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IV. There was a jaint labour of Pamphilus and Eusebius in publishing a correct edition of the Greek version of the Seventy from Origen's Hexapla, which I have already taken notice of in the chapter of · Lucian. Huet is of opinion, that before this there was no separate edition of the Seventy according to Origen's emendations. Undoubtedly, this was a signal service for the church of Christ; the benefit of Origen's immense labour was rendered more extensive; and, if their edition was not the first, it was the most exact.

V. There are still extant in the curious collections of Europe memorials of this library of Pamphilus, and traces of his and Eusebius's labour in transcribing or correcting copies of the scriptures or other books.

In the Jesuits' college at Paris, ^ is a beautiful manuscript of the prophets, supposed 4 to have been written in the eighth century. In that manuscript, as Montfaucon assures us, there is before the book of Ezekiel a note to this purpose: • This was taken from a copy in such a • place, in which copy was written: “Transcribed from the Hexapla containing the translations; • and corrected by Origen's own Tetrapla, which also had emendations and scholia in his own • hand-writing. I Eusebius added scholia; Pamphilus and Eusebius corrected.”.

Huet, speaking of this same manuscript, in one place says, that note is at the end of Jere. miah; in another, before Ezechiel. I have put his words at the bottom of the page.

In the French king's library, as we are informed by Montfaucon, is a very ancient manu. script, written in the fifth or sixth century, containing part of St. Paul's epistles. It seems, he says, to have been written in Palestine, or Syria: for the transcriber says, in a note at the end, that he had compared his copy with another in the library of Cæsarea, in the hand-writing of Pamphilus: which therefore must have been done before that library was quite destroyed, as it was before the middle of the seventh century. In that MS. the epistle to the Hebrews appears as St. Paul's. • The order is i this; To the Romans, the first and second to the Corinthians, to

the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians; first and second to the
• Thessalonians, to the Hebrews, first and second to Timothy, to Titus, to Philemon.' That
learned writer has given us that curious note of the transcriber beforementioned in the ancient
letters of the manuscript. I place it at the bottom of the page in the letters now commonly
used: • This * book was compared with the copy in the library at Cæsarea, in the hand-writing
of saint Pamphilus.'
. See p. 111.

-Μετεληφθη από των κατά τας εκδοσεις εξαπλων, και
Αpud multos hanc opinionem percrebuisse video, Orige- διωρθωθη από των Ωριγενες αυτ8 τετραπλων, άτινα και αυτό
nem, quo parabilior esset emendata a se editio seniorum Septua- 'χειρι διωρθωτο, και εσχολιογραφετο. ο Ευσεβιος εγω σχολια πα-
ginta, edidisse eam seorsum, et ex ingenti Hexaplorum mole pebrxa Tauponas vai Évreblos diwpowcarto. Montf, in
exemisse. - Probabilior mibi videtur sententia I. B. Morini, Orig. Hex, c. 1, sect. v. p. 14.
-editionem illam Twvó ex Origenianis Hexaplis descrip- Hujus editionis et emendationis luculentum extat monu.
tam ab. Eusebio et Pamphilo, et primum evulgatam arbitrantis, mentum in Codice Renati Marchali, jam sæpe laudato, in quo
juxta illud Hieronymi in Præf. ad Paralip. ad Chromatium: post Jeremiæ librum adnotatum est descriptum eum esse ex

-Mediæ inter has provinciæ Palæstinos codices legunt, Origenis Hexaplis, et emendatum ex Tetraplis mana ipsius quos ab Origene elaboratos Eusebius et Pamphilus vulgaverunt. exaratis, idque operâ Pamphili et Eusebii. Huet Orig. 1. i. Nam, cum frequenter exscriberentur exempla in ecclesiarum, c. 2. p. 262, in. doctorumque hominum usum, novis in dies deformabantur & Editioni twv ó, quæ eral in Tetraplis, scholia ad limbum sordium inquinamentis. Degenerante ergo magis magisque aliqua adjecisse Origenem discimus ex memorato Codice Marhac editione, restituere eam conati sunt Eusebius et Pamphi- chali, quem habent Claromontani Patres Societatis Jesu. Ada lus, ex ipso autoypaów, quod erat in Cæsariensi Bibliotheca: notatum enim est ante Ezechielem, librum hunc ex Hexaplis restitutam vero et seorsum magnâ diligentiâ descriptam publi- descriptum esse, correctum vero ad Tetraplorum fidem. Postcaverunt. Atque ea editio Palæstina dicta est. Huet. Orig. modum subest: ativa xal in arte xeipi Siwpowto, xas ergo1, iii. c. 2, p. 261.

λιογραφετο· όθεν Ευσεβιος εγω τα σχόλια σαρεθηκα. Παμφιλος • Vetustissimum, pulcherrimumque codicem Prophetarum. και Ευσεβιος διωρθωσαντο. Ιb. p. 261, m. -Mont. Præf. in Hex. Orig. p. 4.

h Codex ccii. membranaceus, constans foliis 14, complectens Hæc porro omnia discimus ex Notis Codicis Marchaliani, partem Epistolarum Pauli, inter antiquissimos Europæ numenunc R. R. P. P. Jesuitarum Collegii Ludovici Magni, quas randus, sæculi nempe v. vel. vi. Scriptus esse videtur in Pa'adtalimus supra p. 14. Ille vero Codex sæculo circiter viii. læstiņâ vel Syriâ, eo circiter quo diximus ævo. Nam Calliut ex characteris forma existimatur, ad fidem exemplaris graphus, qui notam infra edendam in sine posuit, hoc exemApollinarii exscriptus est. Montf. Prælim. in Hex. Orig. cap. plar se contulisse significat cum Codice ipsius Pamphili manu 11. sect. iv,

exarato: antequam videlicet Cæsarea funditus dirueretur, • Deinde vero ante Ezechielem hæc nota legitur:

quod contigit ante medium sæculi vii. Montf. Bib. Coislin. p. Desumptus est [Ezechiel) ab Exemplari Abbatis Apolli- 251, 252. • narii, Coenobiarchæ, in quo hæc subjiciuntur: Exscriptus est i Ordo Epistolarum Pauli in Codice xxix. supra, ad Rom.

ab Hexaplis editiones complectentibus: et correctus est ad ad Corinth. 1, 2, ad Galat. ad Ephes. ad Philippens. ad Colose • Adem Tetraplorum Origenis, quæ etiam

emen- sens. ad Thessalonicens. 1, 2, ad Hebr. ad Timoth. 1, 2, ad data et scholiis illustrata erant. "Ego Eusebius scholia adjeci. Titum, ad Philemonem. Ib. p. 255, m. Pamphilus et Eusebius correxerunt.'

* Αντεβλήθη δε η βιολος προς το εν Καισαρεια αντιγραφαν της VOL. II.

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VI. It is thought by divers learned men, as · Cave, Valesius, and · Tillemont, though Du Pin takes no notice of it, that Pamphilus not only erected a library, but a school likewise, or academy, at Cæsarea. This supposition is chiefly built upon a passage of Eusebius, which i have cited already. Tillemont however brings in other passages in support of it. I must leave this point undecided. I dare not contest the thing. But the evidence is not clear, because the passage of Eusebius, where he is supposed to mention the school, is:' obscure; and because there is no notice taken of this school, that I remember, in Jerom, nor any other ancient writer of credit.

VII. In the article above-cited at length Jerom says, that · Pamphilus wrote an Apology for Origen before Eusebius:' and in the chapter of that bishop of Cæsarea he ascribes to him an Apology for Origen in six volumes. It seems, therefore, that Jerom then supposed that Pam: philus had written some Apology for Origen, distinct from the six books of Eusebius; and upon that account gave Pamphilus a place in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, composed in 892; and also in his letter - to Magnus, written about the year 400. He seems so 'to explain himself in the dispute which he afterwards had with Rufinus: when having found, as he says, that the book he had taken for Pamphilus's was the first of the six volumes of what he esteemed Eusebius's Apology for Origen, he denied that Pamphilus ever wrote any thing besides epistles to friends; and often charged Rufinus with a fraud in publishing the first book of that Apology in a Latin translation, as a work of Pamphilus.

Nevertheless, whatever Jerom might think fit to say after his difference with Rufinus, the truth seems to be this: five books of the Apology for Origen were composed jointly by Pamphilus and Eusebius: the sixth and last was written by Eusebius alone after the martyrdom of Pam. philus: for Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History does expressly and openly refer his readers for a farther account of Origen to the Apology composed by himself and Pamphilus. He soon after refers to the sixth book of that Apology as his own. Socrates a speaks of their common labour in it as an allowed thing, and commends the work: yea, he quotes it in another place as Pamphilus’s, without mentioning Eusebius. Photius, though he is far from commending the performance, says, that the first five books were written jointly by Pamphilus and Eusebius in prison, and the sixth by Eusebius alone afterwards. It is needless to allege any other o testimo nies. Pamphilus, as well as Eusebius, was remarkable for the regard he had for Origen. St. Jerom knew that very well, and owns it sometimes: nor is it at all strange that they should have a βιβλιοθηκης, το αγια Παμφιλε χειρι γεΓραμμενον. Αp. Bib: posui et hunc librum a Pamphilo editum, ita putans esse, Coisl. ib. p. 262.

ut a te et tuis discipulis fuerat divulgatum. Sed quum ipse Pamphili vitam tribus libris amplexus est- Eusebius, dicat Eusebius, Pamphilum nibil scripsisse, exceptis brevibus quibus integrum vitæ ejus curriculum, quæque ad scholam ab epistolis ad amicos; et primus liber sex voluminum illius eo institutam pertinent, -accuratissime depinxit. Cav. H. L. eadem et eisdem verbis continent, quæ sub nomine Pamphili de Pamphilo ad fin.

a te ficta sunt: perspicuum est te idcirco hunc librum disseb Vales. Annot, in Euseb. p. 160, B.

minare voluisse, ut sub persona martyris hæresim introduceres. · Saint Pamphile, ubi supra, p. 58. See

P:

Quumque de hoc ipso libro, quem Pamphili simulas, multa c Vid. Euseb. de M. P. c. iv. p. 323, C. 324, A. B. perverteris, &c. Adv. Ruf. 1. ii. T. 4. p. 419,

? I shall here put down Eusebius's words, and divers Latin k Referens enim de apologiâ Pamphili martyris, quam nos versions : έκασα δε το κατ' αυτον βια, και ης συνεσησατο δια- Eusebii Arianorum principis probavimus. Adv. Ruf.col. 407, in. 6986nis. I. vii. c. 32, p. 288, D. Verum nos singula, quæ ad Eusebius-per sex volumina nihil aliud agit, nisi ut Origeillius vitam et ad scholam ab eodem institutam pertinent, nem suæ ostendat fidei, id est, Arianæ pertidiæ. ib. f. Conf. peculiari opere complexi sumus. Vales. Omnem ejus vitam eund. p. 357, 359, 405; et Ep. ad Pamm. et Ocean. p. 347. institutionemque a puero. Ruf. Verum singula vitæ illius, et Fecerat hoc et in sancti Pamphili martyris nomine, ut librum in quâ schola institutus fuerit. W. Musculus. Quâ ratione primum sex librorum defensionis Origenis,Eusebii Cæsariensis, institutus. Christophorson. Et Conf. Vales. Annot. p. 160, B. quem fuisse Arianum nemo est qui nesciat, nomine Pamphili And any one that pleaseth, may see how I have translated the martyris prænotaret. Ep. 43, ad Ctesiph. p. 477, in. Conf. passage, at p. 118.

eund. in libr. vi. in Ezech. c. xviii. T. iii. col. 821; et Prol. 8 ATodorias pro Origene sex libros. De V. I. c. 81. Dialoģ. adv. Pelag. T. iv. p. 484.

Nec non presbyterorum, Pamphili, Pierii,-Ep. 83, T. ταυτα και εκ της υπερ αυτα πεπονημενης ημιν τε και το iv. p. 656.

καθ' ημας ερω μαρτυρι Παμφιλων απολογίας, παρεςιν αναλεξ: Nunc-sufficiat, breviter prudentem instruxisse lecto- εσθαι. 1. vi. c. 33, p. 232. rem, me istum librum, qui sub nomine Pamphili ferebatur, εν εκσω της γραφεισης ημιν σερι τα ανδρος απολογιας. vidisse scriptum in codice tuo. Et quia mihi non erat curæ ib. c. 36, p. 233. quid pro hæretico diceretur, sic semper habuisse, quasi diver, 2 τετων αξιοπισοι, όπε Παμφιλος και Ευσεβιος αμβω sum esset opus Pamphili et Eusebii: postea vero quæstione γαρ κοινη-ενδοξοις βιβλιοις απολογιαν υπερ αυτο ποιέμενοι, mot perspicueque deprehendisse, quod primus liber sex . A. Socr. l. iii. cap. 7, p. 175, B. voluminum Eusebii ipse esset, qui unus sub nomine Pamphili o Jd. I. iv. c. 27, p. 244, D. a te editus est. -Unde etiam ante annos fere decem, quum -ων οι μεν πεντε Παμφιλω το δεσμωτηριον οικεντι, , Dexter amicus meus-me rogâsset, ut auctorem nostræ συμπαροντος και Ευσεβιε, επονηθησαν" κ. λ. Phot. cod. 18, religionis ei indicem texerem ; inter cæteros tractatores col. 296. vid. et col. 297, f. 1 Vid. Prædestinat. Haer. 43.

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high esteem for Origen, who continually had before them, in their library, the originals of those amazing works, his Tetrapla and Hexapla, and many other volumes of his writings, monuments of a most capacious mind and unexampled industry.

This work, against which · Jerom threatened to write, according to his own acknowledgment, was laboured and copious. Indeed, it must have been a large work, as may be inferred from the length of the first book, which we still have in Rufinus's Latin translation; from Eusebius's divers references to it for farther particulars concerning Origen; and from the accounts given ' by some ancient authors of the contents of it.

Here I might make some extracts out of that first book which remains, to shew what books of scripture are referred to by the composers, and by Origen, in the passages quoted from him: but it is needless. Considering Pamphilus's respect for Origen, and his intimacy with Eusebius, it may be taken for granted, that his canon of scripture was the same, or much the same, as theirs. And what theirs was, has been or will be shewn largely in this work.

VIII. Montfaucon has published Contents of the Acts of the apostles, which he thinks to have been composed and drawn up by Pamphilus. As the work is ascribed to Pamphilus in the manuscript, which ' is supposed to be of the tenth century, so for that, and some other reasons, he makes no scruple to consider him as the author. The same thing has been put out again " by Fabricius as a work of Pamphilus. But those contents' had been often published before without the name of the author: and the only thing uncommon is " the short preface to those Contents; which too, with the Contents themselves, had been published" by Zacagni, as written by Euthalius, who flourished about the

year 458. And indeed it seems to me more likely that Euthalius should be the author than Pamphilus. It is observable that Euthalius published the Acts of the apostles, the Catholic epistles, and St. Paul's epistles. At the end of his edition of the Catholic epistles, which follow that of the Acts of the apostles, is this note: • The P book of the Acts of the apostles, and of Catholic * epistles, was collated with the exact copies of the library of Eusebius Pamphilus in Cæsarea.' Mr. Wetstein, to whom I refer my readers, has divers curious remarks concerning Euthalius. He is of opinion, that this note has been an occasion of ascribing to Pamphilus, as author, what was really done by Euthalius, who made use of his library. However, we have here another proof of the usefulness of that library at Cæsarea.

IX. It is now time that we reflect upon what we have met with concerning this martyr for the Christian religion. There can be no question but Pamphilus was an understanding and truly pious man. He was not distinguished only by the last scene of his life, the magnanimity, forti tude, and patience of his confessions and martyrdom; bụt his whole life was a shining example of virtue. He must have been a person of a good family, and a large estate; but he despised the world, and renounced all earthly expectations. He was a zealous Christian and greatly delighted himself in the scriptures: he was liberal to the poor, kind to his acquaintance, and to áll men who sought to him: he had an earnest desire to promote learning and knowledge, especially the knowledge of the holy scriptures, in men of every condition: and his diligence in

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* Adversus quae volumina, (si Dominus vitæ hujus dederit k Vid. Fabr. Spic. Patr. seu Hippolyti Opera. P. ii. p. spatium) alias respondere conabor. Adv. Ruf. 1. ii. p. 419. 205, &c. * Sex libros Eusebius Cæsariensis episcopus, Arianæ quon

I Exstat eadem ex90iS sine nomine auctoris ante Commendam signifer factionis, pro Origene scripsit, latissimum et tarios Ecumenii in Acta, atque inde in melioribus Novi Tes: elaboratum opus. Adv. Ruf. I. i. p. 357.

tamenti editionibus; Rob. Stephani, Joh. Boecleri, et Joh. Rufinus translated the first book, and that only, so far as Millii: necnon in Dan. Heinsii ad Nov. Test. Exercitationiwe know. Horum tu primum librum vertis sub nomine bus. Fabr. ib. p. 209. m Ap. Bibl. Coislin. p. 78, martyris Si totum opus Pamphili est, cur reliquos libros Ap. Laurent. Zacagn. Collectanea, p. 428. non transfers? ib. I. i. p. 357.

• Vid. Zacagn. Præf. p. 61, 62. et Cave H. Lit. T. i. p. * Ap. Hieron. Opp. T. v. p. 219, &c. Ed. Bened.

446. Oxon. 1740. • H. E. I. vi. c. 23, et 33, et 36.

Ρ Λντεβλήθη δε των Πραξεων και καθολικων επιςολων, το " Vid. Socr. 1. ii. c. 7. 1. iv. c. 27. Phot, cod. 117, 118. βιβλιον προς τα ακριβη αντιγραφα της εν Καισαρεια βιβλιοθηκης Conf. Tillem. Saint Pamphile. T. v.P. ii. p. 60, 61.

EUTE618 78 Ilaugas. ap Zacagn. ib. p. 513. & Præmittitur Expositio Capitum Actuum auctore Pamphilo, 9 Quod præcipuum est, editionem suam cum exemplari εκθεσις κεφαλαίων, των πραξεων τε Παμφιλ8' quam integram Pamphili martyris, in Bibliothecâ Cæsariensi asservato, contuedimus infra. Mont. Bib. Coislin. p. 76.

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lit.-'Inde error librariorum ortus est, qui cum legerent, ab Codex xxv. al. cxxi. membranaceus, decimi sæculi, com- Euthalio Codicem Pamphili consultum esse, totum laborem plectitur Acta apostolorum et epistolas catholicas.-Ib. p. 75. Euthalii Pamphilo, tamquam potiori, adscripserunt. Wetst.

Hanc opellam esse vere Pamphili martyris, non est quod Proleg. p. 76. dubitemus. ib. p. 78. in.

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all laudable undertakings was extraordinary. The testimonies to his virtue which we have seen, are very agreeable: but if the large history of his life, written by Eusebius, were still in being, very probably it would be more entertaining, and inform us of many things of an edifying nature. It is one of those works of Eusebius, the loss of which is much lamented by learned

Where can such a man as this be found in the heathen world? how rare were such examples under the Mosaic institution, of men, who employed their whole time in improving their own minds, and serving others, without noise or ostentation, and without worldly views, and at last quietly resigned their lives rather than disown the principles by which they had been hitherto condricted and supported!

Nor was Pamphilus alone, though distinguished. There were twelve in all, who at one and the same time bore the most signal testimony to truth. One of whom was a servant of Pamphilus, by name Porphyry; who, though he was burned at a stake, bore that painful death, and all the preceding tortures appointed by the cruel governor, with wonderful fortitude and resignation, serenity and patience. Not to insist now on the many others in Palestine, Egypt, and other places, who about this time signalized themselves by divers confessions, and at last by dying for their religion. Certainly these men, if they were not the best speakers, were the best livers that ever the world saw; and in their death they are without rivals. These holy and useful men, these confessors and martyrs, undaunted by all the evils which an unkind and mistaken world sometimes brings upon those who are its greatest blessings and best benefactors, were formed by the Christian religion when the evidences of it were near, and if not true, their weakness might have been perceived. They were advanced by it to this eminence, when it was considered as an institution of virtue, not an abstruse and speculative science; a doctrine from heaven, not a creature of the state: and when Jesus, their Lord and Master, was not only admired as a divine teacher, but was also esteerned an example both in his life and in his death.

One thing which frequently occurs in the authentic histories of these primitive Christians of note and distinction, deserves especial regard: I mean their affection and zeal for the holy scriptures. For their own sake, for the sake of others, and among them for our good, they were mightily taken up in reading, studying, and explaining, and cominenting upon the scriptures of the Old and New Testament; or in transcribing them, or correcting copies of them, and procuring exact editions, for the use of all sorts of persons. This is for our imitation, and for our satisfaction. It is what ought to be imitated by us: and it likewise affords us good reason to think that the books of holy scripture, which contain the revelations of the divine will to mankind, and are the rule of our faith, have been transmitted to us in great purity, without any remarkable alterations or deviations from the original writings.

X. Fabricius has published what he calls Acts of the Passion of St. Pamphilus, taken out of his Life written by Eusebius of Cæsarea; from which I might have selected some things, and thereby possibly made my account of Pamphilus more agreeable to some: but I cannot persuade myself to make any use of that piece, not being satisfied of its genuineness.

Here it is not only said that he was of a noble family, which is very likely, but also that he had honourably discharged civil offices in his country: which, I think, cannot be easily reconciled with Eusebius's genuine account; who says that • Pamphilus renounced all worldly expecta

tions;' or, as Valesius translates the words, . despised' all secular honours, to which he might • have aspired.' Eusebius does actually say of Phileas, bishop of Thmuis, that he had with re

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* Vid. Euseb. de Mart. Pal. c. xi. p. 338, 339.

issimi. Ap. Fabr. Spic. Patr. seu Hippolyti Opp. T. ii. p. ** Triumphus Dei est passio martyrum, et pro Christi no- 217, &c. Conf. ejusd. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 277, 278. mine cruoris effusio, et inter tormenta lætitia. Quum enim

επισήμως τε ταις κατα την πατριδα πολιτειαις διαπρεquis viderit tantà perseverantiâ stare martyres atque torqueri, Wartos. Act. Pass. ap. Fabr. p. 218, m. -fuisset autem inet in suis cruciatibus gloriari, odor notitiæ Dei disseminatur in signis in republicâ gerendâ in patrià suâ. Certamen Pamphili Gentes, et subit tacita cogitatio, quod, nisi verum esset evan- ex Metaphr. ap. Vales. Ann. in Eus. p. 179, b. in. gelium, nunquam sanguine defenderetur. Neque enim deli

-xoopsxVY EATIOWY onsywpią. Eus. de Mart. P. c. xi. cata, et divitiis studens ac secura confessio est; sed in carceribus, in plagis, in persecutionibus, in fame, in nuditate et siti.

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seu sæcularium honorum, ad quos adspirare poterat, Hic triumphus Dei est, apostolorumque victoria. Hieron. ad despicientiam, Vales. Hedib. n. xi. T. iv. P. i.p. 184.

διαπρεψας ανηρ ταις κατα την πατριδα πολιτειαις και Acta passionis S. Pamphili martyris ex libris Eusebii Cæ- λειτοργιαις Η. Ε. 1. viii. p. 301, D. sariensis de illius Vitâ, juxta MS. Medicæum Regis Christian

p. 336, B.

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putation enjoyed all civil offices and employments in his country. Why did he not expressly say the same of Pamphilus, if true, when he spoke of his contempt of this world?

Again, it is said in these Acts that · Pamphilus renounced, or gave away all bis paternal estate to the poor, and that he himself lived a philosophical kind of life, having nothing of his own: but Eusebius in his genuine account only says that Pamphilus was very bountiful to the indigent, or gave liberally out of his substance for the relief of such persons. That particular appears to me contrary to all the ancient authentic accounts which we have of Pamphilus. If he had renounced, or given away all his estate, how should he have erected a library? How could he have transcribed numerous copies of the books of scripture, and Commentaries upon them? How should he and Eusebius put out a correct edition of the Seventy from Origen's Hexapla ? In all these works Pamphilus must have been assisted by some rich Christian, as Origen was by Ambrose, if he had nothing of his own: but nothing of that kind is any where said by Eusebius or Jerom. On the contrary it is all along supposed that he lived upon his own, and that from time to time he cheerfully laid out what he had, as occasions offered, in good works and useful designs of various kinds, as before seen.

So far as I can perceive these Acts of Fabricius are much the same with those in Surius, Valesius, and others, as taken from Simeon Metaphrastes, which were mentioned before: and therefore what I have said, or may say concerning either, ought to be understood as relating to both.

Fabricius supposeth these Acts to have been taken out of the books of Eusebius containing the life of Pamphilus. Valesius thinks that those. Acts in Metaphrastes were taken from Eusebius's book of the Martyrs of Palestine: which book, as we now have it in the common copies, is imperfect, as he says, and may be made more complete by these Acts in Metaphrastes.

I rather think these Acts to be the invention of some idle impostor, who, according to his own fancy, enlarged and flourished upon Eusebius's genuine account of the martyrdom of Pamphilus and his companions, which we have in the eleventh chapter of his book concerning the Martyrs of Palestine. The whole of this piece, compared with that chapter of Eusebius, has such an appearance: Eusebius says of that company of martyrs, that “e they resembled the prophets i and apostles.' This writer .* adds, and the patriarchs.' Eusebius, speaking of their last combat, says, “it 8 was a most glorious spectacle;' as indeed it was. Whereupon this oratorical author

says, there might be seen in it at once persons of every age of the human life, and of every rank in the church, (meaning' faithful, catechumens, presbyters, and deacons,) and of

every condition and employment, and likewise a great variety of sufferings, and consequently • different crowns for the victors.' This plan the author proposes at the beginning, and afterwards fills up as he sees good.

I think these considerations, added to the foregoing, may be sufficient to shew that this piece is a forgery,

The length of these critical remarks, I hope will be excused. If we are not upon our guard, we shall have nothing but fable instead of history.

-αποδομενος γετοι τα εις αυτόν απο προγόνων ήκοντα d Vid. Vales. Ann. p. 180. γυμνοις, πηροις, και πενησιν απαντα, αυτος εν ακτημονι διηγε De M. Pal. c. xi. p. 336, B. Bw-x... Fabt. ib. p. 220. m. Renuntians quidem iis Ap. Fab. ib. p. 219. m. ap. Vales. Ann. p. 179, C. quæ ad ipsum redibant a majoribus, nudis, mancis, et paupe- & Ubi supr. p. 336, A. ribus distribuit. Ipse autem degebat. in vitâ possi- αθεοως εν αυτω σαν ειδος ηλικιων τε σωματος, και ψυχων debat. Ex Metaphrast. ap. Vales. ib. p. 180, b. in. αγωγής, βιε τε και αναρροφης διαφορά περιειληφοτα, βασανων

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