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REGISTRATION REPORT, 1903.
This report is for the calendar year 1903. The population basis used is the United States Census of 1900.
Table 1 is a classification of all deaths, arranged according to the International system.
Table 2 gives the deatlıs from certain diseases by geographical sections and by counties.
Table 3 gives the deaths from all causes by months, age, color, nationality and condition.
Table 4 gives deaths by counties, months, age, sex, color, nationality and conjugal condition.
Table A gives births by counties, months, color and nationality
Table B gives, by counties, the number of children born to each mother, grouped ages of parents, still plurality and illegitimate births.
Table C gives, by counties, the marriages by months, color and nationality.
Table D gives, by counties, the marriages by grouped ages.
Chart.--The chart following the tables gives the relative standing of the three sanitary sections in regard to total deaths and death rate, and also in regard to certain preventable diseases.
Vital statistics are collected, tabulated and analyzed to determine the history of communities with special reference to their numbers, their state of health and disease, and their social condition. It is obvious, while the first value of disease and death statistics is to point out where sanitary science inay be immediately practically applied for the benefit of the people, that the second value is historical. From a study of these statistics one learns what has happened concerning births, disease, deaths and marriages for any given year in the community in which they are collected, and by comparison with like future statistics of the same and other communities, determine what progress, if any, is being made, and also deduce any lessons which they may contain. It is almost entirely by comparison that the lessons of statistics may be secured, and therefore, in a degree, statistics are like winethe older the better. An eminent authority says: "To be utilized, statistics must be classified and the relation which the classes bear to each other must be carefully and correctly studied. It is not a simple matter to use these accumulated facts so that correct and valuable conclusions may be drawn from them. Their true interpretation in all their significance can only be rendered by those who are skilled and experienced in their application. Novices in their use often develop very remarkable errors and fallacies, and malicious persons may designedly use them for the special purpose of misrepresentation and deceit. A marked illustration of this appeared in a newspaper of quite recent date. The writer's statistics and conclusions were as follows:
7-Bl. of Health.
“The benighted city of Philadelphia has been subject for three years to most persistent and thorough compulsory vaccination, and yet in the report of this week we read that smallpox is steadily on the increase. Three weeks ago sixty-five cases were reported, the following week eighty cases, this week ninety cases, proving, if anything can be proven, that the increase of smallpox keeps pace with the increase of vaccination, demonstrating beyond a doubt its inefficiency as a preventive.”—Journal and Courier, December 31, 1903.
There is no reason to doubt that his figures were right, but the fallacy in his conclusions was due to his omission of a most important fact, namely that the “sisty-five, eighty and ninety cases” occurred exclusively among those who had not yet been vaccinated, and that those who had been successfully vaccinated were immune to smallpox. With that fact in mind the direct opposite to his conclusion appears. It has often been said that "figures can not lie.” But it has also been said that “liars will use them." Anti-vaccinationists are notoriously addicted to the misuse of statistics.
The chief value of vital statistics, in a sanitary sense, consists in the information they afford as to the extent and prevalence of
the fatal diseases, their location, and whether increasing or decreasing; the influence of age, of occupation, of climate, of soil, and all the varying conditions of environment upon the health of communities. The same information is also suggestive of the causes of disease and of the means of prevention.
The value of vital statistics is enhanced by the number of the population to which they apply, hence the census is the most important element. The number of the people, the ages of the units of which it is composed, the sex, color, social rank, etc., are each and all necessary to the solution of many social problems in which our health is concerned.
Dr. Farr says: “Vital statisties must always furnish the basis on which sanitary reforms shall rest, especially in regard to registration."
Dr. Newsholme says: “The registration of causes of death has given an immense impetus to sanitary work, and it is scarcely too much to say that modern sanitary science owes its existence to the registration of deathis and their causes, and the localization of unsanitary conditions thereby insured.”
STUDY OF THE VITAL STATISTICS, 1903.
Forty-four thousand one hundred and sixteen births were reported; males 22,748, females 21,268. Of this number 741 were negroes; 394 males, 347 females. In the preceding vear the births reported numbered 43,262; males 22,393, females 20,869. Negro births 719 ; males 378, females 371. The births in 1903 exceeded the deaths 10,124. In the preceding year the births exceeded the deaths, 9,193. For 1903 the birth rate was 17.5 per 1,000 and the death rate 13.4. It is known that the number of deaths is practically correct, but owing to an inadequate penalty in the law requiring reports and a curious indifference or ignorance of the law and of the necessity of the full registration of births on the part of physicians and the people, the birth statistics are very inaccurate. The average birth rate throughout the United States in 1900 was at least 35 per 1,000 of population. At this rate 88,095 births should have been reporteil. By this estimate it appears that only
about one-half of the births are recorded. The first lesson of the matter then is: Indiana's birth statistics at present are so inaccurate as to be of little or no value, and a law should be passed without delay making it possible for the Health Department to secure accurate figures in regard to this important matter. A second lesson appears in the ratios which are the same calculated on onehalf as upon the whole. The fact that 729 illegitimate births were reported shows that about 1,500 actually occurred-enough to indicate that morality of a certain kind is not as high as it should be in Indiana. The State rate of illegitimacy on this basis is 57 per 100,000. Seven counties containing good-sized cities shows as follows: Allen County, rate 57; Delaware, 72; Wayne, 66; Vigo, 112; Vanderburgh, 150; Marion, 146; St. Joseph, 37, an average of 91, or 34 higher than in the whole State. Seven small and agricultural counties show as follows: Newton, rate 20; Brown, 20; Scott, 95; Noble, 33; Ohio, 0); Owen, 13; Warren, 17, an average of 28, or 29 less than the State rate. It seems allowable to conclude from these considerations that in Indiana in rural communities the illegitimacy rate is at least 66 per cent. lower than in cities. It is estimated that in order to maintain a population it is necessary that four children be born to each married couple. This is required because death, accident, non-productiveness and other causes bring down the lives at least 50 per cent., so of the four children to each couple only two remain to represent the parents. It is interesting, therefore, to know how many couples had four and more children born to them at the close of 1903. The statistics show as to this that 2,382 couples had their fourth child in 1903, 1,336 their fifth, SO2 their sixth, 572 their seventh, 284 their eighth, 156 their ninth, 90 their tenth, 42 their eleventh, and 46 their twelfth. As to ages of parents, there were 653 fathers and 4,490 mothers under 20 years, 125 fathers and 35 mothers between 60 and 70, and 15 fathers between 70 and 80..
There were 26,874 marriages in 1903. The grooms under 20 years old numbered 895 and the brides 6,851; 20 to 30—grooms 17,107, brides 14,948; 30 to 40--grooms 5,232, brides 2,749; 40 to 50—grooms 1,661, brides 1,032, 50 to 60-grooms 758, brides 350; 60 to 70-grooms, 323, brides 134; 70 to 80-grooms 98, brides 16; 80 and over-11 grooms, 0 brides. The Americanborn grooms and brides numbered 24,794 and 25,205, respectively, and the foreign-born grooms 1,290, brides 937. Of the total marriages, 757 were colored. October was the popular month for weddings, 3,071 occurring. By months the weddings numbered— January 2,301, February 1,989, March 1,883, April 2,298, May 1,824, June 2,301, July 2,026, August 1,990, September 2,339, October 3,071, November 2,420, December 2,432. As 2,366 of these couples were over 40 years of age and will not likely be productive, it leaves 24,508 couples to supply the balance of births necessary to keep up the present birth-rate, and it is probable this will be done.
The deaths in 1903 numbered 33,892, or 177 fewer than in the preceding year. The rate was 13.46 per 1,000 of population. The male deaths were 17,606 and the female 16,286. Of the total number 1,375 were negroes; 758 males, 617 females. The American-born numbered 30,295; males 15,468, females 14,827. The foreign-born numbered 3,131; males, 1,832, females 1,299. By social condition the deaths were: Single 15,765; males 8,855; females 6,910; married 11,796; males 6,269, females 5,527.
By ages the deaths were: Under 1 year 7,510, or 22.1 per cent. of the total; 1 to 2, 1,244, or 3.6 per cent. ; 2 to 5, per cent. It is noted that the deaths under one year exceed those between 2 and 30. The deaths in the prime of life, 15 to 50, numbered 9,001, or 26.5 per cent. of the total. The deaths in extreme age periods were-70 to 75, 2,202 ; 75 to 80, 2,126; 80 to 90, 2,184 ; 90 and over, 298. The deaths in the 45 to 50 period was almost the same as in the 1 to 2 period. The following table, giving the deaths by months, shows that March has the greatest number to its credit, and August comes next, while June shows the lowest number: