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into wrongful, as Aristotle hath said in the book which treateth of the rule and government of kingdoms.

The King's Daughters.

They are to endeavor, as much as may be, that the king's daughters be moderate and seemly in eating and in drinking, and also in their carriage and dress, and of good manners in all things, and especially that they be not given to anger; for, besides the wickedness that lieth in it, it is the thing in the world that most easily leadeth women to do ill. And they ought to teach them to be handy in performing those works that belong to noble ladies; for this is a matter that becometh them much, since they obtain by it cheerfulness and a quiet spirit; and besides, it taketh away bad thoughts, which it is not convenient they should have.


(Translation of Mary Ward.)

Welcome, O May, yet once again we greet thee!
So always praise we her, the Holy Mother,
Who prays to God that he shall aid us ever
Against our foes, and to us ever listen.

Welcome, O May, loyally art thou welcome!

So always praise we her, the Mother of Kindness,
Mother who ever on us taketh pity,

Mother who guardeth us from woes unnumbered.

Welcome, O May! welcome, O month well-favored!
So let us ever pray and offer praises

To her who ceases not for us, for sinners,

To pray to God that we from woes be guarded.

Welcome, O May, O joyous May and stainless !
So will we ever pray to her who gaineth
Grace from her Son for us, and gives each morning
Force that by us the Moors from Spain be driven.

Welcome, O May, of bread and wine the giver!
Pray then to her, for in her arms, an infant,
She bore the Lord! She points us on our journey,
The journey that to her will bear us quickly!


(From Ticknor's "History of Spanish Literature.")

"Cousin Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman: My affliction is great, because it has fallen from such a height that it will be seen afar; and as it has fallen on me, who was the friend of all the world, so in all the world will men know this my misfortune, and its sharpness, which I suffer unjustly from my son, assisted by my friends and by my prelates, who, instead of setting peace between us, have put mischief, not under secret pretenses or covertly, but with bold openness. And thus I find no protection in mine own land, neither defender nor champion; and yet have I not deserved it at their hands, unless it were for the good I have done them. And now, since in mine own land they deceive, who should have served and assisted me, needful is it that I should seek abroad those who will kindly care for me; and since they of Castile have been false to me, none can think it ill that I ask help among those of Benamarin. For if my sons are mine enemies, it will not then be wrong that I take mine enemies to be my sons; enemies according to the law, but not of free choice. And such is the good king Aben Jusaf; for I love and value him much, and he will not despise me or fail me; for we are at truce. I know also how much you are his, and how much he loves you, and with good cause, and how much he will do through your good counsel. Therefore look not at the things past, but at the things present. Consider of what lineage you are come, and that at some time hereafter I may do you good, and if I do not, that your own good deed shall be its own good reward. Therefore, my cousin, Alonzo Perez de Guzman, do so much for me with my lord and your friend, that, on pledge of the most precious crown that I have, and the jewels thereof, he should lend me so much as he may hold to be just. And if you can obtain his aid, let it not be hindered of coming quickly; but rather think how the good friendship that may come to me from your lord will be through your hands. And so may God's friendship be with you. Done in Seville, my only loyal city, in the thirtieth year of my reign, and in the first of these my troubles.

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(Translated for this work.)

[ROGER BACON, the greatest natural philosopher of the Middle Ages, was born in Somersetshire, England, about 1214. Educated at Oxford and Paris, by a luckless impulse he joined the Franciscan (mendicant) Order, for which he had no vocation, and which conflicted violently with his real one. His mind was singularly like that of his great namesake, Francis Bacon; he believed in observation and experiment as the basis of deduction, and never ceased urging the study of original sources and texts, as the basis of any sound theological knowledge. This theory, counsel, and practice convinced his superiors that he was heretically minded and dangerous, and they imprisoned him for some years. About 1265, Pope Clement IV., hearing of his scientific attainments, asked him to write out and send a summary of what he knew; in an incredibly short time, though denied pens and paper except by special permission, penniless, and obliged to get materials and skilled help, he wrote and sent his vast "Opus Majus," a summary of all known science and filled with original experiments and acute deductions. He wrote also the "Opus Minus,' ""Opus Tertium," and minor pieces. In 1278 his writings were condemned by his Order as heretical, and he was again confined. He died in 1294. His mediæval repute as a magician was an ironical fate for one whose chief work was to combat such delusions.]

To William of Paris:


I RESPOND heartily to your request, for though nature may be potent and wonderful, yet art using nature as an instrument is more potent than natural gifts, as we see in many things. But whatever is beyond the operation of nature or of art, either is not human or is fabricated and filled with frauds. For there are those who, fabricating appearances by swift motion of the organs, or diversity of voices, or ingenuity of apparatus, or darkness, or by collusion, put many marvels before mortals which have no truth of existence. The world is full of these, as is manifest to the inquirer. For jugglers play many tricks by quickness of hand; and "mediums," fabricating a variety of voices in the stomach and throat and mouth, form human voices far and near, as they choose, as if a spirit spoke through the man; and they shape sounds as of brutes. But pipes laid under the grass, and hidden in recesses of the ground, show us that the voice is human, not of spirits, which is fabricated with

such huge mendacity. And when inanimate things are moved swiftly in the dusk, of morning or evening, that is not reality, but fraud and trick. As to collusion, it fabricates everything men wish, according as they arrange with each other.

Into all these, however, neither philosophic consideration investigates, nor art, nor the power of nature pauses to look. But beside these is a more mischievous occupation, when men, against the laws of philosophy and against all reason, invoke nefarious spirits, through whom to achieve their will. And their mistake is in this, that they believe spirits to be subject to them, and coercible by human power; for this is impossible, because human force is far inferior to that of spirits. And on this point men err still more in this, that they believe by the use of some natural means they can summon spirits or put them to flight. And the error has been made up to this time, when men strive by invocations and supplications and sacrifices to placate them and bring them into the service of the summoners; while it would be much easier without such trial of skill to supplicate God or the good spirits for whatever man ought to repute useful; since not even in useless matters do malign spirits appear favorable, except so far as sinful deeds are permitted through men by God, who rules and guides the human race. And so these methods are beyond the examples set by wisdom; on the contrary, they rather operate the other way, nor do the truly philosophic ever concern themselves in the manners following.


What should be held concerning charms, and characters, and other things of the kind, I consider after this fashion. It is far from doubtful that everything of the kind is at the present time false and uncertain; for whatever things are universally beyond reasoning out, which philosophers have come upon in the works of nature or art, they have hidden as secrets from the unworthy.

Thus, if it were universally unknown that a magnet draws iron, and some one wished to perform this feat in public, he would draw characters and utter charms, lest it might be perceived that the whole work of attraction was natural. All such performances must be erroneous. Thus, therefore, so many things are hidden in the words of philosophers in many

ways, that a wise man ought to have the prudence to neglect charms and characters, and investigate the works of nature and art; and thus he should perceive that things, as well animate as inanimate, harmonize with each other according to the conformities of nature, not according to the virtue of characters or a charm. And thus, many secrets of nature and art are estimated as magic by the unlearned; and the magicians foolishly confide in characters and charms, to which they ascribe virtue; and by following them, forsake the works of nature or art for the error of charms and characters. And so this race of men is deprived of the utilities of wisdom, impelled by its folly. There are certain supplications of antiquity, instituted by righteous men, or still higher, ordained by God and the angels; and these can thus retain their primal virtue. So in many regions, to this day, certain utterances are made over burning iron and over the waters of a stream, and other like matters, by which the innocent are absolved or the guilty condemned in the case; and these are made by the authority of the Church and of prelates. For even the priests themselves make exorcisms with blessed water, as is written in the old law of purgation by water, by which a woman is proved an adulteress or faithful to her husband; and there are many of the sort. But the things contained in the magicians' books are all forbidden by law, however much truth they may contain; because they are so much abused by rogues that it is not possible to distinguish between the true and the false. Hence, whatever they say as to Solomon or other wise men having composed this or that, is to be denied; because books of this sort are not received by the authority of the Church, nor by the wise, but by misleaders who deceive the world. Furthermore, they compose new books themselves, and multiply new inventions, as we know by experience; and then, that they may entice men the more forcibly, they prefix famous titles to their books, and impudently ascribe them to great authors; and that they may leave no contingency unprovided for, they devise a high-sounding style, and fabricate lies under the pretense of their text.

As to characters, they are either words arranged in inscribed figures, containing the sense of a manufactured utterance, or they are made to represent the appearance of the stars at chosen times. Of characters, therefore, our first judgment must be according to what is said of the utterances. Of the second sort, if they are not made at the chosen times, we know they

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