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also published, superscribed James Rex, the one for Scotland, and the other for England, as also “ A Declaration and Admonitory Letter from the Highland army."*

The people were also amused with the arrival at Holyrood of a French grandee, by some styled M. d'Aiguille, by some M. du Boyer, and by others the marquis de Equillez, who was there dignified with the title of ambassador, and brought despatches from the French court. Charles also had a levee every morning of his officers and others who favoured his cause, with the principal of whom he frequently dined, after which he generally rode out with his lifeguards to Duddingstone, where his army was encamped. In the evening he returned to Holyrood house, where he received such ladies as came to his drawing-room, after which he supped in public, and had generally music and a ball afterwards.

Several ships in the mean time arrived on the coast of Scotland with arms, ammunition, &c. &c. Two of these arrived at Montrose, one on the seventh, and the other towards the end of October; and two at Stonehaven, about the middle of that month. To facilitate the transportation of the cargoes of these ships, and to shorten the march of the Highlanders from the north, a passage over the Forth was secured at Alloa, by raising batteries, and planting cannon on each side of the river; but the principal part of their military operations were directed against the castle, which, the moment the town was taken possession of by the rebels, hung out its flag, and adopted all the precautions necessary for standing a siege.

Anxious to detain the rebels from marching into England till the surprise and alarm of the battle of Gladsmuir had had time to subside, general Guest, in order to decoy them into a siege, wrote letters to the secretary of state, acquainting him that the stock of provisions in the castle was small, and that if he did not obtain immediate relief he would be under the necessity of surrendering, and requesting that the troops to relieve him might be sent by Berwick, as the shortest and the quickest conveyance. These letters were intended to fall into the hands of the rebels, but be sent others by sea with an

• Scots Mngazine for 1745.

account of the real state of the garrison, which was well provided, and of the deception which he was practising upon the rebels. *

Encouraged by these statements of scarcity in the garrison, the rebels, on the night of the twenty-ninth of September, took possession of all the avenues leading to the castle, and on the first of October, about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, they began to dig a trench across the street, a little below the reservoir : about three in the afternoon the garrison fired on them with small arms, killed three of the rebels, and wounded their commanding officer, upon which they discontinued their operations. Some great guns were fired upon the house occupied by the rebels, but without doing any particular damage to the town. On the fourth, the garrison, under favour of a great fire from the half moon, made a trench across the Castlehill, half way between the gate and the houses, fourteen feet broad, and sixteen feet deep, and from the parapet made by the earth dug out of the trench on the side next the castle, with the fire of two hundred men of the garrison cleared the street. Upon the fifth, by the help of the town's people, they obtained twenty black cattle, a quantity of bread and ale, and water from the reservoir; about five that evening, a considerable detachment of the rebels marched up to the castlehill, to attack the party of the garrison in the trench, who retired into the castle upon their approach, without losing a man. The rebels, attempting to creep up the south side of the hill, had twenty men killed by the cannon from the castle. Charles having upon the second of October, published an order for preventing all communication between the castle and the town, upon pain of death, and great numbers of the rebels having for that purpose been placed in the houses near the castle, general Guest was obliged not only to fire upon them, but to march out and burn these houses to the ground. Thereupon an order for restoring the communication was posted up at the several gates of the town, after which the garrison was plentifully supplied with every thing they stood in need of. Such is the account of this siege given in the London Gazette, which, as it was altogether uninteresting, and

* Home's History of the Rebellion.

had little influence upon the conduct of the enterprise in general, we have given as the shortest.

During this contest with the castle, very few people in Edinburgh or its neighbourhood joined the rebels; but there were several bodies of men came up from the Low Country of the north. Of these, the first that arrived was lord Ogilvy, eldest son of the earl of Airly, and with him a regiment of six hundred men. Most of the officers were of his own family and name. The next was Gordon of Glenbucket, and with him four hundred men, officered in like manner principally by his relations. A few days after arrived lord Pitsligo, attended by a great many gentlemen from the counties of Aberdeen and Banff, who, with their servants well armed and mounted, formed a body of cavalry, that served under his command. He also brought with him six companies of infantry, which were called Pitsligo's foot. Lord Pitsligo had but a moderate fortune, but he had among his neighbours the character of a wise and prudent politician, and they accordingly put themselves under his command, supposing they could not follow a safer guide. Others were still expected from the north, but after waiting till the end of October, Charles began to have little hope of the Macdonalds and the Macleods of Skye, whom he found, says one of his officers, to be “ artfully detained by their great director, Mr. Duncan Forbes of Culloden.”* Lord Lovat's Frasers also being very tardy, he resolved to lose no more time, but to march directly into England, where he entertained great hopes of an insurrection of the people, and of an invasion from France. Orders were accordingly issued in the end of October, to call in all their parties, to collect their whole force, and to be ready for the march at a moment's notice.

Lord Strathallan was appointed to the chief command in Scotland, so soon as Charles should enter England, and he was directed to remain at Perth with some gentlemen in that neighbourhood who had joined the rebel standard, and, with a few French and Irish officers and their men, to receive the succours that were expected from France, from the Highlands, and from the Low Country of the north, where many people

* Culloden Papers, vol. ü. p. 493.

were known to be well-affected to the cause, and were already in considerable numbers beginning to take arms.

To hearten the chiefs, many of whom were utterly averse to enter England, Charles pretended to have letters from several English lords, assuring bim that he should find them in arms on his arrival, ready to join him with a considerable force, and on the last day of October, with his guards, and some of the clan regiments, he left Edinburgh, and took up his quarters at Pinkie. Next day he proceeded to Dalkeith house, where he was joined by the clan Macpherson, under Clunie their chief, by Menzies of Shien and some other Highlanders, amounting to nearly one thousand men.* This was the last re-enforcement that arrived before the march into England, but the army was made to believe that Macdonald and Macleod of Skye, Fraser of Lovat, &c. were upon the road, and would join them on the border with several thousands of their people.

Memoirs of the Rebellion, by the Chevalier de Johnstone, p. 53,

THE

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.

Book X.

1745–1746.

Charles marches for England Preparations made there for his reception-Meeting

of parliament- General Wade is sent down towards the Scotish border-Charles reaches Kelso Despatches a messenger before him with a proclamation-Enters England at Longtown-Summons Carlisle Carlisle surrenders, and James is there proclaimed king-Inactivity of the rebels, and dissensions among their leaders Proceed at length to Penrith--To Kendal-To Lancaster-To Preston, To Wigan -To Manchester-To Macclesfield To Derby-Difficulty of their situation- The chiefs resoloe to return to Scotland-Fall back on Ashbourn-Leck-Macclesfield Manchester-Wigan--Preston-KendalShap-Penrith Skirmish at CliftonRebels reach Carlisle and re-enter Scotland-Carlisle is besieged and taken by the duke of Cumberland-Distraction of the government by false alarms, &c. &c.-King's birthday at Perth-General Bluckney attacks the rebels attempting to reach the Pretender from the north-Glengyle attacked in Argyleshire-Public functionaries return to Edinburgh-Preparations made for the safety of that city-Preparations at Glasgow, 8c.-Exertions of the rebels in the north-Loss of the Foz man of warArrival of Lord John Drummond with troops from France Munro of Culcairn and Macleod of Skye surprised by Lord Lewis Gordon-Accumulation of rebels at Perth-Begin to fortify themselves there-Charles continues his route north--Assesses the town of Dumfries-Arrives at Glasgow, which he threatens to burn-Levies a heary assessment on that cityThe city of Edinburgh prepares for a siege - General Hauley comes to their assistance-Charles leaves Glasgow-Lodges at Shawfield-Reaches Bannockburn-Skirmish at Alloa, &c.—Stirling Castle besieged-Hawley marches toward Falkirk-Battle of Filkirk-Singular incidents in the rebel army-Duke of Cumberland ordered for Scotland-Arrives at Holyrood house-Proceeds in quest of the rebels towards Linlithgow-Charles raises the siege of Stirling-Blows up the church of St. Ninians, and retreats towards Inverness, fc. fc.

CHARLES having completed his arrangements, marched his army for England in three divisions, with the last of which he himself left Dalkeith on the third of November, taking the route for Kelso. The other two divisions marched, the one by Peebles and Moffat, the other by Lauder, Selkirk, and Hawick. The three divisions did not in all amount to full six thousand men. The foot were about five thousand, of which four thou-,

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