” are peculiar to vious eighteen months he walked every Cornwall. They are trials of skill between Saturday to Paisley, and returned, a dis- two parties, consisting of a considerable tance of seven miles. While able to go number of 'men, forty to sixty aside, and about, he had no other means of support often between two parishes. These exthan what he collected by begging from ercises have their name from “hurling" a door to door. After his confinement to the wooden ball, about three inches diameter, house, he was supported by private covered with a plate of silver, which is bounty. Previous to the last three weeks sometimes gilt, and has commonly a of his life, he was able to leave his bed motto—“Fair play is good play.". The every day. Latterly he was blind and success depends on catching the ball dexdeaf. He is said to have left strict terously when thrown up, or dealt, and charges that, as he had never received carrying it off expeditiously, in spite of parish relief, he should be buried without all opposition from the adverse party; or, its aid, even if he were interred without if that be impossible, throwing it into the a coffin. His funeral was attended by a hands of a partner, who, in his turn, number of respectable inhabitants of Pais- exerts his efforts to convey it to his own ley, and by a party of the forty-second goal, which is often three or four miles' regiment, wherein he had served.*
distance. This sport therefore requires
a nimble hand, a quick eye, a swift foot, NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
and skill in wrestling; as well as strength, Mean Temperature ... 64. 25. good wind, and lungs. Formerly it was
• Friday, July 15, 1757, about seren in the even. ing, a smart shock of an earthquake was felt at Palmouth, attended with great noise, which almost every one heard, and saw the windows and things in the houses in motion. As the shock did not last above half a minute, the people were not sensible what it was till afterwards. li was thought to come from the south-west and to go eastward.-Gentleman's Magazine.
. Scotch paper.