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“On the first of December Charles proceeded to Macclesfield, and lord George Murray to Congleton, where on the second he sent out Kerr of Gradon towards New.castle under Lyne, from which he was distant only nine miles, to reconnoitre the king's army, the advanced guard of which was at that place. At Talkerhill, not far from the duke's army, Kerr came unexpectedly upon captain Weir, belonging to that army, and carried him, off prisoner. From Congleton. lord George Murray turned aside by Leck to Ashburn. Charles lay that night at Leck, and on the fourth both divisions arrived at Derby, after a long march, very much fatigued. | The rebels were now only one hundred and twenty-seven miles from London, and by turning off at Congleton, by the way of Derby, they had got between the duke of Cumberland's army and that city. Their situation, however, was becoming critical in the extreme. They had succeeded to admiration in concealing their numbers during the whole course of their march, always demanding billets for twice or three times their real numbers; and as they issued the billets themselves, and generally entered and left the towns in which they slept, in different bodies, and under cloud of night, the deception was the less liable to be discovered; but their real strength could not fail now to be very soon made manifest. They had evaded the duke of Cumberland, but there was another army before them which they could not expect to evade, while the duke of Cumberland would be in their rear, and could not be more than a day's march behind them. General Wade was also now hasting after them, so that they could reasonably lay their account with nothing less than fighting three armies, each of them, both in number and equipment, greatly superior to their own; and even supposing they should have been so fortunate as to have escaped all these armies, and to have reached and entered London, their numbers were altogether inadequate for keeping any thing like permanent possession of such an extensive and populous city. Many of the infatuated persons who bad committed themselves in this unhappy adventure, seem to have had clear enough views of the danger upon which they were rushing; but they had already advanced so far that retreat seemed hopeless, and they had continụed to march forward

under the influence of despair, trusting for deliverance to some unexpected or unforeseen accident, or determined to sell their lives as dear as possible. Here, however, they seem to have considered, lay their last chance for retreating. Their encoura agement to proceed had been less and less as they came along. Their friends, if they had any, kept no correspondence with them, and everywhere the people of the country had manifested the bitterest hostility.* From London they had no intelligence

* The following out of many more of the same kind that might be produced, will give the reader some idea of the kindly feeling of the good people of England in general towards them :-“ About six o'clock on Wednesday evening, were quartered on me, six officers (one a major, as they styled him,) and forty private men, with eight pricked up shabby horses, some without saddles or bridles, others with halters and pieces of bridles, and ropes about their heads and necks, and poor saddles, or a sort of padds stuffed with straw upon them. Most of the men after their entrance into my house, looked like so many fiends turned out of hell to ravage the kingdom and cut throats; and under their plaids nothing but various sorts of butchering wea. pons were to be seen; the sight at first must be thought very shocking and terrible. But these wretches being fatigued with their long march from Leck that day, soon after they came into my house, stuffed themselves well with bread, cheese, and ale, and then about twenty of them before a great fire in my hall, ordered by them, called for a large quantity of straw, and nestled into it for repose; and the remainder of them did the like in a large laundry-room belonging to my house, before two great fires likewise ordered to be made there. The officers took possession of my parlour and the chambers they liked best, commanded what supper and liquor they would have, and expected me, my wife, and whole family to wait on them, as if they had been so many petty princes; yet one of the officers was tolerably civil and communicative, and redressed some complaints made about the ill behaviour of his men. My hall (after these vagabond creatures began to be warm, by such numbers under the straw, and a great fire near them,) stunk so of their itch, and other nastinesses about them, as if they had been so many persons in a condemned hole, and 'twill be very happy if they've left no contagion behind them. The next day the officers and their men grew more bold, and ordered in a haughty tone what meat and drink they would have at their meals, and if you was not at an instant ready to administer what they called for, some of them would surround you with fierce and savage looks, as if they had been so many mutes, appointed to strangle, or some other way assassin you. To Friday morning they ate me up near a side of beef, eight joints of mutton, four checses, with abundance of white and brown bread, (particularly white) three couple of fowls, and would have drams continually, as well as strong ale, beer, tea, &c. But really what did afford me some matter for unavoidable laughter, (though iny family in this miserable situation,) was, to sce those

further than that tbirty thousand men were assembled on Finchley Common to dispute their entry into it. They had certain information that the moment they passed Swarkston bridge it would be broken down behind them, and upon the most mature deliberation & retreat appeared to every man, among the chiefs, Charles alone excepted, the only expedient they could adopt. The necessity of this measure seemed to all of them indisputable, and its expediency seemed also confirmed by the arrival of a despatch from lord John Drummond, who bad landed at Montrose with his regiment of royal Scots, newly raised in France, and some piquets of the Irish brigade, amounting, with the Highlanders whom he found already embodied on his arrival, to upwards of three thousand men. The remainder of the Irish brigade, lord John Drummond informed Charles, had embarked before he left France, and with several French regiments would most certainly be landed in Scotland by the time he could be in possession of the despatch.*

While the chiefs were occupied in these embarrassing deliberations, the men in general were employed in the usual manner. They proclaimed the pretender, uplifted the public money, and all the subscriptions of individuals for raising troops for the government, which in Derby amounted altogether to

desperadoes, from officers to common men, at their several meals, first pul off their bonnets, and then lift up their eyes in a most solemn manner, and mutter something to themselves, by way of saying grace, as if they had been 80 many pure, primitive Christians.

Their dialect (from the idea I had of it) seemed to me as if an herd of Hottentots, with monkies in a desart, or vagrant gypsies, had been jabbering, screaming, and howling together; and really this jargon of speech was very properly suited to such a set of banditti.

I cannot omit taking notice of the generous present they made me at parting on Friday morning, for the trouble and expense I was at, and the dangers undergone, (though by the bye I wished for no other compensation than the escape of my family with their lives, and of my house being plundered,) which was, a regiment of lice, several loads of their filthy excrements, and other ejections of different colours, scattered before my door in the garden, and elsewhere about my house."- Marchant's History of the Rebellion, pp. 212-214.

* Lockhart Papers, vol. ii. pp. 458, 459. Memoirs of the Rebellion by the Chevalier de Johnstone, P. 69.

under the influence of despair, trusting for deliverance to some unexpected or unforeseen accident, or determined to sell their lives as dear as possible. Here, however, they seem to have considered, lay their last chance for retreating. Their encoura agement to proceed had been less and less as they came along. Their friends, if they had any, kept no correspondence with them, and everywhere the people of the country had manifested the bitterest hostility.* From London they had no intelligence

• The following out of many more of the same kind that might be produced, will give the reader some idea of the kindly feeling of the good people of England in general towards them :-“ About six o'clock on Wednesday evening, were quartered on me, six officers (one a major, as they styled him,) and forty private men, with eight pricked up shabby horses, some without saddles or bridles, others with halters and pieces of bridles, and ropes about their heads and necks, and poor saddles, or a sort of padds stuffed with straw upon them. Most of the men after their entrance into my house, looked like so many fiends turned out of hell to ravage the kingdom and cut throats; and under their plaids nothing but various sorts of butchering wcapons were to be seen; the sight at first must be thought very shocking and terrible. But these wretches being fatigued with their long march from Leck that day, soon after they came into my house, stuffed themselves well with bread, cheese, and ale, and then about twenty of them before a great fire in my hall, ordered by them, called for a large quantity of straw, and nestled into it for repose; and the remainder of them did the like in a large laundry-room belonging to my house, before two great fires likewise ordered to be made there. The officers took possession of my parlour and the chambers they liked best, commanded what supper and liquor they would have, and expected me, my wife, and whole family to wait on them, as if they had been so many petty princes; yet one of the officers was tolerably civil and communicative, and redressed some complaints made about the ill behaviour of his men. My hall (after these vagabond creatures began to be warm, by such numbers under the straw, and a great fire near them,) stunk so of their itch, and other nastinesses about them, as if they had been so many persons in a condemned hole, and 'twill be very happy if they've left no contagion behind them. The next day the officers and their men grew more bold, and ordered in a haughty tone what meat and drink they would have at their meals, and if you was not at an instant ready to administer what they called for, some of them would surround you with fierce and savage looks, as if they had been so many mutes, appointed to strangle, or some other way assassin you. To Friday morning they ate me up near a side of beef, eight joints of mutton, four cheeses, with abundance of white and brown bread, (particularly white,) three couple of fowls, and would have drams continually, as well as strong ale, beer, tea, &c. But really what did afford me some matter for unavoidable langhter, (though my family in this miserable situation,) was, to see those

further than that tbirty thousand men were assembled on Finchley Common to dispute their entry into it. They had certain information that the moment they passed Swarkston bridge it would be broken down behind them, and upon the most mature deliberation à retreat appeared to every man among the chiefs, Charles alone excepted, the only expedient they could adopt. The necessity of this measure seemed to all of them indisputable, and its expediency seemed also confirmed by the arrival of a despatch from lord John Drummond, who bad landed at Montrose with his regiment of royal Scots, newly raised in France, and some piquets of the Irish brigade, amounting, with the Highlanders whom he found already embodied on his arrival, to upwards of three thousand men. The remainder of the Irish brigade, lord John Drummond informed Charles, had embarked before he left France, and with several French regiments would most certainly be landed in Scotland by the time he could be in possession of the despatch.*

While the chiefs were occupied in these embarrassing deliberations, the men in general were employed in the usual manner. They proclaimed the pretender, uplifted the public money, and all the subscriptions of individuals for raising troops for the government, which in Derby amounted altogether to

desperadoes, from officers to common men, at their several meals, first pull off their bonnets, and then lift up their eyes in a most solemn manner, and mutter something to themselves, by way of saying grace, as if they had been so many pure, primitive Christians.

Their dialect (from the idea I had of it) seemed to me as if an herd of Hottentots, with monkies in a desart, or vagrant gypsies, had been jabbering, screaming, and howling together; and really this jargon of speech was very properly suited to such a set of banditti.

I cannot omit taking notice of the generous present they made me at parting on Friday morning, for the trouble and expense I was at, and the dangers undergone, (though by the bye I wished for no other compensation than the escape of my family with their lives, and of my house being plundered,) which was, a regiment of lice, several loads of their filthy excrements, and other ejections of different colours, scattered before my door in the garden, and elsewhere about my house."- Marchant's History of the Rebellion, pp. 212-214.

* Lockhart Papers, vol. č. pp. 458, 459. Memoirs of the Rebellion by the Chevalier de Johnstone, P. 69.

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