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which was discovered there. Together with Dr. Carter, Health Officer, I visited the case in question and found it to be an undoubted case of sever smallpox. The patient was a man, 45 years old, who had not been away from home, and that was the reason why the attending physician doubted the marked case to be smallpox.
From Plainfield I proceeded to Cartersburg to inspect typhoid conditions at that place. I found there two cases of typhoid, both women and mothers of families. The conditions around their residences were plainly those which produced typhoid. Directions were given for the removal of these typhoid conditions, typhoid circulars were left for the education of the people, and a general talk upon the subject was given to a group of citizens.
Cataract, June 15th.—On account of a former order of the board I visited Cataract, Owen County, in order to inspect the dam at Devore, of which complaint had been made to this board. I was accompanied by Mr. Marshal 0. Leighton, Chief of the Hydro-Economic Division of the U. S. Geological Bureau. Upon · arrival at Devore we found the dam in question was across a stream which is called Millcreek Branch of Eel River. This dam has heretofore been thoroughly and accurately described, and this is therefore not required again. I will say, after considering all of the complaints and making a survey of the dam and its surroundings, that this dam is no more productive of ill health than the one at Broad Ripple, near Indianapolis, or any other dam with which I am acquainted. It undoubtedly causes stagnant water, as do other dams, and bad odors are frequently evolved. An abundance of vegetation grows upon the water in summer and the conditions for the generation of mosquitoes exist in perfection. I think before any action is taken by this board in regard to this matter that all of the documents and information we have gathered should be submitted to the Attorney-General and his advice requested.
Alexandria, Marion and Bluffton, June 22d.—On this day I visited Alexandria, Marion and Bluffton, upon invitation of the State Fish Commissioner, who wished the advice of the State Board of Health in regard to stream pollution at the points named. At Alexandria there is a small creek into which the American Plate Glass Company discharged its surplus sand and into which
all of the sewage of the great works is conducted. So far as the sand is concerned, no unsanitary conditions are produced, but the stream is filled up, made shallow and therefore destroys it for fishproducing purposes. The stream is certainly too small to carry such a volume of sewage in the summer time, but there is no complaint, because after receiving the sewage the stream passes through an uninhabited country. There is no cause for action by the State Board of Health.
At Marion, a creek running through the city, called Boots Creek, was found to carry upon its surface a great deal of crude oil, and then emptied within the corporation of Marion into the Mississinewa River. This coal oil and also salt water comes from the oil wells which reach for a distance of several miles up the creek. No unsanitary condition is produced, but the fish are undoubtedly killed. It was recorded that mosquitoes were plentiful in the neighborhood of this creek, but since this pollution by oil has been practiced all mosquitoes have disappeared. The creek is not used for watering stock nor for water supply. There is nothing in these conditions to call for action by the State Board of Health.
Near Bluffton there is situated a nitro-glycerine works which discharges refuse into a small creek. This refuse consists of "spent acids." These are sulphuric and nitric acids which have been used for nitrifying cellulose. After they have done their work the excess is washed from the mills and discharged into the creek. These acids destroy the vegetation along the creek, also all fish life, but, as the waters of the creek are not used for stock purposes nor for public supplies, the polluting matter in nowise produces unsanitary conditions. There certainly is no cause for action by the State Board of Health in this instance.
Greenwood, June 25th.—The authorities of Greenwood requested instruction and advice from the State Board of Health because of pollution of a small stream which runs near the town of Greenwood. The pollution proceeds from the canning factory of J. T. Polk & Co. Upon arrival I went down the stream from the town about three and one-half miles and then walked up until I arrived at the factory from which the alleged pollution proceeds. The stream is a mere branch and has no name, and goes entirely dry in the summer time. All along its course I found green moss (spiro gyra) growing in abundance at almost every point in the stream. The water was perfectly clear where any motion existed, but any place where motion was very slow the water was muddy because of cattle standing therein. Upon smelling and tasting where the water was clear, it had a decided odor and flavor of vegetable matter. In other words, it was pronouncedly "creeky.” As I approached nearer the canning works there seemed to be not the slightest change in the stream from several miles below. Within sight of the plant I found a pond about oneeighth acre in extent, which evidently was receiving slops and drainage. This pond gave forth an abundance of bad odors. On its banks was a frame shanty, which contained an electrical motor propelling a rotary pump. It was a simple matter to trace that this pump was throwing the contents of this pond on to the land, where it was being used for irrigation purposes. There is no weir or gate for overflow of the pond, but I discovered two pipes, six inches in diameter, which at any time could be submerged by simply pushing them beneath the surface and in this way drain the pond into the creek. Upon inspection of the plant I discovered that at this time the only liquors from the same were the washwater from peas, for nothing else was being worked except this vegetable. After shelling, the peas are thoroughly cleaned by special machines and then washed with water. These washings run into the pond. The peas are then submerged for three minutes in boiling water and then again washed with cold water. This water in which the peas are boiled for three minutes and the subsequent washwater are both added to the first washwater and delivered to the pond. These pea liquors make up 1,000 barrels for not to exceed two weeks, for the canning season for peas covers about that period. It is no wonder that these liquors when fermenting give forth volumes of bad odors, because peas are very rich in nitrogen and furnish fermentable matter in considerable quantities. The pea vines are stacked in the same way that hay is put up, without drying, and they thus form ensilage. This is fed' to the cattle in the winter. From beneath these ensilage stacks - black liquor almost constantly oozes. It has a decidedly acid taste and offensive odor. It is the result of the lactic fermentation which goes on in the ensilage heaps. This liquor, though small in amount, finds its way into the pond and adds not a little to the offensiveness which is discovered there. We are to note that no animal matter whatever finds its way into this pond. It is simply a very weak pea soup. The J. T. Polk Company asks no favors of relief at the present time, for this pea soup which is accuinulated in the pond can all be taken care of by pumping upon the adjoining land. They request, however, that a permit be given to discharge the liquors of the pond into the creek, if at any time it becomes necessary, when the tomato canning season commences, provided the waters of the creek are sufficiently high to carry off the liquor without damage to any one. They explain that beginning about the 10th of August the tomato canning would commence and then the washings from the tomatoes would amount to not less than 2,000 barrels a day. It is likely this will exceed the capacity of the pond and the ability of the pump to empty it, and will make it necessary, if permit will be granted, to discharge the tomato washings into the stream when it is high. At the present time the J. T. Polk Canning Company is not discharging any liquors of any kind whatsoever into the unnamed creek, but the pond near the works, which, as said before, covers about oneeighth acre, gives forth offensive odors in considerable amount. As said before, these odors are entirely the product of vegetable fermentation. There are no homes nearer than 1,000 feet to this pond, and the inhabitants thereof said that sometimes, when the weather was muggy, the smell of the ponds was very distinctly perceptible; usually, however, they did not offend. I inquired of six men, their names not being recorded, who were sitting in their front yards under the shade, as to the offensiveness of the stream. All of them declared that they had no complaint to make, except one, who said that last year the drainage from the factory made “bad conditions all along the branch.” I asked him if he thought the public health had been in any way affected, and his reply was, “I can not say.”
Summary.--At the present time the unnamed branch flowing by the town of Greenwood does not receive liquors or drainage of any kind from the J. T. Polk Canning Company's plant, and therefore is not polluted from said plant. All drainage, which up to this date for this year has consisted of what might be termed weak pea soup and seepage from "pea-vine ensilage,” is caught in a pond covering about one-eighth of an acre and from this by rotary pump
is discharged upon the adjoining land for irrigation and fertilizing purposes. The odors arising from the pond are abundant and not pleasant and are the result of the fermentation of vegetable matter exclusively. The family living nearest to the pond makes no complaint, and six householders, purposely interviewed, with one exception make no complaint. The exception refers to a year ago, and not to the present time.
Conclusions.—I conclude it can not be, truthfully said that unsanitary conditions are produced by the J. T. Polk Canning Company's plant at Greenwood. It is true bad odors proceed from the pond, but they are so far removed from all habitations as not to produce offense, and even if they did enter habitations, they could not directly cause disease.
Recommendations.—I recommend that the request of the J. T. Polk Canning Factory, that they be permitted to discharge surplus tomato washings into the creek at high flood, be granted.
Greenwood, Ind., July, 1903. To the State Board of Health, Indianapolis, Ind.:
Gentlemen-The J. T. Polk Company, of Greenwood, Ind., by and through its President, James T. Polk, affiant herein, would most respectfully show and represent to your honorable board that it is now and has been for a number of years last past operating a canning factory at the town of Greenwood. State of Indiana, and that the business of such factory is that of canning tomatoes, peas, corn and other vegetables; that as a result of such business there is an accumulation of waste water and refuse during the operation of the plant that the company for a number of years has been discharging into a stream of water near the establishment, known as Pleasant Run; that affiant does not believe that such waste water or refuse is dangerous to public health or injurious to the public; that it contains no poisonous substance that affiant knows of and is purely vegetable in its character.
Wherefore, The J. T. Polk Company, through affiant therein, would most respectfully ask permission of your honorable board that it be allowed to discharge such waste water and refuse into such stream at such times as this board may see fit for it to do so.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this ---- day of July, 1903.
My commission expires ---------
In regard to the Greenwood matter, it was