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of setting off his opinions ; and that is all. Though the Manichees made high pretensions to . truth, reason, science, they did not escape superstition. With all their boastings of that kind, and the contempt they expressed for the credulity of the catholics and their numerous rites, there was not a sect that rendered themselves more miserable by affected austerities than the Manichees. The restraints laid on all the higher order, the elect, with regard to marriage, diet, and secular business, must, I think, have more than equalled all the superstitious usages of the catholics at that time. And when it is considered what difficulty the Manichæan auditors must have had to maintain their elect, and with how little hopes of getting to heaven at last; I mean directly, without the fatigue of I know not how many transmigrations, as it might happen; this people must appear ridiculous and contemptible.
5. The subsistence of the Christian religion to our time, notwithstanding the many dangers it has been exposed to, affords us reason to hope it shall maintain itself, and be upheld to the end of time, whatever oppositions may be yet made against it. It cannot encounter worse enemies than it has already experienced and withstood: nor can there arise more absurd, or more different opinions in the church, and among Christians, than there were in former times. Some there have been who have handed down to us, in the main, the genuine principles of the Christian religion. And by the events of past ages we are encouraged to trust in Providence, and do our best to serve the cause and interests of truth and liberty.
6. It is not unlikely that differences of opinion, and the disputes they occasion, are some way
use for advancing the interest of truth. The great Augustine was plainly of this opinion. He says that“ objections against scripture, and false interpretations, excite our zeal and industry, and induce to study, until we have learned the right sense. Augustine has upon several occasions spoken' of the advantage which the catholic interest receives from heresies.
7. The Manichees have not weakened but confirmed the evidence of the Christian religion. They agree with other Christians in acknowledging the dignity of Christ's person, his- high authority, and the authority of his apostles, and other things which were formerly insisted on by us, and need not to be repeated here. And they received all, or well nigh all, the same books of the New Testament which were received by other Christians. They said, indeed, that those scriptures had been interpolated in some time past: but they never corrupted or interpolated them, nor attempted it. Nor could they, or any others, corrupt them if they would, as ? Augustine observes. And the controversy with them has occasioned the writing of many books, containing numerous quotations of the scriptures, and excellent vindications of their genuineness and integrity.
8. We are very much indebted to Augustine, and many other learned Christians of former times, who asserted and maintained the authority of the Old, and the genuineness and integrity of the New Testament; and gave a better account of the creation of the world, of human liberty, and the nature and origin of evil, than was taught by these people.
a Incidi in homines superbe delirantes. -Et dicebant.Veritas, Manich. 1. i. c. i. n. 2. Didicimus enim, singulas quasque et veritas. Et multum eanı dicebant mibi. Aug. Conf. 1. 3; hæreses intulisse ecclesiæ proprias quæstiones, contra quas cap. 6, sub in.ut a vobis, magnis omnino pollicitatoribus diligentius defenderetur scriptura divina, quam si nulla necesrationis atque veritatis, quæram.
De M. Manich, c. 17, sitas cogeret. Id. de Dono Persever. c. 20, n. 23. Tom. 10. n. 55.
• Utitur enim [Ecclesia Catholica) gentibus ad materiam Quid autem fallitis Auditores vestros, qui cum suis uxori- operationis suæ, hæreticis ad probationem doctrinæ suæ. De bus, et filiis, et familiis, et domibus, et agris vobis serviunt, Vera Relig. cap. 6, n. 10. Tom. i. Sed quoniam verissime
-eis non resurrectionem, sed revolutionem ad istam dictum est, oportet multas hæreses esse, utamur etiam isto mortalitatem promittitis, ut rursus nascantur,- -Contr. Faust. divinæ providentiæ beneficio. Ex his enim hominibus hære1. 5, cap. x. Vid. supra..p. 476. not. 5.
tici fiunt, qui, etiamsi essent in ecclesiâ, nihilominus errarent. © Sed ideo divina providentia multos diversi erroris bæredicos Cum autem foris sunt, plurimum prosunt, non verum docendo, esse permittit, ut, cum insultant nobis, et interrogant nos ea quod nesciunt, sed ad verum quærendum carnales, et ad verum quæ nescimus, vel sic excutiamus pigritiam, et divinas scrip- aperiendum spiritales Catholicos excitando, Quapropter turas nôsse cupiamus. Propterea et Apostolus dicit : Oportet multi, ut diem Dei videant et gaudeant, per hæreticos de hæreses esse, ut probati manifesti fiant inter vos. Illi enim somno excitantur. ib. cap. 8, n. 18. Deo probati sunt, qui bene possunt docere. Sed manifesti e Quâ igitur causà a vobis corrumpi non possent, hac de hominibus esse non possunt, nisi cum docent: docere autem causâ a nemine potuerunt. Contr. Faust. 1. 32, c. 16. nolunt, nisi eos qui doceri quærunt. Sed multi ad quæren. * Εςι μεν εν η κακια ανάσιος, και ανυποςατος πραξις μαλdum pigri sunt, nisi per molestias et insultationes hæretico- λον η εσια εσα, και πραξις εκ προαιρεσεως συμβαινεσα. κ. λ. rum quasi de somno excitentur, et de illâ imperitiâ sua pericli- Serap. contr. Manich. p. 44, fin. tari se sentiant. Qui omines, si bonæ sint fidei, non cedunt & Peccatorum originem non libero arbitrio voluntatis, sed hæreticis, sed, quid eis respondeant, diligentius inquirunt. substantiæ tribuunt gentis adversæ; quam dogmatizantes esse Nec eos deserit Deus, ut petentes accipiant, et quærentes hominibus mixtam, omnem carnem non Dei, sed malæ mentis inveniant, et pulsantibus aperiatur. Aug. de Genesi contr.
The Manichees. Sect. VIII.
237 9. We may hence learn to exercise moderation toward men of different sentiments, and to keep our temper in disputing with them. In all probability we shall never meet with any men, Christians at least, who differ more from us than the Manichees did from the catholics. Those unreasonable men rejected all the scriptures of the Old Testament in the lump. They asserted that the books of the New Testament had been long ago interpolated, and that they were not all written by those whose names they bear. They held two eternal principles, and denied the humanity of Christ and the resurrection of the body. And yet Augustine professeth much mildness and moderation toward them. And, entering into an argument with them, he offers to God a fervent prayer that“ he may be enabled to govern his passions, and seek their conversion, not their destruction. Possibly he did not always fully observe the rules, which in the time of sedate judgment he prescribed to himself as just and reasonable. But the passage, which I chiefly refer to, is so beautiful and emphatical, that I have transcribed it largely at the bottom of the 6 page. And I would translate it too, but that I am not able to reach the energy of his expressions. In the general he says: • Let them be severe against you, who know not with what labour truth is • discovered, and how difficultly error is avoided. Let them be severe against you, who know • not how hardly the diseases of the mind are cured, and the eye of the understanding strength
ened to bear the light. Let them be severe against you, who are insensible how little we can • know of God after our best endeavours to understand his perfections. Let them treat you
with rigour, who never were entangled in a like error. As for me, I can by no means treat you • in that manner; but must exercise toward you that patience and long-suffering which I once * wanted, and which my friends shewed me, when with a blind and furious zeal I not only
maintained but propagated to the utmost of my power, the principle in which you are still • engaged.
It will be one good use of all this long history, if we learn to form charitable sentiments of other men, and to practise moderation toward them; no longer debating with those who differ from us, as if we were infallible, but as inquirers after truth, even as we desire they should da: which also is particularly recommended by the same renowned writer.
perhibent esse opificium, quæ a contrario principio Deo co- inveniatur, et quam difficile caveantur errores.
Illi in vos æterna est. &c. De Hær. cap. 46, sub fin.
sæviant, qui nesciunt quam rarum et arduum sit carnalia phanQuam concupiscentiam, quod sæpe inculcandum est, non tasmata piæ mentis serenitate superare. Illi in vos sæviant, vitium substantiæ bonæ, sed malam vult esse substantiam. Op. qui nesciunt cum quantà difficultate sanetur oculus interioris Imp. 1. 3. c. 106.
hominis.Illi in vos sæviant, qui nesciunt quibus suspiriis Vos autem asseritis quamdam naturam atque substantiam et gemitibus fiat, ut ex quantulâcumque parte possit intelligi malum esse. De M. Manich. cap. 2, n. 2.
Deus. Postremo in vos sæviant, qui nunquam tali errore Veritas autem dicit, omnia ista quæ videmus, et quæ non decepti sunt, quali vos deceptos vident. Ego autem, qui, diu videmus, quæ naturaliter subsistunt, a Deo facta esse ; in qui- multumque jaetatus, tandem respicere potui,- -qui denique bus rationalem creaturam, etiam ipsam factam, sive in angelis illa figmenta, quæ yos diuturna consuetudine implicatos et sive in hominibus, accipisse liberum arbitrium; quo libero ar- constrictos tenent, et quæsivi curiose,et attente audivi,et temere bitrio si Deo servire vellet secundum voluntatem ac legem Dei, credidi, et instanter, quibus potui, persuasi, -sævire in vos haberet apud eum æternam felicitatem.- Ecce autem non possum, quos, sicut me ipsum illo tempore, ita nunc liberum arbitrium, atque inde peccare quemque si velit, non debeo sustinere, et tantâ patientia vobiscum agere, quantâ peccare si nolit, &c. Aug. ap. Act. cum Felic. 1. 2. c. 3. mecum egere proximi mei, cum in vestro dogmate rabiosus
a Uņum verum Deum omnipotentem-et rogavi, et rogo, et cæcus errarem. ibid. cap. 2. n. 2, 3. ut in refellendâ et revincendâ hæresi vestrâ, Manichæi, cui et c-illud quovis judice impetrare me a vobis oportet, ut vos fortasse imprudentius quam malitiosius adhæsistis, det mihi in utrâque parte omnis arrogantia deponatur. Nemo nostrům mentem pacatam atque tranquillam, et magis de vestrâ cor- dicat, se jam invenisse veritatem, Sic eam quæramus, quasi rectione, quam de subversione cogitantem. Contr. Ep. Fund. ab utrisque nesciatur. Ita enim diligenter et concorditer cap. i. in.
quæri poterit, si nullâ temerariâ præsumtione inventa et coge b Illi in vos sæviant, qui nesciunt cum quo labore verum nita esse credatur. Id. ib. n. 4.
I. Their history. II. Their testimony to the scriptures.
TAKE this opportunity to give a brief account of the Paulicians, who were mentioned before, and are usually reckoned a branch of the Manichees. But Beausobre says that though they are sometimes confounded with the Manichees, they agreed but little with them. And indeed Peter of Sicily intimates that they did not own themselves to be Manichees.
They are generally supposed to have first appeared in the seventh century, in the country of - Armenia, and to have been so called from · Paul, son of Callinice, a Manichæan woman, who had another son named John, who also was a zealous preacher of this doctrine, called revived Manichæism.
Photius says they • hold two principles, as the Manichees do; he f calls Mani their master: he continually considers their sect as a 's branch of Manichæism.
I formerlymentioned a particularity of theirs. Photius likewise says that they did not chuse to have their ministers called priests, but scribes or secretaries, or “companions in travel," the word used in Acts xix. 29, and 2 Cor. viii. 19.
II. I now proceed to observe their testimony to the scriptures.
1. Photius says they reject the holy prophets and all the Old Testament, and the ancient saints in general, calling them thieves and robbers.
2. • As for the scriptures of the New Testament,' Photius says, "they'receive the gospel, and the apostle (meaning the gospels and the epistles of the apostle Paul at least, ] which the • Christian church receives and honours, and has delivered to them. These they receive without . altering or corrupting them in any material things, as Valentinus and some others have done. • But they pervert them from their true meaning to support their apostasy.'
3. Afterwards, having quoted 2 Pet. iii. 15, 16, and having applied to them what St. Peter says of some who wrested the scriptures to their own destruction, he says: • As for the oracles
of the Lord and the apostles, and the other scriptures, (by which last I mean the Acts of the • apostles, and the epistles called catholic,) excepting those of the chief apostle, they receive * them: for those ascribed to him they do not receive at all. And concerning the Acts of the • apostles, and the catholic epistles, they are not all of the same opinion: for some reject them, • whilst others join them with the other scriptures received by all.
4. Photius does also elsewhere expressly say they · rejected Peter, because he denied his
• See p. 158.
* Αλλα γαρ και τες ιερες προφητας, και σασαν την παλαιας • Qui tametsi se a Manichæorum impuritatibus alienos dic- γραφην, και τας αλλος αποτρεφονται αγιές, λησας και κλεπτας titant, sunt tamen dogmatum ipsorum vigilantissimi custodes αποκαλεντες. ib. 1. i. c. 3, p. 23. et propugnatoreś. Pet. Sic. ap. Bib. P. P. Max. T. 16, p. 'Το μέντοι ευαγγέλιον, και τον αποςολον, α και το θειον των 754, Β.
Χριςιανων αεριώτυσσεται και τιμα συνταγμα, εγγραφως τ8τοις • Εν ταυτη γυνη της, ονοματι Καλλινικη- -δυο τικτει παρεθετο, τους σημασι μεν και ονομασιν εδεν μεγα παραλλατο
Εκ θατερα τοινυν των ειρημενων, ότω Παυλος ήν των τ8 λογα το σχημα, κ. λ. 1. 1, c. 3, p. 9. Vid. et p. ονομα-Παυλικιανων κλησιν οι της αποφασιας εραςαι μετελ. 10, 11. λαξαντο. Ρh. contr. Manich. 1. i. c. 2, p. 4, 5. Vid. et Petr. 1η Οι αυτα τε τα κυριακα λογια, και τα αποφολικα, και τας Sic. ib. p. 759, Α.
αλλας γραφας, φημι δη τας τε Πραξεις των αποστολων, και τας Δυο μεν αρχας ομολογεσιν, ως οι Μανιχαιοι· Phot, ib. 1. i. Καθολικας λεγομενας, πλην των αναφερομενων εις τον κορυC, 6, in.
φαιον, εκείνας γαρ εδε τοις σημασιν παραδεχονται.Και Και τοιγε το διδασκαλε αυτων Μανεντoς, κ. λ. ib. c. 8. τας Πραξεις δε των απος ολων, και τας Καθολικας και παντες
αυτων συναρμοζοσι τοις αλλοις, εισι δε οί και συνταττεσι, Ιd. και αι το Μανεντος παραφυάδες: ib. 1. 4. c. 1. in. et passim. 1. i. c. 8, p. 27.
-μαλισα δε τον κορυφαιον των ασοςόλων Πετρον 1 Τες μεντοι παρ' αυτοις ιερεων ταξιν επεχοντας εκ ιερεις, δυσφημασιν, ότι γεγονεν εξαργος, φασι, της εις τον διδασκαλου ιλλα συνεκδημος και νοταριες επονομαζεσι. 1. i. C. 9, p. 31, και Χριςον πιςεως. ib, C, 8, p. 24. Conf, c. 25, p. 134, et Welf. not. in. loc.
Lord and Master. Mr. Wolff therefore says, that perhaps these are the only Christians that
5. În another place, they • admit, as the rule of their faith, the oracles of the Lord, and the
Again, they endeavour to confirm their doctrines by the scriptures of the gospel, and
7. He quotes to them the divine Luke in the Acts, though, as he adds, many of the sect do not receive that book.
8. He quotes to them expressly · Paul's epistle to the Hebrews, or Jews, as his word is.
9. What regard the Paulicians had for the book of the Revelation I cannot particularly say; Photius not quoting it in his argument with them.
10. I add one thing more. These people greatly respected the scriptures of the New Testament, and approved that all people, the laity, and even women, should read, study, and understand them. This appears from a story told by Photius, of a conversation between a Manichæan woman and Sergius, who afterwards became a zealous promoter of the sect.
11. I have almost entirely confined myself to Photius, not thinking it needful to be more particular at present, or to copy much from Peter, or any other author, concerning so late a sect. However I shall briefly observe, that Peter of Sicily in the main agrees with Photius, often saying that the Paulicians rejected the Old Testament, and used only the gospels and the apostle. In particular, he says: They receive the four gospels, and the fourteen epiştles of Paul, and • the catholic epistle of James, and the three epistles of John, and the catholic epistle of Jude, • and the Acts of the apostles, without making any alterations in them. But they admit not the two epistles of the chief of the apostles.'
12. Upon the whole, the Paulicians, according to these accounts, received the books of the New Testament as they were received by other Christians, excepting the two epistles of Peter, which they entirely rejected, if these authors say right. But what was their sentiment concern. ing the Revelation we cannot say.
* Hi igitur forte soli ex omni Christianorum antiquitate utramque Petri epistolam adversati sunt, cum. Eusebius lib. iii. c. 3. H. E. testetur priorem ab omnibus, posteriorem ab antiquioribus non receptam fuisse. At hi quidem id fecerunt, obortà, an Petri ea sit, dubitatione ; illi vero, ex temerario quodam in Petrum odio. Wolff. ib. p. 27.
και εν οις τατε κυριακα αναγεγραπται λογια, και το μεγαλε απο ολα Παυλο αι επιςολαι, και παρ ενιoις των ασος ολων αι Πραξεις, και των Καθολικων δσαι παρα τας το κορυφαιε τυγχαv8014. ib. I. i. c. 13, p. 56, 57.
“οις τε τας ευαγγελικας γραφας τιμάν ισχυρίζονται, και οίς την αποστολον και θεοφορον Παυλον τα οικεια φρονηματος δογματισης και διδασκαλον καταψευδονται. 1.4, c. 6, p. 133.
«Τα ισα δε καν ταις Πραξεσιν ο θειος Λεκας, ει και το αλειςον της αποφασιας αυτων τας εκεινο φωνας και προσιέται. 1.2, c. 6, p. 187.
• Τω σωτηρι γαρ ημων ο Παυλος προς Ιεδαιες γραφων, την πατρικην αρμοζει φονην, κ. λ. 1, 2, C. Χ. p. 185.
“ 'H προειρημενη Μανιχαια γυνη, ηνικα το πρωτον εις ομιλιαν αυτω κατεση, ίνα τι, φησιν, ειπε μοι, τα θεια εκ αναγινωσκεις ευαγγελια; Ο δε- μη εξειναι φησας την των λαϊκων πληρυντι ταξιν ανεδην ύτως την των φρικτων λογιων αοιεισθαι αναγνωσιν, , ανεισθαι γαρ τοις ιερευσιν το εργον. 1. i. c. 20, p. 100.
& Quod veteris instrumenti tabulas non admittant, prophetasque planos et latrones appellent,- -aut sola duntaxat sacra quatuor evangelia, et S. Pauli Apostoli denas quaternas epistolas recipiant, Jacobi item Catholicam, ternas Joannis, Catholicam Judæ, cum Actis Apostolorum, iisdein quibus apud nos sunt verbis. -Binas Catholicas magni et immobilis ecclesiæ fundamenti, principis apostolorum, non admittunt. Petr. ubi supr. p. 756, E.
MR. BOWER'S ACCOUNT OF THE MANICHEES,
IN THE SECOND VOLUME OF HIS HISTORY OF THE POPES.
None of my learned friends, who have read Mr. Bower's History of the Popes, (and I suppose they have all read it,) could forbear observing the difference between his account of the Manichees, and that given in the sixth volume of the first edition of this work. And some of them have intimated that I could not decline taking public notice of it, unless I would be understood to allow that the account given by me of the same people was wrong; for which I see no reason. Indeed I cannot but wish that Mr. Bower had read that volume, or the late Mr. Beausobre’s History of the Manichees, from which I received a great deal of light; I think he would then have expressed himself very differently from what he has done: as it is, I think myself obliged to make a few remarks.
In the history of Manes, or Mani (as the Persians his countrymen call him,) which is at the beginning of note (D) p. 19, 20, of Mr. Bower's second volume, there are, in my opinion, several mistakes; as may appear from the account given of Mani, and his works, and predecessors, in the forementioned volume: to which they are referred who please to look into it.
In the latter part of the same note, p. 21, 22, Mr. Bower proceeds to the tenets of this sect, which I considered formerly, so far as I judged needful. I therefore take notice of a very few things only in Mr. Bower upon this article.
In that note, p. 21, says Mr. Bower: Thus was gluttony with them a cardinal virtue, and - eating to excess highly meritorious. I do not conceive how that can be truly said of the Manichees, when their elect, the most distinguished part of them, comprehending their ecclesiastics, and some others, were obliged to abstain from meat, and wine, and eggs, and fish. And Mr. Bower says, p. 23, that their auditors, as well as their elect, kept two fasts in the week, the
one on Sunday, the other on Monday.' That the Manichees were great fasters was shewn p. 160: that they were by principle, and frequent practice, a temperate, abstemious sort of people, appears, I think, from a passage which I have not yet alleged at all
. It is near the conclusion of a work generally ascribed to Marius Victorinus Afer, in the fourth century; which is a letter to Justin, a Manichee, a learned man, and the author's friend. In vain,' says he, do you now macerate your body, and mortify it with continual fasting and watching; if, * after all, it has no other lot than to return to the devil, who, you say, is its creator.
But, undoubtedly, Mr. Bower has some reason for saying what he does, which therefore ought to be considered. The particles of the good nature were, according to them, in all
beings of this universe, mixed, and chained to, the particles of the evil nature. Such, however, • as happened to be in the food which they used, were, in being used by them, delivered for • ever from so painful a bondage. Thus was gluttony with them a cardinal virtue, and eating to • excess highly meritorious:' p. 21, note (D). This therefore is only a consequence deduced from the just mentioned supposed principle of theirs. But it does not appear that they discerned this consequence; for, so far as we can find, they did not, by principle, eat to excess: but were, and upon principle, great fasters and very abstemious. Augustine imputes to them the same principle, whether justly or not I do not now inquire. Nevertheless he does not upon that account charge them with excess in eating; because I suppose he knew they were not guilty of
a Et cassum nunc usque jugi inediâ, inimicæ, ut ais, carnis membra tenuâsti, censens ipse animæ officere meritis, ac naturæ passi corporis succos, ac pinguedinis distentæ grassamina atque ipsorum abdominum njole prægrayari: si post
hunc jejuniorum laborem ad creatorem tuum, quem ais, aut diabolum, aut exteriores tenebras reverteris, T. M. Victorin. adv. Manich. Ap. B. PP. Lugd. T. 4, p. 292, D. E.