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single cannon, fearing the garrison might learn the smallness of their calibre, which was such as could have made little impression upon walls, even though they were of no great strength, and thence have taken courage to defend themselves with resolution.*

The surrender of Carlisle has been palliated by the most of those who have written upon the subject, in a manner that shows a much higher respect to what they seem to have supposed the honour of England, than to simple truth. The place certainly was not competent to have stood a long siege skil. fully conducted, but the rebels were neither skilful in conducting sieges, nor had they the means for carrying them on with any thing like effect; and had the garrison, which consisted of two companies of invalids, assisted by the whole militia of Cumberland and Westmoreland, with a number of the gentlemen of the neighbourhood, amounting to sixteen or eighteen hundred men, been possessed of common understanding and common courage, the rebels might have been detained before the place till they had been encompassed with a force six times their number; but the plain fact seems to be, that Mr. Pattison, the mayor, was either a craven or a Jacobite, perhaps part of both, and when che lord provost of Edinburgh was shortly after this committed to the Tower of London, but for the exercise of a most shameful partiality, the mayor of Carlisle would most certainly have been sent to keep him company.

The duke of Perth, who had conducted the siege, entered Carlisle upon the capitulation being signed. He took an oath of the garrison not to serve again against Charles, and shaking the men by the hands, told them they were brave fellows, and offered them money to enlist with him. Here the rebels obtained upwards of two hundred good horses, all the arms belonging to the militia, besides a thousand stand lodged in the castle, with all the most valuable of the effects belonging to the people in the country around, who had sent them there as a place of safety. Several of the militia attempted to escape without taking the oath, as also some of Cope's men, who had

* Memoirs of the Rebellion by the Chevalier de Johnston, p. 58.

enlisted with the rebels and afterwards deserted, one of whom they threatened to shoot, as an example to deter others from practising the like deception.

Next day, Saturday the sixteenth, they proclaimed the pretender, and read his and his son's manifestoes, attended by the mayor and magistrates, having the sword and mace carried before them. At the same time general Wade, after holding a council of war, was marching from Newcastle for the relief of Carlisle, and on the seventeenth had got as far as Hexham, about a third part of the way, where, hearing that it was in the hands of the rebels, he returned to Newcastle.*

After having thus easily made themselves masters of Carlisle, the rebels lingered in inactivity several days, the men, as one has expressed it, employing themselves “ taking up muttons, turkies, and geese," and the officers in bitter dissensions and fruitless debates upon the desperate enterprise in which they were engaged. Upon reviewing their army it was declared by M. Patullo, their muster master, not to exceed four thousand five hundred men, a force justly considered by the chiefs as altogether inadequate for penetrating farther into England with any prospect of success. It was therefore again strongly urged upon Charles as the only reasonable course he could pursue, seeing bis English friends who were to have welcomed him on the border bad disappointed him, to return to Scotland, take up his residence in the capital of that kingdom, and carry on a defensive war till such time as circumstances should enable him to turn it into an offensive one. England, however, was the all in all of Charles' ambition; and finding no other argument of any weight with the chiefs, he as sured them he had fresh letters from his friends there, that he would find them all in arms on his arrival at Preston. By these assurances, and the obstinacy of his temper, he at last gained a victory over the better judgment of his followers, and they declared, small as their numbers were, if he chose to make the experiment and march forward, they would follow him.

Paucity of numbers, it is to be noticed, was not the only dis. couraging circumstance Charles had to contend with. The • Ray's Complete History of the Rebellion, p. 103,

+ Memoirs of the Rebellion by the Chevalier de Johnstone, pp. 60, 61. Ilome's Ilistory of the Rebellion, p. 103.

chieftains, equal in power and equal in ambition, had already become jealous of one another. The conducting of the siege of Carlisle bad been intrusted to the duke of Perth, while the covering of that siege was intrusted to lord George Murray, who went into the trench the night before the place surrendered, and after seeing how all was conducted, desired the duke of Perth to communicate with him, in case of any thing particular happening. The duke of Perth, however, sent direct to Charles at Brampton, and took no notice of lord George Murray, though he was the senior officer, and sent there purposely to cover the siege and be assisting to it. Considering that he had a right to be consulted, lord George entered a complaint, to which he received no answer, upon which he wrote to Charles,

ting that he had been ill used, and requesting that, if he was in the least suspected, his command might be taken off his hand, and he would serve as a volunteer though it were to the last drop of his blood. The duke of Perth too being a Roman catholic, the protestant part of the army murmured at his exaltation to the supreme command. Informed of this state of feeling among his followers, the duke of Perth resigned his commission of lieutenant general into the hands of Charles, assuring him that he would serve at the head of the regiment which he himself had raised. Lord George of course resumed his commission, and commanded henceforth as the only lieutenant general.*

On their march to Carlisle a detachment of the rebels was surprised at Lockerby by a party consisting principally of seceders from Dumfries, who carried off to that place upwards of thirty carts of baggage, to recover which, on the surrender of Carlisle, Lochiel was despatched with a party of Highlanders, but before they reached their destination they were recalled to join the army, now resolved to push its way to the south. The cavalry accordingly, on the twentieth, proceeded to Penrith, a distance of eighteen miles, and on the twenty-first, leaving a garrison of from two to three hundred men in Carlisle, Charles with the infantry followed and took up their quarters at the same place,

• Lockhart Papers, vol. ii. pp. 456, 457. lion, p. 103.

Home's History of the Rebel

lord Elcho, with the cavalry, which he commanded, as first captain of the lifeguards, having gone on to Shap, a village a few miles to the south of Penrith. On the twenty-second the cavalry advanced to Kendal, where they were joined by the infantry on the twenty-third. On the twenty-fourth the cavalry passed the night at Lancaster, and, on the twenty-fifth proceeded to Preston, where the infantry arrived on the twenty-sixth. Here they found just as little appearance of an army to assist them as at Carlisle. Charles, however, called together the chiefs of the clans, and giving them fresh hopes of being joined by his partisans at Manchester, persuaded them to march forward. On the twenty-eighth they passed the night at Wigan, and arrived at Manchester on the twenty-ninth, where they remained till the thirty-first. This delay at Manchester was in order to give time for their friends, of whom they had heard so much, to come forward. When these friends did come forward what must have been the disappointment of the rebel chieftains to find, that instead of an army calculated to give them influence in the cabinet and superiority in the field, they scarcely amounted to three hundred, of the very basest of the people, the principal man among them, under whom as colonel they were assorted into a regiment, being a gentleman of no great note, a Francis Townley, who had been formerly in the service of France, and was a Roman catholic.* Here, however, the bells were rung for

# The following will give the reader a better idea of these gentlemen than any abstract that could be made of it. It is from the pen of the Chevalier de Johnstone, and may be taken as one of his most characteristic passages : " One of my scrjeants, named Dickson, whom I had enlisted from among the prisoners of war at Gladsmuir, a young Scotsman, as brave and intrepid as a tion, and very much attached to my interest, informed me on the 27th at Preston, that he had been beating up for recruits all day without getting one; and that he was the more chagrined at this, as the other serjeants had better success. He therefore came to ask my permission to get a day's march ahead of the army, by setting out immediately for Manchester, a very considerable town of England, containing 40,000 inhabitants, in order to make sure of some recruits before the arrival of the army. I reproved him sharply for entertaining so wild and extravagant a project, which exposed him to the danger of being taken and hanged, and I ordered him back to his company. Having much confidence in him, I had given him a horse, and intrusted him with my portmantcau, that I might always have it with me. On entering my

them and the town illuminated, a great deal of money collected, and they had abundance of good cheer.

quarters in the evening, my landlady informed me that my servant had called and taken away my portmanteau and blunderbuss. I immediately bethought myself of his extravagant project, and his situation gave me much uneasiness. But on our arrival at Manchester, in the evening of the following day, the 29th, Dickson brought me about one hundred and eighty recruits, whom hc had enlisted for my company.

“ He had quitted Preston in the evening, with his mistress and my drunimer; and having marched all night he arrived next morning at Manchester, which is about twenty miles distant from Preston, and immediately began to beat up for recruits for the yellow hair’d laddie.'. The populace at first did not interrupt him, conceiving our army to be near the town; but as soon as they knew it would not arrive till the evening, they surrounded him in a tumultuous manner, with the intention of taking him prisoner alive or dead. Dickson presented his blunderbuss, which was charged with slugs, threatening to blow out the brains of those who first dared to lay hands on himself or the two who accompanied him; and by turning round continually facing in all directions, and behaving like a lion, he soon enlarged the circle, which a crowd of people had formed round them. Having continued for some time to manœuvre in this way, those of the inhabitants of Manchester who were attached to the house of Stuart, took arms, and flew to the assistance of Dickson, to rescue him from the fury of the mob; so that he soon had five for six hundred men to aid him, who dispersed the crowd in a very short time. Dickson now triumphed in his turn; and putting himself at the head of his followers, he proudly paraded undisturbed the whole day, with his drummer, enlisting for my company all who offered themselves.

“ On presenting me with a list of one hundred and eighty recruits, I was agreeably surprised to find, that the whole amount of his expenses did not exceed three guineas. This adventure of Dickson gave rise to many a joke, at the expense of the town of Manchester, from the singular circumstance of its having been taken by a serjeant, a drummer, and a girl. The circumstance may serve to show the enthusiastic courage of our army, and the alarm and terror with which the English were scized.

“ I did not derive any advantage from these recruits, to the great regret of Dickson. Mr. Townley, formerly an officer in the service of France, who had joined us some days before, obtained the rank of colonel, with permission to raise a regiment entirely composed of English ; and the Prince ordered me to deliver over to him all those whoin Dickson had enlisted for me. It was called the Manchester regiment, and never exceeded three hundred men, of whom the recruits furnished by my serjeant formed more than the half. These were all the English who ever declared themselves openly in favour of the Prince; and the chiefs of the clans were not far wrong, therefore, in distrusting the pretended succours, on which the Prince so implicitly relied."--Memoirs of the Rebellion, pp. 63---66.

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