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CHAP. XLV.

WRITINGS ASCRIBED TO ST. CYPRIAN, OR JOINED WITH HIS WORKS.

I. Pontius. II. An anonymous author concerning shews. III. Anonymous author concerning

discipline and the benefit of chastity. IV: Anonymous author of the praise of martyrdom. V. Anonymous author against the Novatian heretic. VI. Anonymous author concerning rebaptizing; or, of the baptism of heretics. VII. Anonymous author of a computation of Easter.

1. I

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Haye several times quoted The Life of St. Cyprian, written by his deacon Pontius, which is now. usually prefixed to the works of that father. St. Jerom * calls it an excellent performance, Rigaltius will scarce allow that it deserves to be reckoned a history, it is so defective and so rhetorical ; it is however usefiul: and if Pontius was not a fine writer, he was a good man. have no reason to question his being worthy of the confidence and friendship with which that eininent bishop honoured him. He triumphed in Cyprian's glorious martyrdom, though at the same time he was not a little grieved that he did not accompany him. He is said to have died a martyr; but there is scarce any good authority for that supposition, St. Jerom says nothing of it ; nor has he mentioned any work of his, beside this one of Cyprian's Life and Passion, as de expressly calls it. This writer is placed by Cave at the year 251.

Trithemius says that " Pontius converted the two Philips, emperors of Rome, to the faith of Christ: but it is thought he confounds our Pontius, deacon of Cyprian and an African, with another of this name in Gaul, who is said to have suffered martyrdom in the time of Valerian and Gallienus; of whom there are Acts of martyrdom still extant, where that story is related : but “ Pagi has shewn that those Acts are not to be relied upon in that matter, as being the forgery of a late writer. And Tillemont' has been at the pains to demonstrate at large that they are good for nothing.

Pontius, in his Life of Cyprian, has quoted the gospels of St. Matthew, St. Luke, the * first chapter in particular, and St. John, and several of St. Paul's epistles, and the book of the Acts of the apostles' expressly by that title. There is no necessity to be more particular here, since it may be relied upon, and taken for granted, that this deacon's canon was the same with his bishop's.

II. There are several treatises, which sometimes have been ascribed to St. Cyprian, but are now generally allowed by learned men not to be his. I shall here speak of four of them : Of shews; Of discipline and the benefit of chastity; Of the praise of martyrdom; Against the heretic Novatian, or, Against the Novatian heretic. Of the first two, and the last, Du Pin says, they are ancient and useful; that they appear to have been all three written by one and the same person, and that they might be reckoned pieces of St. Cyprian, if it were not for the difference of style ; and that they are not ascribed to him in the manuscripts, but only in the

a Pontius, diaconus Cypriani, usque ad diem passionis ejus e Vid. Fabric, ib. not. m. "cum ipso exilium sustinens, egregium volumen vitæ et passio- f Vid. Baron. Am. 246. n. 9. Tillem. Persécution de nis Cypriani reliquit. De V. I. сар. .

l'église sous l'empereur Valérien. Art. 7. M • Vita Cypriani, quæ fertur ab ejus diacono Pontio perscrip- P. I. p. 26, 27. Acta S. S. per Bolland. &c. ad diem. 14 ta, rhetoricæ dictionis gratiam magis quam narrationis histo- Maii. Ruinart. Act. Mart. p: 215, not. 62. ricæ diligentiam præfert. Rigalt. Not. ad Cypr. Ep. 81, & Ap. Baluz. Miscell. l. ii.p. 124, &c. {al. 83) ed. Oxon. p. 238.

hi Pagi Crita in Bar. 244. n. 6... • Inter gaudium passionis, et remanendi dolorem, in partes Not. 7. sur la persécution de Valérien. p. 336.... 340. divisus animus, et angustum nimis pectus affectus duplices M. E. T. iv. Pie operant. Dolebo, quod non comes fuerim? Sed illius vic

* Sanie et in scripturis tale aliquid invenio. Nam Zachatoria triumphanida est, De victoriâ triumphabe? Sed doleo, rias sacerdos, promisso sibi per angelum filio, quia non crediquod comes non sim ?.... Multum, et nimis multum de glo. derat, obmutuit: [Luc. i. 20 et 64.] Pont. p. 8. rià ejus exulto: plus tamen doleo, quod remansi. Pont. in fine. ó. ? Sed etsi in apostolorum Actis eunuchus ille describit'ır,

Hic Pontius suâ- mellifluâ prædicatione et industria duos quia toto corde crediderat, a Philippo statim tinctus; non est Philippos imperatores ad Christum convertit, &c. Trithem. - similis comparatio. Ibid. p. 2: de Scr. Ec. cap. 42. p. 14. Ed, Fabr.'

on S. Cypriu, Bib!, dus Aut. Ecc 1; i. p. 172

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69.

m. Ec, T. iv.

printed editions. As I do not see any plain marks of these three pieces having one and the same author, I shall give a distinct account of all the four treatises just mentioned, according to the order they are placed in above, which is the same they have in the appendix to St. Cyprian's genuine works in the Oxford edition. Afterwards I shall make some extracts out of the book of an anonyntous author, Concerning the rebaptizing of heretics: and lastly, out of a small piece, entitled, a Computation of Easter; all these being now usually joined in the volume of St. Cyprian's works.

1. I begin“ with the piece, Of shews, which is called an epistle of an unknown author. It seems to have been written by a bishop, then unwillingly separated from his people, and who had not frequent opportunities of writing to them. Tillemont says that, whoever was the author, it is an excellent work : that it was written in the times of heathenism, when exorcisms were frequent in the church, and ' whilst it was yet the custom to carry the eucharist home. That it was written in the time of heathenism, I think apparent from divers passages. This book is much commended by the 3 Benedictine, who writes the life of St. Cyprian; but yet he does not allow it to be his : for though it has in it those marks of antiquity which have been observed by Tillemont, and though among the works ascribed to Cyprian, none resemble his style more than this, there is no notice at all taken of it by Pontius, and there is in it a difference of style, which may be perceived by all who are well acquainted with Cyprian's works.

2. In this book there are few texts of scripture quoted; which is different from Cyprian's ordinary method, whose works abound with them. However, the author informs us that some at that trine endeavoured to defend their practice of frequenting the theatre, by the apostle's allusions to the heathen games, referring particularly to 1 Cor. ix. 25, and Eph. vi. 12: he is likewise supposed to refer to * Matt. xxvii. 52. He calls the scriptures of the New Testament k sacred writings, and divine scriptures, and heavenly scriptures. He also shews his respect for these books by his indignation against those, who " pretended to justify their frequenting the public shews by the authority of the heavenly scriptures. And at the end of his book, or letter, he recommends to Christians, instead of attending the theatre, the study of the scriptures, after this manner; . I o say then, that a good Christian ought to employ himself in diligent reading * the sacred scriptures, there he will find more worthy objects for the entertainment of his faith and hope.'

3. So far of this book, which, though short, ought not to be reckoned unprofitable to us; and I hope it appears to deserve the account I have here given of it.

III. The second piece ascribed by some to Cyprian is entitled, Of ? discipline and the benefit of chastity: in the Oxford and Benedictine editions it is called an epistle of an unknown author: the time of it too is uncertain : it is evident from the beginning of it that it was written by a bishop: I shall transcribe ? the words by and by. The learned Benedictine beforementioned says this piece is very ancient, and not unworthy of Cyprian himself; but the difference of style, and silence of Pontius about it, are good reasons why it ought not to be reckoned the a De Spectaculis. Epistola ignoti auctoris.

jam ad vitam corporum (animas) reductas. Baluz, p. 343.] b Ut me satis contristat, et animum meum graviter affligit, p. 4. b. fin. cum nulla mihi scribendi ad vos porrigitur occasio, (detrimen- * Præscribat igitur istis pudor, etiamsi non possunt sancta tum enim est meum yobiscum non colloqui,) ita nihil mihi literæ. p. 2. b. f.

i Vid. supra ". tantam lætitiam hilaritatemque restituit, quam cum adest rur- m See the next note. şus occasio. p. 2. Ed. Ox.

n ... tamen, quoniam non desunt vitiorum assertores blandi • Mem. Ec. T. iv. St. Cyprien. art. 22. See also note xxviii. et indulgentes patroni, qui præstant vitiis auctoritatem, et,

• Quod enim spectaculum sine idolo? quis ludus sine sacri- quod est deterius, censuram scripturarum cælestium in advaficio ? quod certamen non consecratum mortuo? p. 3. a. vid. cationem criminum convertunt, , .. Non pudet, non pudet, quæ sequuntur.

inquam, fideles homines et Christiani sibi nominis auctoritae Impudenter in ecclesiâ dæmonia exorcizat, quorum vo- tem vindicantes, superstitiones vanas gentilium cum spectaculis luptates in spectaculis laudat. p. 3. a. :

mixtas de scripturis cælestibus vindicare, et divinam auctoriQui festinans ad spectaculum, dimissus, et adhuc gerens tatem idololatriæ conferre.... Hoc in loco non immerito dixsecum, ut assolet, eucharistiam inter corpora obscæna mere- erim, longe melius fuisse istis nullas literas nosse, quam sic tricum tulit. p. 3. b. m.

8 Vit. S. Cypr. sect. XXXV. literas legere. p. 2. a. b. ed. Ox. Conf. ed. Baloz. p. 339. h Apostolus quoque dimican's cæstûs et dimicationis nos- Scripturis, inquam, sacris incumbat Christianus fidelis, træ adversus spiritalia nequitiæ proponit certamen. Rursus de et ibi inveniet condigna fidei spectacula.... Quam hoc decostadiis sumit exempla, coronæ quoque collocat præmia. Cur rum spectaculum, fratres, quam jucundum, quam necessarium!' ergo homini Christiano fideli oon liceat spectare quod licuit intueri semper spem suam, et oculos aperire ad salutem suana. divinis literis scribere ? p. 2. b. in.

P De Disciplinå et bono Pudicitiæ. i Considerabit etiam de sepulcris admirabiles ipsorum con- 9 See below numb. vi. suminatorum jam vitas corporum redactas : [consumtorum ! Ubi supr. sect. 35.

p. 4. b. fin.

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work of that father. Whoever was the author, he has cited the words of divers books of the New Testament.

1. • This,says * he, our Lord taught, when he said, that a wife ought not to be divorced, “ saving for the cause of adultery:"' Matth. v. 32.

2. · Hence he (the apostle] says also, that “ the members of Christ ought not to be joined, « to the members of an harlot hence deservedly adulterers do not “inherit the kingdom • of God:"1 Cor. vi. 15 and 9.

3. • The apostle declares the church to be the “ spouse of Christ :” See 2 Cor. xi. 2.

4. • Hence also the apostle has observed that “ the man is the head of the woman,” (1 Cor. xi. 3. Eph. v. 24.] Nevertheless he adds; “ He that loveth his wife, loveth himself. For no * man hateth his own flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as Christ the church.' Eph. v. 28, 29.

5. Hence the apostle says; “ This is the will of God, that ye should abstain from forni. *cation.'" 1 Thess. iv. 3.

6. The respect which this bishop liad for the writings of the New Testament appears at the beginning of this tract, or epistle, sent to his people. I reckon,' says' he, that I do not neglect to discharge some part of my office whilst I endeavour, especially by daily tracts upon the gospels, to make some improvements and increases of your faith and knowledge of the • Lord: for what more useful service is there in the church of the Lord ? What is there more • becoming the office of a bishop than, by instructions from the divine words of the Lord him. self, to lead the faithful to the enjoyment of the promised kingdom of heaven? This is my * constant and daily labour and desire, though absent from you: and after my accustomed * manner I endeavour to be present with you by the discourses 1 send you, that, being built on • the firm foundation of the gospel, ye may always “ stand armed against all the wiles of the • devil :"' Eph. vi. 11. And presently afterwards ; For this purpose we not only allege words * from the sacred fountains of the scriptures, but with the words themselves we join our prayers ' to the Lord, that he will open both to us and you the treasures of his mysteries, and enable us * to act according to our knowledge: for great will be his misery, “ who knew the Lord's will, • and neglected to do it :"' Luke xii. 47.

7. He concludes with recommending the study of the scriptures; • I have said a few things only, because it is not my design to write a volume, but to send you a discourse (or homily.] • Do you look into the scriptures, and improve yourselves by the precepts there delivered, relating to the virtue I have been recommending to you. My dearest brethren, farewell."

8. I think we may consider this as an example of the homilies of the time in which this bishop lived: but it would be an additional pleasure to know more exactly the time itself, and the place of his ordinary residence.

Îv. The third piece, sometimes ascribed to St. Cyprian, but now generally discarded by learned men as unworthy of that great name, is entitled, Of' the praise of martyrdom. Bishop Fell thinks this to be * only a declamation written by some one for the exercise of his style.

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a Hanc sententiam Christus, quando uxorem dimitti non quotidianum votivum negotium, absens licet, obtinere conninisi ob adulterium dixit. p. 6. a.

tor, et per literas præsentiam meam vobis reddere conor, Dum 6 Hinc et illud dicit: Membra Christi membris meretricis vos solito more allocutionibus missis in tide interpello, ideo non esse jungenda. .Hinc merito regnum cælorum non tenent convenio, ut evangelicæ radicis firmitate solidati, adversus adulteri. p. 6. a.

omnia diaboli prælia stetis semper armati.. . . Non solum pro• Nam si apostolus ecclesiam sponsam Christi pronuntiat. ferimus verba, quæ de scripturarum sacris fontibus veniunt, p. 5. a.

sed et cum ipsis verbis preces ad Dominum et vota sociamus, Inde et apostolus caput mulieris pronuntiavit virum... ut tam nobis quam vobis et sacraipentorum suorum thesauros Addit tamen et dicit : Quoniam qui uxorem suam diligit, aperiat, et vires ad implenda, quæ cognoscimus tribuat. Periseipsum diligit. Nemo enim carnem suam odio habet, sed culum enim majus est voluntatem Domini cognovisse, et in nutrit et fovet eam, sicut et Christus ecclesiam. p. 6. a.

Dei voluntatis opere cessâsse. p. 5. a. e Hinc apostolus dicit: Hæc est voluntas Dei, ut abstinea- . Ego pauca dictavi, quoniam non est propositum volumen tis vos a fornicatione. p. 6. a.

scribere, sed allocutionem transmittere. Vos scripturas aspi* Aliquas officiorum meorum partes non æstimo præterisse, cite, exempla vobis de ipsis piæceptis hujus rei majora condum semper enitor, vel maxime quotidianis evangeliorum quirite. Fratres carissimi, bene valete. p. 8. b. tractatibus, aliquando vobis fidei et scientiæ per Dominum h Vid. Pagi Crit. in Barop. 251. n. xv.

Basnag. Ann. 258. incrementa præstare. Quid enim aliud in ecclesiâ Domini

i Jiber De Lande Martyrii, utilius geri, quid accommodatius officio episcopi potest in- "Esercendi styli gratiâ hæc videntur scripta, cum plenos veniri, quam ut doctrinâ divinorum, per ipsum insinuatâ col- theatri cuneos, et populi strepitum sibi repræsentet orator. Not. latâque, verborum, possint credentes ad repromissum regnum p. 8. ed. Oxon. pervenire cælorum Hoc certe mei et operis et muneris, VOL. II.

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Basnage 4 and Du Pin speak of it in the like manner. But the learned Benedictine has a more favourable opinion of it, though he does not take it to be a genuine work of St. Cyprian. It appears to me an oration in form, and there is a good deal of affectation in the style. It is allowed to be ancient, but the exact time of it is not easily determined. Considering the character of this book, a short account of it will be sufficient.

1. There are here cited passages of divers books of the New Testament, particularly of the four gospels; of Matthew, Mark,' Luke, and John.

2. He has in like manner quoted or referred to the following epistles of Paul; to the epistle to the Romans, the first to the Corinthians, the epistles to the Galatians, the Philippians, the Colossians, and second to Timothy.

3. He quotes 1 Cor. ix. 24, after this manner; It is the voice of the most blessed Paul, * saying; “ Know ye not that they which run in a race strive many, but one receiveth the prize ? But do you so run that all may

obtain." 4. I shall put down a passage of this Latin writer, which may be thought to contain a reference to Heb. xi. but I do not think it to be clear: however, it deserves to be taken notice of for the sake of the sense as well as for the seeming reference. If,' says he, you are a good

man, and believe in God, why are you unwilling to lay down your life for him, who you know • has so often suffered for you; who has been sawn asunder in Isaiah, killed in Abel, offered up • in Isaac, sold in Joseph, crucified in the flesh ? I omit other things, which words cannot express • nor the mind conceive.'

5. Finally, perhaps he refers to some passages of the Revelation in some words which I intend to put in the margin as an example of this author's oratorical flights. See Rev. xiii. 8; vi. 11; vii. 13, 14.

V. The fourth piece, ascribed by some to Cyprian, is entitled, To, or' Against the heretic Novatian; or, Against the Novatian heretic; that hope of pardon ought not to be denied to those who have lapsed. In the late editions it is called a tract of an unknown author. Du Pin calls it a homily. Tillemont," who allows that the style of this work is different from Cyprian's, and that therefore it is not his, thinks however that it might be written soon after the persecution of Decius, and then of Gallus, in the former part of the reign of Valerian, about the year 254 or 255. He refers to two passages of this work, which compared together seem to render his opinion very probable." Theo Benedictine, author of St. Cyprian's Life, agrees with Tillemont about the age of this piece. He says, it is certain the author was contemporary with Cyprian, and that it cannot be questioned but he lived near the beginning of the reign of Valerian, whilst the church had peace. He supposes him likewise to have been an African, and a bishop. Nevertheless, he does not allow this to be a work of Cyprian. And

to the argument taken from the difference of the style he adds another, not insisted on by Tillemont.

a Basn. ut supra.

• Nouv. Bibl. St. Cyprien. * O beati, et quibus vere dimissa sunt peccata; si tamen Vit. St. Cyprian. n. xxxv.

qui Christi compares estis, aliquando peccâstis. O beati, 4 Legis, scriptum esse, usque ad quadrantem nos ultimum quos a primordio mundi Domini sanguis infecit, et quos merito reddere. (Matt. v. 26.] p. 11. b.

splendor iste nivei amictûs induerit, et candor stolæ ambientis e Quæso repetas verba cælestia ; nam et vox dicentis est ornârit ! p. 15. b. Christi : Qui perdiderit animam suam pro nomine meo, " Ad Novatianum hæreticum : Quod lapsis spes veniæ non recipiet in hoc seculo centuplum, et in futuro vitam æternam est deneganda. possidebit. [Marc. x. 30.] p. 12. b.

m See Mem. Ec. T. iv. Part i. St. Cyprien. Art. 41. * Sicut scriptum est: Qui me confessus fuerit in terris + Cataclysmus ergo ille, qui sub Noë factus est, figuram coram hominibus, et ego confitebor eum coram patre meo, et persecutionis quæ per totum orbem nunc nuper supereffusa coram angelis suis. (Luc. xii. 8.) p. 11. a.

ostendit. ... Duplex ergo illa emissio (columbæ) duplicem & Sed quoniam ita Dominus suo ore testatus est, esse habi. nobis persecutionis tentationem ostendit ;. prima in quâ qui tacula penes patrem multa. (Johan. xiv. 2.] p. 14. b.

lapsi sunt, victi ceciderunt : secunda in quâ hi qui ceciderunt, 1 Vox est beatissimi Pauli, dicentis: Nescitis, quoniam victores extiterunt. Nulli enim nostruin dubium vel incerqui in agone currunt, multi certant, unus autem accipit pal- tum est, fratres dilectissimi, illos, qui prima acie, id est, Demam ? Vos autem sic currite, ut omnes coronemini, [com- cianâ persecutione vulnerati fuerunt, hos postea, id est, seprehendatis, Baluz.] p. 15. a.

cundo prælio ita fortiter perseverasse, ut, contemnentes edicta i Si justus es, et Deo credis, quid pro eo sanguinem fun- secularium principum, (Galli et Volusiani] hoc invictum hadere metuis, quem pro te toties passum esse cognoscis ? In berent: quod non metuerunt exemplo boni pastoris aniinam Esaia sectus, in Abel occisus, in Isaac immolatus, in Joseph suam tradere, et sanguinem fundere, nec ullam insanientis venumdatus, in homine crucifixus est; et de cæteris quidem tyranni sævitiam recusare. p. 17. b. taceo, quæ nec oratio potest dicere, nec animus sustinere, • Vit. St. Cyprian, n. XXXV, p. 15. a.

gospel

1. This piece abounds with texts of scripture.

2. · Whose * future ruin,' says he, “the Lord represents in the gospel, saying; “ And he who • hears my words, and does them not, I will liken him unto a foolish man, who built his house

upon the sand.”....Matth. vii. 26, 27. This gospekis quoted here in a like manner several times. I have not observed any thing taken from St. Mark.

3. • Which power the Lord gave to his disciples, as he says in the gospel ; “ Behold, I give unto you power to tread on all the power of the enemy, and upon serpents and scorpions, • and they shall not hurt you:"' Luke x. 19. In this piece are many texts taken out of this gospel.

4. · Whom the Lord Christ reckons thieves and robbers, as he himself declares in the saying; “ He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but gets down some other way, • the same is a thief and a robber;" John x. 1.

5. In this piece are also passages of divers epistles of St. Paul, particularly the epistle to the Romans, first to the Corinthians, the epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, and Philippians; which passages are cited expressly as the apostle's, meaning Paul, though the churches to whom those epistles were sent are not named.

6. • The scripture saying ; " Vengeance belongeth to me: I will repay, saith the Lord.” In the margin of the Oxford edition here is a reference put to Heb. x. 30. But the quotation might be taken from Deut. xxxii. 35; or Rom. xii. 19; and very probably was taken from one or other of those places.

7. · Have you not read, that “ the Lord resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.” Here too are placed in the same edition James iv. 6, and i Pet. v. 5. But the same thing is said also Prov. iii. 34. However, if the writer intended any text of the New Testament, he may be supposed rather to refer to the first epistle of Peter, which was more universally received than that of James, whose authority, it is certain, was not then fully established. Besides, as' St. Augustine observes, there is scarce a page of the holy scriptures which does not teach us that “ God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.” There was no occasion therefore for that reference to the epistle of James. However, we have no good ground to say that this author rejected, or did not receive this epistle ; for he may have owned it, though he has not quoted it in this work of his.

8. · Have 5 you not read ; “ He that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in dark• ness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness has blinded his eyes ?” 1 John ii. 11. In another place, · Whom " John calls “ antichrists ;” referring probably to 1 John ii. 18. or 2 John 7.

9. · As' it is written; “ Behold he cometh with ten thousands of his angels, to execute judg* ment upon all

, and to destroy all ungodly men, and to convince all flesh of all the deeds of the • ungodly, which they have ungodly committed, and of all the ungodly words which sinners have • spoken of God:” Jude 14, 15.

19. The book of the Revelation is much quoted in this treatise. • Butk John speaks more plainly [than Daniel before quoted] both of the day of judgment, and of the end of the world, • saying; “ And when he had opened,” says he, “ the sixth seal, behold there was a great earth• quake;"...Rev. vi. 12...17. Likewise in the same Revelation John says, this also was revealed • unto him; “ I saw,” says he, “ a great throne...” xx. 11, 12. Thus he has twice ascribed this

P. 19. b.

à Quorum Dominus ruinam in evangelio futuram his verbis Doctr. Chr. lib. iii. cap. 23. significaverat, dicens : qui audit verba mea, et non facit ea, & Non legisti : Quia qui odit fratrem, in tenebris est ? &c. &c. p. 17. b.

Quam potestatem tradidit Dominus discipulis suis, sicut " Quos Joannes antichristos appellat. p. 16. b. in evangelio ait :... p. 17. b.

Sicut scriptum est : Ecce venit cum multis millibus nun• Quos Dominus Christus fures et latrones designat, sicut tiorum suorum, facere judicium de omnibus, et perdere ipse in evangelio declarat, dicens :... p. 16. b.

omnes impios, et arguere omnem carnem de oninibus factis & Dicente scripturâ : Mini vindictam, et ego retribuam, impiorum quæ fecerunt impie, et de omnibus verbis impiis, dicit Doninus. p. 18. a.

quæ de Deo locuti sunt peccatores. p. 20. b. • Non legisti: Quia Dominus superbis resistit, humilibus k Joannes autem et de die judicii et consummatione mundi autem dat gratiam ? p. 19. b.

declarat, dicens: Et cum aperuisset, inquit, sigillum sextum "... ut apostolica illa sententia ubique tremenda sit, quæ ... Item in eâdem Apocalypsi hoc quoque Joannes dicit sibi ait, Quapropter qui videtur stare, videat ne cadat. Nulla enim revelatum : Vidi, inquit, thronum magnum, et candidum fere pagina est sanctorum librorum, in quâ non sonet, quod sedentem super eum, &c. p. 21. a. b. Deus superbis resistit, humilihus autein dat gratiam. Aug. de

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