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אוצר לשון עכרי וכשדי
HEBREW AND ENGLISH
BIBLICAL AND RABBINICAL
THE HEBREW AND CHALDEE ROOTS OF THE OLD
M. H. BRESSLAU
PROFESSOR OF HEBREW, ETC.
CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON
7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL
ALTHOUGH there are several Hebrew Lexicons extant, some large
and some small, some original and some translations or adaptations. it may be stated, without detracting in the least from the respective merits of the works which have hitherto appeared, that, as far as regards the Hebrew-English Dictionaries, the old ones are incompatible with the present approved system of modern study, whilst the modern, which were published with a view to cheapness, are incomplete and deficient. Some of them pretend to be translations from the best German works; but the originals have been, either from doctrinal motives or those of economy, shorn and cut down to that extent, that the term "mutilated" may be appropriated to them more fairly than "abridged."
In no language are found words and roots with so various, and not unfrequently opposite significations, as in the Hebrew, besides the peculiarities in that remarkable tongue arising from the various paradigms. It ought also to be remembered, that the great standard by which the principle of the language is judged rests upon the twenty-four books of the Old Testament Scriptures; by them we are guided in our estimate, valuation
and classification of roots, and from them we derive our information as to the primitive and adopted significations of these roots. Hence the sense of several roots or words which occur once in Scripture, and for which we can find no analogous passage to guide us, must be rendered according to the context; and since this rendering is liable to different versions, the commentators and translators of the Bible differ in the interpretation. It is therefore the duty of the compiler of a Hebrew Lexicon to have his thoughts continually directed to the Sacred Scriptures, they being the fountain-head from whence all post-biblical works in the Hebrew language flow, and on the basis of which new words and terms have been formed to convey ideas and sentiments necessarily occurring in the large number of scientific, metaphysical and rabbinical works, with which the post-biblical Literature of the Jews abounds. These latter works constituting by far the greatest portion of the Hebrew literature, it is no less the duty of a writer of a Lexicon to supply the words and terms of the derivatives from the original Hebrew, and to furnish their various graduations, developments, and significations. Both duties the compiler of the present Lexicon has made it his task, scrupulously and faithfully, to discharge, taking care, at the same time, to point out the primitive words, as well as those of later introduction, and carefully distinguishing the adopted offsprings from the mother-tongue.
Among all the Hebrew Lexicons published, both in England and on the Continent, there are none that can be compared for compactness, completeness, and cheapness, to the Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon by Dr. Julius Fürst, the eminent Hebrew
teacher of the University of Leipzig, which, therefore, has been selected as a model for this Dictionary. Meanwhile due regard has been had to the Authorised English Translation of the Bible, and its rendering of those scriptural passages in which it was found necessary to deviate therefrom. In the numerous quotations from Scripture given in this Lexicon, which will prove of incalculable advantage to the Biblical student, the Authorised English Version has been given, as well as the rendering adopted in this Lexicon, based on well-matured philological grounds.
It is only left now for the compiler to give a list of the abbreviations and an explanation of certain terms which are met with throughout this Work.
The term "Aram." signifies the Chaldee language, in which part of the Beck of Daniel is composed, and which is interspersed with the Hebrew in both Talmuds, the Jerusalem as well as the Babylonian, the Book Zoar, the Medrashim, and many other post-biblical works.
The terms "later," 99 66 new Hebrew," and "modern," are applied to those words which have been introduced either subsequent to the Pentateuch or Prophets, or all post-biblical writings.
The term "not used" is applied in respect to the form of the word, such form not occurring in the Scriptures, but being found requisite to shew the root, from which branch out the different form:s in use, accompanied by their various significations and modifications.