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and committed for next day, when, upon report of the committee, it was engrossed, read a third time, and passed. On the nineteenth it went through the house of lords, and on the twenty-first received the royal assent. This bill also suspended the act for preventing wrongous imprisonment in Scotland, and by it the horses of suspected persons might be seized as well as themselves; the owners to be charged five shillings a week for keeping every horse so seized. A number of suspected persons were immediately apprehended, among whom was one Gordon, a Scotishman, and a Romish priest, by whose papers it appeared that many thousand pounds had through his hands been transmitted to the rebels.* Several Irish papists were also committed to prison, and all of that persuasion lay under strong suspicions of being at least secretly wellwishers to the cause.

On the sixth of November, in consequence of a message from the lords desiring a conference with them, the commons waited for that purpose in the painted chamber, when the papers published and dispersed over the country by the son of the pretender, were taken into consideration, and next day both houses resolved: -" That the two printed papers, respectively signed James R. and dated at Rome, December twenty-third, 1743; and the four printed papers, signed Charles P. R. dated respectively May sixteenth, August twenty-second, and October ninth and tenth, 1745, are false, scandalous, and treasonable libels, intended to poison the minds of his majesty's subjects--contain the most malicious, audacious, and wicked enticements to them to commit the most abominable treasons-groundless and infamous calumnies and indignities against the government, crown, and sacred person of his most excellent majesty George II. our only rightful and undoubted sovereign-and seditious and presumptuous declarations against the constitution of this united kingdom-representing the high court of parliament, now legally assembled by his majesty's authority, as an unlawful assembly, and all the acts of parliament passed since the happy revolution as null and void : and that the said printed papers are full of the utmost arrogance

and insolent affronts to the honour of the British nation, in supposing that his majesty's subjects are capable of

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being imposed upon, seduced, or terrified by false and opprobrious invectives, insidious promises, or vain and impotent menaces; or of being deluded to exchange the free enjoyment of their rights and liberties, as well civil as religious, under the well established government of a protestant prince, for popery and slavery under a bigoted popish pretender, long since excluded by the wisest laws made to secure our excellent constitution, and abjured by the most solemn oaths.

“2. That in abhorrence and detestation of such vile and treasonable practices, the said several printed papers be burned by the hands of the common hangman, at the royal exchange in London, on Tuesday the twelfth of this instant November, at one of the clock in the afternoon, and that the sheriffs of London do then attend, and cause the same to be burned there accordingly.” Agreeably to these resolutions, the papers were burned amidst the acclamations of an immense concourse of people.*

In the meantime, troops to the number of nine thousand men, under the command of field marshal Wade, were upon their march towards Scotland ;t the train-bands of the city of London, six regiments, were doing duty by turns, day and night, to preserve the public peace; the gates were shut every night at ten, and not opened till six o'clock in the morning. No person was allowed to pass or repass, but such as could give satisfactory accounts of themselves, the gates, as well as all the approaches to the city without the walls, being guarded by piquets of armed men, patrols of which also occupied the streets during the night.

On the twenty-fifth of October, four troops of Sir John Ligonier's regiment of horse, Bland's dragoons, a detachment of the guards, St. Clair's battalion of foot, lieutenant-general Harrison's, general Huske's and Beauclerk's regiments of foot arrived in the Thames; and on the twenty-eighth, the six regiments of train-bands of the city of London, passed in review before his majesty, who, attended by his royal highness the duke of Cumberland, and a great number of the nobility, viewed them

* Scots and London Magazines for 1745. , † Culloden Papers, p. 227.

for three hours from the terrace of the royal gardens at St. James'. The thirtieth being his majesty's birth-day, was observed in all the cities, towns, and corporations, but particularly in the cities of London and Westminster, with more than ordinary demonstrations of loyalty, and with every symptom of contempt and abhorrence of the pretender, popery, and arbitrary power.*

Charles meanwhile having reached Kelso on the fourth of November, sent an order to Wooler to provide quarters and provisions for four thousand foot, and one thousand horse. This was probably done with the view of alarming general Wade, who was at Newcastle with an army nearly twice the number of the rebels, and who, had he known exactly the route by which they intended to enter England, might have succeeded in materially impeding their progress. His army, however, from the fatigue of the march, and the inclemency of the weather, was sickly, and from the circumstance of its supplying the city of London with coal, it was necessary, if possible, to kcep Newcastle out of the hands of the insurgents; he therefore made no movement for the protection or the assistance of any other quarter. General Wade was no doubt also induced to be more wary of Newcastle from the circumstance of an agent of the pretender having been apprehended there, who had left Edinburgh only the day after the battle at Gladsmuir. This agent was an innkeeper at Perth, but zealous for Charles, had left the care of his inn to others, expecting, like the most of Charles' followers, to reap a more ample fortune in the richly cultivated plains of the south. His instructions, found upon him after he had attempted to cut his throat, were under the hand of Charles as follows:-“ You are hereby authorized and directed to repair forthwith to England, and there notify to my friends, and particularly those in the north and north-west, the wonderful success with which it has hitherto pleased God to favour my endeavours for their deliverance. You are to let them know, that it is my full intention in a few days to move towards them, and that they will be inexcusable before God and man if they do not do all in their power to assist and sup

* Culloden Papers, p. 227.

port me in such an undertaking. What I demand and expect is, that as many of them as can should be ready to join me, and that they should take care to provide provisions and money, that the country may suffer as little as possible by the march of my troops. Let them know that there is no more time for deliberation. Now or never is the word. “I am resolved to conquer or perish. If this last should happen, let them judge what they and their posterity have to expect, C. P. R."* Whatever might have been originally his intention, instead of proceeding by Wooler, on the road to Newcastle, Charles crossed the Tweed, and taking the road by Jedburgh, Hawick, Hagiehaugh, Longholm, and Cannoby, came to Longtown, the place of rendezvous on the English side of the border, on the eighth, where they were joined by the horse that went along with the duke of Perth. “When they entered England they drew their swords and huzzaed, but in drawing them Lochiel cut his hand, which was looked on as a bad omen.”+ On the ninth they united their whole force, and marched towards Rowcliff, when they crossed the Eden within four miles of Carlisle, and proceeded to Burghside, where they lay that night about four miles south of that city. It had been carefully concealed from the troops where they were to march; “and we were all,” says the chevalier de Johnstone,“ very much surprised on finding ourselves all arrive almost at the same instant on a heath in England, about a quarter of a league from Carlisle. From the same authority we learn, that “the march was executed with so much precision, that there was not an interval of two hours between the arrival of the different columns at the place of rendezvous.”+ Many of the Highlanders, however, deserted on the march, particularly at Kelso, and many stragglers with their arms were taken up by the country people, and sent in to the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling, or to the commanders of his majesty's ships upon the coast.

On the same day, the ninth, about fifty or sixty of the Highlanders on horseback, supposed to be officers, appeared on Stanwix bank, a hill close to Carlisle, where they were fired upon

Culloden Papers, p. 226. + Culloden Papers, vol. ii. p.

455. # Memoirs of the Rebellion, by the Chevalier de Johnstone, p. 56. ♡ Scots Magazine for 1745.

from the castle, upon which they retreated. In the afternoon they sent in a message to the mayor to provide billets for thirteen thousand men, and at night they paraded round the city, so as to make their numbers appear as formidable as possible; and they had either been very dexterous in the disposal of their troops, or the fears of the inhabitants must have been great, for they estimated them at nine thousand men, nearly one half more than their real number. Next day, after having marched partly round the town, apparently to reconnoitre it, a message was sent into the mayor in writing, dated November tenth, at two in the afternoon, and subscribed Charles P. R. to the following effect :-“ Being come to recover the king our father's just rights, for which we are arrived with all his authority, we are sorry to find that you should prepare to obstruct our passage. We therefore, to avoid the effusion of English blood, hereby require you to open your gates, and let us enter, as we desire, in a peaceable manner; which if you do, we shall take care to preserve you from any insult, and set an example to all England of the exactness with which we intend to fulfil the king our father's declarations, and our own. But if you shall refuse us entrance, we are fully resolved to force it by such means as providence has put into our hands, and then it will not, perhaps, be in our power to prevent the dreadful consequences which usually attend a town's being taken by assault. Consider seriously of this, and let me have your answer within the space of two hours, for we shall take any further delay as a peremptory refusal, and take our measures accordingly.” To this no answer was returned but by a fire from the garrison, which was continued till near midnight.

Having heard a report that general Wade was on his march from Newcastle, to raise the siege of Carlisle, and that he hair already advanced as far as Hexham, Charles left the duke of Perth to conduct the siege, and marched to Brampton, where he waited from the eleventh to the thirteenth, when learning that Wade was still at Newcastle, he returned to Carlisle, and the siege was commenced in form. On the fifteenth it surrendered, the rebels having threatened to reduce it to ashes by red hot shot-at the same time, they had never discharged a

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