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Book IX.

1744 1746.

Retrospective glance at some lesser matters going on in the Highlands-The Black Watch

-Intrigues of the Jacobites with Cardinal Fleury-Cardinal de Tencin- The Pretender-Measures of the British Ministry-Colonel Cecil and Lord Barrymore taken up-Roquefeuille and the French fleetSir John Norris-France declares wer-Bill for punishing treasonable correspondence-Parliament is prorogued-Jacobites taken up at Edinburgh-New ministry-New parliament- Charles determines to cast himself on the generosity of his Scotish friends-State of the Highlands-Charles embarks for Britain-Lands at Erisca-Meeting of the Highiand chiefs-Difficulties of their situation-Determine at last to take arms -Capture a purty of the king's troops Charles erects his standard at Glenfinnin_Proclamation issued for his apprehension -March of Sir John Cope to the north-March of Charles to the south- The rival armies pass other near the Corryarrak-Sir John Cope marches to Inverness-Exertions of the Lord President-State of the disaffected chiefs - Charles marches to Perth-To Edinburgh-Conduct of the city of Edinburgh Is entered by the rebels -Hamilton's and Gardiner's dragoons-Sir John Cope arrives at Dunbar-Marches for EdinburyhBattle of Gladsmuir-Charles, master of Scotland, issues various proclamations-Efforts of the loyal part of the community-Synod of Glasgow and Ayr- Commission of the General Assembly-Efforts of Charles to bring forward more of the clans-Continued exertions of the Lord President- Vigorous conduct of Lord LoudonLovat makes an attack upon Culloden house-Is made prisoner by Lord Loudon-Makes his Escape-Difficulties of Charles-Is advised to dissolve the Union, and call a Scotish parliament-Is favoured with supplies of arms, &c.Resolves to march into England.

While the people of Scotland were thus generally and unhappily occupied with religious dissensions, and the people of England with the squabbling of pretended patriots and pseudo reformers, the Chevalier de St. George was exerting all his influence to bring forward his partisans both at home and abroad. In Scotland his interest had certainly been for a number of years on the wane, and though he had still many friends there, they carried themselves so cautiously, as to be for a time, amidst the multiplicity of objects that engrossed public

“ If govern

notice, almost forgotten. Nothing could be more favourable for their views than to be thus overlooked, and for several years they appear to have carried on their treasonable correspondence without the smallest danger of detection.

The lord president Forbes, the only man at that time, connected with the administration of the

government, who

appears to have had any proper knowledge of the Highland character, on the appearance of the Spanish war, formed a plan for raising four or five regiments, principally from among the disaffected clans, for the service of the government. These regiments he proposed to place under colonels of known and approved loyalty, but to officer with their own chieftains, who would thus be less liable to be tampered with by the emissaries of rebellion, and insensibly engaged to respect an order of things which, it might be presumed, they disliked chiefly because they did not understand, and from which, as yet, they did not suppose they had derived any benefit. ment,” he remarked, “pre-engages the Highlanders in this manner, they will not only serve well against the enemy abroad, but will be hostages for the good behaviour of their relations at home; and I am persuaded that it will in that case be impossible to raise a rebellion among them.” This plan the lord president communicated to the lord justice clerk, (Milton) who communicated it to lord Ilay, at that time the manager

of Scotish affairs under Walpole. Lord Ilay hastened to lay it before Sir Robert Walpole, who at once comprehended and admired it, saying he was surprised that nobody had thought of it before. He of course ordered a cabinet council to be immediately summoned, laid the plan before them, expressing his approbation of it in the strongest terms, and recommending it to be carried into effect without a moment's loss of time. Never, however, was the inefficacy of talents and of good intentions, opposed to the overwhelming power of circumstances, more forcibly demonstrated than by the issue of these deliberations. Notwithstanding the strongly expressed approbation of the minister, the council declared unanimously against the measure, at the same time assuring him, that it was for his own sake they

Were the plan of the Scotish judge, said they, adopted, how would it affect the patriots? (the opposition.]

did so.

Would they not exclaim, “Sir Robert Walpole all along bad a design to subvert the constitution! He has succeeded already in forming and imposing upon us a standing army, to join which he is now raising an army of barbarians, for the sole purpose of enslaving the people of England.” Walpole was too good a judge of human nature, and too well acquainted with the temper and spirit of the patriots, not to feel the full force of this reasoning, and the measure was relinquished, though he was perfectly convinced that it was wisely conceived, and would have been infallibly successful in its operation.

Though there was not vigour enough in the cabinet to carry through this measure, which was considered by all as of the highest importance, yet one, which it probably suggested, was shortly after carried into effect, though, evidently, in its tendencies, as pernicious as the other promised to be beneficial. This was no other than breaking up the independent companies known by the name of the Black Watch, imbodying them into a regular regiment, and marching them, first, into England, and, finally, shipping them ofl' for foreign service. These companies had been imbodied to watch over the peace of the Highlands, to prevent conspiracies among the clans, and to suppress those liftings of cattle and goods which they were still too prone to practise on their more wealthy and peaceable neighbours in the low country, and even upon one another, and for upwards of nine years, had answered all these purposes beyond expectation. They were six in number, three consisting of one hundred men each, and three of seventy each. They were stationed in small detachments all over the Highlands, and were commanded by the principal men of the country, but all supposed to be of the loyal or whig clans. The first was given to the notorious Simon Fraser, lord Lovatand the taking it from him he always assigned as a sufficient reason for his going into the rebellion—the second to Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell; the third to Colonel Grant of Ballindalloch; the fourth to Colonel Alexander Campbell of Finab; the fifth to John Campbell of Carrick; and the sixth to George Munro of Culcairn. As the service on which these companies were employed was considered honourable, and had in it more of amusement than toil, the men who composed them were of a superior

order, cadets of gentlemen's families, sons of gentlemen farmers, and tacksmen, either immediately or distantly descended from gentlemen's families, and they were many of them in the habit of riding to the exercising ground, followed by their servants carrying their firelocks and their uniforms—even in the performance of their military duties, their servants attended them in their quarters, and followed them on the march, carrying their provisions, their baggage, and their arms. Letters of service, adding four additional companies, and forming the whole into a regiment of the line, under the command of John, earl of Crawfurd and Lindsay, were issued in the month of October, 1739, and in the month of May following, the whole were mustered and imbodied into a regiment, on a field between Taybridge and Aberfeldy, in the county of Perth, and were then numbered the forty-third regiment, though they still retained the name of the Black Watch. Taybridge and the Point of Lyon, a mile below Taymouth castle, continued to be their places of rendezvous for upwards of fifteen months, during which time they were trained and exercised by their lieutenant-colonel, Sir Robert Munro of Fowlis, a veteran officer of tried judgment and experience. During this period their colonel, the earl of Crawfurd, was removed to the life guards, and brigadiergeneral lord Sempill appointed in his room.

During the winter of 1741-2, the regiment was marched to the north, where they remained till the month of March, 1743, when they were assembled at Perth, preparatory to their being marched into England, for the purpose, as was said, of being shown to his majesty, George II. When formed into a regiment, the men had been taught to look upon the affair, so far as regarded them, merely as a change of name and of officers, with the additional benefit of more regular pay and duty, which duty, they believed, was to be as usual nothing more than watching over the internal tranquillity of the country; the order for marching into England, therefore, could not fail to excite among them

• Letters from the North of Scotland, vol. i. p. 24. Sketches of the Character, Manners, and Present State of the Highlands, &c. &c. By Colonel David Stewart, vol. i. pp. 240—243.

+ A senior regiment has been since disbanded, by which they have become the forty-second.

some degree of surprise, and perhaps of suspicion, but this latter feeling was laid asleep by the reason assigned for their journey, viz. to be shown to his majesty--than which nothing could be better calculated to soothe their pride and to flatter their vanity Of course the whole regiment set out upon the march with great good humour, which was heightened as they went along, by the kind reception, and the unbounded hospitality which they experienced both in town and country, on their route through England, more especially in the northern parts of that kingdom. As they approached the metropolis, however, their tempers began to sour, and a variety of circumstances tended to awaken in their minds the most painful misgivings. They arrived in the neighbourhood of London on the twenty ninth and thirtieth days of April, on the last of which days, his majesty, instead of waiting to see them as they had been told was his desire, and to gratify which they had pleasantly undergone this long and fatiguing march, embarked, with the duke of Cumberland, for Hanover. Having never seen a Highland soldier, he had indeed expressed a desire to see one, and, previous to the march of the regiment, three privates had been selected and sent to London for the gratification of his majesty's curiosity, The three were Gregor M Gregor, commonly called Gregor the beautiful; John Campbell, son of Duncan Campbell of Duneaves, Perthshire; and John Grant from Strathspey, of the family of Ballindalloch. The latter fell sick by the way, and died at Aberfeldy, but the two former proceeded to London, and were, by their colonel Sir Robert Munro, presented to the king, and performed, in the great gallery of St. James', the broadsword exercise, and that of the Lochaber axe, to the entire satisfaction of his majesty, the duke of Cumberland, marshal Wade, and a number of general officers assembled on the occasion. The two soldiers, who had thus been exhibited as specimens of their countrymen, received each a gratuity of one guinea, which, to show that they considered themselves to have been thereby insulted, they gave to the porter at the palace gate as they passed out. This transaction could not be a

Both of these men rose afterwards to eminence. Mr. Campbell distinguished bimself by the most signal valour at Fontenoy, was rewarded with an

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