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66 rider was

horror, being covered with heads, legs, and arms, and mutilated bodies;” nor that “the Macgregors did great execution with their scythes.” If, however, they cut the legs of the horses in two," as this writer asserts, it must have been their hinder ones, the riders, as we have seen, having been careful to keep the fore ones out of the way; and if in any

instance a cut through the middle of his body," it must have been by some more than ordinary brutal barbarian, who used his scythe, powerful as it necessarily must have been, fastened upon a pole eight feet in length, in the way of a saw rather than in that of a sword. What the chevalier styles the “ vengeance of the Highlanders,” must be understood only of their natural brutality and savage thirst of blood, for they had nothing as yet to revenge, either upon the army, or upon the government which employed it; and the measure which they now meted out, was, by and by, with merciless accuracy, returned into their own bosoms.

Charles remained on the field of battle, giving orders for the relief of the wounded of both armies, and for the disposal of his prisoners, till the day was well advanced, preserving at least the appearance of moderation and humanity, after which he proceeded to Pinkie house, where he remained all night, and next day returned to the palace of Holyrood. His army lay the night after the battle in Musselburgh and its environs, afterward they came to Edinburgh, and in a few days again took up their camp at Duddingston.*

By the destruction of the king's army at Gladsmuir, Charles was now, with the exception of the castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, Dumbarton, and the small fortresses of the north, in a military point of view, master of the kingdom of Scotland; but he wanted that which constitutes the principal strength and security of every government—the affections of the people. The clans had justified his expectations, and proved themselves more than a match for the forces that had been brought against them; but the more difficult part was before him, and it remained to be seen whether the wisdom of his counsels, and the energy of his measures, were to be equally powerful in allaying those suspicions, and overcoming that

• Scots Magazine for 1745.

mortal aversion with which he was every where received.

One of the most obvious methods of obtaining these ends was to create as little disturbance, and introduce as few changes as possible; and, especially among a people of religious habits, it was of the utmost consequence that the usual routine of religious observances should meet with no interruption. Of this Charles and his advisers seem to have been perfectly aware, and accordingly, on the twenty-first of September, the day the battle of Gladsmuir was fought, being the first Saturday after he obtained possession of Edinburgh, he sent a message to the respective dwellinghouses of all the ministers of the city, desiring them to attend to the public duties of the Sabbath as usual, assuring them that they would meet with no interruption. The ministers, however, reckoned themselves called upon in point of duty to forbear assembling with their people, except they could meet with them in a place beyond the jurisdiction of the rebels, “ that they might give," as one* expressed himself, who thus met with his people in the open fields some miles to the westward of the city, "an open testimony, proof, and document, that they were resolved, through the Lord's grace, to come to no terms with the enemy that had power in the city.” Mr. Hay, morning lecturer in the Tron Church, and Messrs. Macvicar and Pitcairn in the West Kirk, continued their ordinary services without any disturbance, though they prayed for king George, and warmly recommended loyalty.t

On Monday the twenty-third, the victory over the king's troops, and the disappointment from the ministers of Edinburgh, were notified to the public by the following proclamation:-“ Charles, Prince of Wales, &c. to all his majesty's subjects, greeting. Having always had the greatest fatherly love and compassion to all our royal father's subjects, and having with concern reflected on the many and heavy oppressions they have groaned under during this long usurpation, we

The Reverend Adam Gibb. † Scots Magazine for 1745. Mr. Macvicar is reported to have prayed particularly for king George, and to have added, As for this young man that is come amongst us to seek an earthly crown, we beseech Thee in

mercy to take him to thyself, and give him a crown of glory.—Complete History of the Rebellion, by James Ray, p. 45.

were from these motives influenced to undertake the present enterprise, which it has pleased Almighty God to favour, by granting us hitherto a most surprising success.

“ And whereas it has been represented to us by many of our loyal subjects, that many of the inhabitants of our ancient city of Edinburgh intended to testify their joy upon our late victory at Gladsmuir by public rejoicings, usual upon the like occasions, we, reflecting that however glorious the late victory may have been to us, and however beneficial to the nation in general, as the principal means, under God, for the recovery of their liberty, yet in so far as it has been obtained by the effusion of the blood of his majesty's subjects, and has involved many unfortunate people in great calamity, we hereby forbid any outward demonstrations of public joy, admonishing all true friends to their king and country to return thanks to God for his goodness towards them, as we hereby do for ourselves by this public proclamation.

“ And we hereby repeat what we have so often declared, that no interruption shall be given to public worship, but on the contrary, all protection to those concerned in it; and if notwithstanding hereof, any shall be found neglecting their duty in that particular, let the blame lie entirely at their own door, as we are determined to inflict no penalty that may possibly look like persecution. Given at our palace of Holyrood house, the twenty-third day of September, 1745 years, and of his majesty's reign the fifty-fifth year.”

A second proclamation was issued the same day, setting forth that “ Whereas it is highly necessary that all the inhabitants of Edinburgh and liberties thereof, be secured and protected in their persons, goods, and effects, as also, that all the farmers' horses within five miles of Edinburgh be secured and protected to them, and that country people from all quarters pass and repass to Edinburgh without disturbance about their lawful business. We therefore hereby grant protection to the inhabitants of our ancient city of Edinburgh and liberties thereof, to the farmers' horses, and country people from all insults, seizures, injuries, and abuses of our army against them respectively. The farmers, before they are entitled to this protection, always enacting themselves in the secretary's office,

at our palace of Holyrood house, that they shall be ready, on twelve hours' warning, to furnish us with horses for carrying the baggage of our army to Berwick-upon-Tweed, or the like distance, according to their ploughgates. Given,” &c. &c.

A third proclamation followed, addressed to the army, forbidding any member of it to take what he wanted at his own band from the “ good people of Edinburgh,” or horses from the country people, without an order signed by a general officer. This was occasioned by the many depredations committed on the inhabitants by the rebel soldiery, or as the rebels gave it out, by persons who assumed the character for the purposes of pillage and plunder. But the next day, the twenty-fourth, brought forth one still more remarkable :“ Whereas, we are informed that several of our subjects, as well clergy as laity, in our ancient city of Edinburgh and neighbourhood thereof, did associate and take up arms against us, and that many of them fled from their houses lest they had been prosecuted and made examples of as their crimes demerited. And whereas, we have nothing so much at heart as the good of all our subjects, how much soever deluded by the prejudices of education or mistaken interest, and being always disposed, as a true father of our country, to display that mercy and tenderness natural to us, and the distinguishing characteristic of our family. We do therefore in his majesty's name, hereby grant a full pardon to the persons associate as aforesaid, for all treasons, rebellions, and offences whatsoever, committed by them at any time before the publication of these presents, whether against our royal grandfather, of blessed memory, his present majesty, or ourselves, dispensing with the generality hereof, and admitting the same to be as effectual to all intents and purposes as if all their names had been set down. Provided always, that the persons aforesaid present themselves within twenty days after the publication hereof to our trusty and beloved counsellor, John Murray of Broughton, Esq., our secretary, or any one of our council appointed for that purpose at our palace of Holyrood house, or where else we shall be for the - time, with a declaration that they shall live for the future as quiet and peaceable subjects to us and our government, otherwise these presents shall be of no effect to them. Given," &c.

&c. This on the part of Charles, was, to say the least of it, exceedingly ill advised. His own utter heartlessness was not yet generally known, and as he was so bold in asserting mercy and tenderness to be natural to him, had the history of the civil wars, occasioned by the obstinacy and duplicity of Charles I.; the murders, legal and illegal, perpetrated under the debauched, and spiritless Charles II. ; the subverting of the laws and the violent intrusion upon the rights of individuals and of corporations by his "grandfather, of blessed memory," been all annihilated, together with the experience of some men yet living, who had been the victims of his brutal tyranny, Charles might have been believed when he asserted that these qualities were the characteristics of his family. As the heart-rending narrative, however, of all these facts was in every body's hands, and the bitter experience of some of them fresh in many men's memories, the assertion only brought more fully into view the far more perfectly developed characteristics of the family, ignorant presumption and incorrigible conceit, under which the three kingdoms had groaned nearly a century, and from which they had almost by miracle been delivered when they were upon the very brink of ruin. Such was the wisdom that reigned in the council of Charles, which now assembled for the despatch of business at the palace of Holyrood every morning at ten o'clock, and was composed of the two lieutenant generals, the duke of Perth, and lord George Murray, Murray of Broughton, the secretary, the quarter-master general Sullivan, Sir Thomas Sheridan, and all the Highland chiefs. To these were added, upon their arrival at the camp, lord Pitsligo and lord Elcho.*

Previous to the arrival of Charles and the delivery of the city into his hands, the two banks had been removed into the castle, as well as the more valuable articles belonging to the citizens; and on the twenty-fifth another proclamation was issued, narrating the great inconveniences that had ensued from the removal of the banks, inviting them to resume their business at their former stations, promising that they should be free from all contributions to be exacted by him in time coming,

* Home's History of the Rebellion, p. 90.

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