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it, received no books of the Old Testament, as of authority, beside those of the Jewish canon. And for the New Testament, he received all those which we now receive, and no other.
(12.) Finally, it deserves our particular notice, that this writer, as well as other ancient Christian writers in general, professeth the highest respect for the books of sacred scripture. For having put down the catalogue of the canonical and uncanonical books of the Old Testament, and then the canonical books of the New, he adds: So many, even these, are the canoni• cal books of the New Testament, and as it were the first-fruits of our faith, or anchors and • fastenings: having been written and published by the apostles of Christ, who conversed with
him, and were taught by him. But innumerable other books have been since composed by “great, and wise, and holy men, by way of testimony to them, and for explaining and illustrating them, of which I need not now speak particularly.'
C H A P. LXXVI.
A DIALOGUE AGAINST THE MARCIONITES.
1. I think it not best to overlook entirely a book, intitled, Of the right Faith in God, or a Dialogue against the Marcionites, in five parts or sections, ascribed to Adamantius, by some supposed to be the same as Origen. I formerly took some notice of it in the general account of Origen's works, and may have occasion to quote it often hereafter in the history of the heretics of the two first centuries. It is fit therefore, that we should observe briefly the author's testimony to the books of the New Testament. But he is not the famous Origen. It appears manifest, from expressions in the first section of the work, that it was written in the time of a Christian emperor. And from the confession made near the beginning of the same section by Adamantius the orthodox disputant, it is probable, that it was not composed until after the council of Nice: accordingly, it is the general opinion of learned men, that the author of this Dialogue is different from Origen, and that it may be placed about the year 330.
2. The author owns' four gospels, and no more, written by John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, disciples of Christ.
3. He calls them all disciples of Christ: for he says, that Mark and Luke were of the number of the seventy or seventy-two disciples.
4. Though there are four evangelists, he says, there is but one gospel.
6. In this work the four gospels are often quoted, and most of St. Paul's epistles, particularly the k epistle to the Ephesians, by that title, and the epistle to 'the Hebrews.
7. The second epistle of Peter is here " quoted.
1 Τοσαυλα και τα της καινης διαθηκης βιβλια, τα γε κανονιζο- 8 Πρωθες απεςειλε ιβ' και μετα ταυλα οξ' ευαγελισασθαι. μενα, και της πιςεως ημων οίονει ακροθινια, η αλκυραι και ερεισ. Μαρκος 8ν και Λακας εκ των ος ονlες Παυλω τα αποσολω, μαία ως παρ' αυτων των αποστολων τα Χρισ8, των και συγλενο- ευηγίελισανίο. Ιb. p. 8. Βas. 806. D. Bened. μενων εκείνω, και υπ' αυλα μαθητευθεντων, γραφεία και εκτεθενία: Ευαγίελισαι μεν τεσσαρες, ευαγίελιον δε εν. Ιb. p. 9. Βas. επειλοιΓε ύςερον κατα την εκεινων ακολοθιαν και συμφωνιαν,
807. Bened. αλλα μυρια και αναρίθμητα βιβλια εξεπονηθησαν υπο των καλα Προσαξον αναγνωσθηναι τας των Αποσολων Πραξεις, και καιρες μεταλων και σοφωλαίων θεοφορων σαλερων, εις μαρίυ- τας επιςολας. κ. λ. Ib. Sect. ii. p. 56. Basn. 828. D. Bened. ριαν των προλαβονίων, και διαφωτισιν. κ. λ. p. 131. Α. Β. Κ Εφεσιοις δε επιςελλων, φησι Μνημονευοντες, ότι ποτε υμεις " See Vol. i. p. 526.
Ta søvn. x. 2.. [Eph. ii. 11, 12, 13.) Sect. v. p. 148. Bas. • Vid. Dialog. p. 30. Basil. 1674. p. 816. Bened.
867. c. Bened. Εφεσιοις δε επιςελλων, ο αποσολος φησιν. Ιb. d P. 3. Bas. p. 804. Bened.
p. 152. Basn. 869. A. Ben. • Vid. Huet. Origenian. I. iii. Sect. 1. n. v. & in App. n. ix. --καλα τον αποσoλον. Ο γαρ νομος σκια των μελλοντων Tillem. Origene. Art. 86. et note 13. Mem. T. iii. & Bene- alalwr. (Heb. x. 1.) Sect. iv. p. 114. Bas. 853. A. Ben. dictinor. Monitum ap. Origen. Opp. T. i. p. 800. Beausob. Ο μεν επρισθη σαρκι, ο δε ελιθασθη, και οι λοιποι εν φονω μαHist. Manich. T. ii. p. 84, 85.
zaspas anehayon. Sect. iv. p. 125. Bas. 857. Ben. fΟι μαθηται τα Χριςο γείραφηκασιν, Ιωαννης και Ματθαιος, πι Ιη δε υπο Πειρα τα απoσoλα γείραμμενον κατά την xus Mapxos xol 18X05. Dialog. sect. i. p. 7. Bas. 806. B. σοφιαν, φησιν, την δεδομένης των αδελφω με Παυλω. Sect. ii. Bened.
p. 58. Bas. 828. D. Bened. Vid. 2 Pet. iii. 15.
8. The words of 2 Pet. ii. 19, “ Of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage," are quoted by * Adamantius, not as the words of Peter, but as a saying or maxim of some wise man not a Christian.
1. As Jerom has an article o for Juvencus in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, I shall transcribe it at the bottom of the page. His name at length was C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus: he was a native of Spain, and a man of a good family. Jerom mentions a work in four books containing the history of our Lord, as recorded in the four gospels, and another work: the former is still extant. Jerom says, he lived in the time of Constantine: which also appears from the conclusion of the fore-mentioned poem. Juvencus is in ` Trithemius: who takes particular notice of the two works, mentioned by Jerom; and supposeth, that Juvencus had written others, though he had not seen them.
2. Jerom seems to have been much pleased with Juvencus; for he has made honourable mention of him in his letter to · Magnus, and placed him in his . Chronicle, and quoted him in his Commentary upon St. Matthew. That quotation relates to the presents made by the wise men to our Saviour at his nativity, and the design of them: and may deserve to be compared with the verses of Sedulius, another Latin poet, in the fifth century, upon the same subject,
3. Juvencus is, certainly, a good witness to our four gospels, and the things contained in them; but I do not think it needful to make many extracts. I only observe that Juvencus seems to understand Matt. xxviii. 17, as if the evangelists said, some of Christ's disciples “ still doubted;” but ! Grotius, and some others, think, he means only, that “ some had doubted. before,” but were now all satisfied. Theophylact' well deserves to be consulted upon this text.
* Telcel de ce xou o s[wley 2010s 'öle txasos ♡ yjemlas, Telus Conf. Juvenci Historiam Evangel. p. 57. F. ap Bib. Patr. xan dedo wiar. Sect. i. p. 41. Bas. 821. A. Bened.
Max. T. iv. o Juvencus, nobilissimi generis, Hispanus, presbyter, quatuor & Aurea nascenti fuderunt munera Regi, Evangelia hexametris versibus pene ad verbum transferens, Thura dedere Deo, myrrham tribuere sepulcro. quatuor libros composuit, & nonnulla eodem metro ad sacra- C. Sedulii Carm. Pasch. I. ii. p. 30. ver. 95, 96. edit. Cellarimentorum ordinem pertinentia. Floruit sub Constantino 1704. Principe. De V. I. cap. 84.
Jamque Galilæos conscenderat anxia montes c De Script. Ecc. c. 62.
Mandatis Christi concursans turba suorum. d Juvencus presbyter sub Constantino' historiam Domini Cernitur ecce suis proles veneranda tonantis. Salvatoris versibus explicavit: nec pertimuit Eyangelii majes- Illum procumbens sancte chorus omnis adorat. tatem sub metri leges mittere. Ad Magn. ep. 83. T. iv. Nec tamen in cunctis pariter fundata manebat
Pectoribus virtus: nam pars dubitabat eorum. e Juvencus presbyter, natione Hispanus, Evangelia heroïcis
Juvenc. Hist. Ev. I. iv. Ib. p. 77. B. versibus explicat. Chr. p. 181.
- Vid. Grot. ad Matt. xxviii. 17. * Pulcherrime munerum sacramenta Juvencus presbyter uno " See Dr. Benson's Reasonableness of the Christian Religion, versiculo comprehendit: Thus, aurum, myrrhom, regique's p. 53, 54.
In evangelia, p. 183. hominique, Deoque Dona ferunt. Ad Matt. cap. ii. p. 9.
JULIUS FIRMICUS MATERNUS. 1. Julius Firmicus MATERNUS, not mentioned by Jerom, or any other writers that we know of, wrote a book against heathenism, still extant, inscribed to the emperors Constantius and Constans. Cave says very well, that * his book of the Error of profane Religions was written some time between the years 310 and 350 ; I therefore place him at the year 345. Julius was a convert from heathenism; but it does not appear, that he had any ecclesiastical character. It is more probable, that he was a layman, and a person of quality.
2. He speaks of the power which Christians had over dæmons, or the heathen deities.
3. He speaks of the great progress which the Christian religion had made, as obtaining in every part of the world, and superior to Gentilism in many places.
4. He applauds the emperors · for having destroyed the heathen temples, and ascribes their success in war to that conduct.
5. In divers parts of his book he earnestly excites the emperors to restrain the idolatrous rites of heathenisin by their edicts, to demolish their temples, deprive s them of their ornaments. For this he makes use of many arguments from the Old and the New Testament: but I cannot say that I admire his temper, or perceive the solidity of his reasonings, upon this occasion.
6. I proceed to his testimony to the scriptures, which is very considerable ; but it ought not to be expected, that I should be very particular in so late a writer.
7. He speaks of the Old and the New Testament.
11. He received " the book of the Revelation, which he quotes often, and largely, and with great respect.
12. He shews great " respect for the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testament in general. a De tempore, quo. scriptus sit hic liber, nilil certi statui lescat improbitas. Cap. 17. Bib. PP. p. 171. A. Gronov, potest : nisi quod intra annum 340, post mortem Constantini
p. 437. junioris, & annum 350, quo interfectus est Constans, scriptus 6 Tollite, tollite, securi, sacratissimi imperatores, ornasit. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 204. Et Conf. Pagi in Baron. Ann. menta templorum. Deos istos aut monetæ ignis, aut metal337, n. 12. & Basn. Ann. 350. n. 9.
lorum coquat flamma. Donaria universa ad utilitatem vesb At ego nunc sacrarum lectionum institutione formatus, tram, dominiumque transferte. Cap. 29, p. 176. F. Bib. perditos homines religioso sermone convenio. De Error. p. 463. Gron. Profan. Religionum. Cap. 7.p. 168. E. ap. Bib. PP. Max. T.iv. 5 Sed & vobis, sacratissimi imperatores, ad vindicandum & & p. 424. ex edit. Jacob. Gronov. Lugd. Batav. 1709. puniendum hoc malum necessitas imperatur ; & hoc vobis
Sic apud nos deos vestros, cum hominibus nocere coepe- Dei summi lege præcipitur, ut severitas vestra idololatriæ facirint, religiosi sermonis flagella castigant. Sic in corpore ho- nus omnifariam persequatur.-In Deuteronomio (cap. xiii.] minum constituti dii vestri verbo Dei spiritualium flammarum lex præscripta est. Cap. 30. p. 179. E. Bib. PP. 467. Gr. igne torquentur, & qui apud vos quasi dii coluntur, apud nos Lapis hic --Christus aut fidei fundamenta sustentat, religiosæ fidei medelå Christi gratiâ humano subjacentes im- aut in angulo positus, duorum parietam membra æquatâ moperio, & tormenta, repugnantes sustinent, & victi pænis ultri- deratione conjungit, id est, veteris & novi Testamenti in unum cibus subjugantur. Cap. 14. p. 170. B. Bib. p. 433. Gr. colligit gentes. Cap. 21. p. 172. H. Bib. 446. Gr.
Quis locus in terrà est, quem non Christi possederit no- * Invenimus enim in Evangelio Lucæ: * Sint lumbi vestri men? quà sol oritur, quâ occidit, quâ erigitur septentrio, quâ præcincti.' &c. Cap. 20. p. 172. D. Bib. 443. Gr. yergit auster, totum venerandi numinis majestas implevit. | Dicit enim in Evangelio Johannis. Cap. 19. p. 171. H. Et licet adhuc in quibusdam regionibus idololatriæ morientia Bib. p. 441. Gr. palpitent membra, tamen in eo res est, ut e Christianis omni- m Secretiora pandantur arcana. In Apocalypsi, quis sit bus terris pestiferum hoc malum funditus amputetur. Cap. 21. sponsus, inveniemus. Cap. 20. p. 172. C. Bib. 443. Gr. p. 172. H. Bib. PP. 445. Gron.
Hæc eadem nobis sanctå revelatione monstrantur. InveniModicum tantum superest, ut legibus vestris prostratus Dia- mus enim in Apocalypsi ita esse præscriptum. Cap. 25. bolus jaceat, ut extinctæ idololatriæ pereat funesta contagio. p. 174. E. Bib. PP. p. 453. Gron. Cap. 21. p. 173. A. Bib. p. 446. Gr.
In hac probatione arcana Prophetarum veneranda pane Post excidia templorum in majus Dei estis virtute pro- dantur. Adcistat nobis sanctorum oraculorum fides. Joël di. vecti. Vicistis hostes, propagâstis imperium. &c. Cap. 29. wino Spiritu monente sic dicit. Cap. 20. p. 172. C. Bib. p. 176. F. Bib. p. 463. Gronov.
p. 442. Gron. Amputanda sunt hæc, sacratissimi imperatores, penitus Ait enim de hoc Esaïas, innuente Spiritu Sancto. Cap. 21. atque delenda, & severissimis edictorum vestrorum legibus p. 172. F. Bib. 444. Gr. corrigenda, ne diutius Romanum orbem præsumtionis istius Hoc a venerando Prophetâ sanctâ voce præcanitur, & ex error funestus commaculet, ne pestifera consuetudinis conya- ore prophetico vox jubentis auditur. Ait enim Spiritus Sanc
tus. Cap. 25. p. 174. D. Bib. 452. Gr.
CH AP. LXXX.
CYRIL OF JERUSALEM.
I. His time and works. II. A catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testanient. III. A
general remark. IV, Observations relating to the gospels., V., of the Acts of the apostles, VI. St. Paul's epistles. VII. The catholic epistles. VIII. The Revelation. IX. General divisions, and respect for the sacred scriptures.
St. Jerom has a short chapter concerning Cyril, which I put at the bottom of the *
I translate only what relates to his writings : • His Catechetical discourses, which he composed in • his youth, are still extant.'.
It is computed, that Cyril was born about the year 315, that he was ordained presbyter in 344 or 315, bishop in 350 or 351, and died in 386. For farther particulars concerning his his. tory, and his works, I refer to other authors. The Catechetical Discourses inentioned by Jerom, and which alone I shall have occasion to quote, were composed in 317 or 318, while he was yet presbyter only.
II. I begin with citing that discourse, which contains a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament.
• These things,' says he, we are taught by the divinely inspired scriptures of the Old and • New Testament. For there is one God of both Testaments, who in the Old Testament fore• told the Christ, who has been manifested in the New.-Read the divine scriptures, the two and • twenty books of the Old Testament, which were translated by the seventy-two interpreters.• Read' those two and twenty books, and have nothing to do with apocryphal writings. . These, • and these only do you carefully ineditate upon, which we securely or openly read in the church.
The apostles and ancient bishops, governors of the church, who have delivered these to us, were ''wiser and holier than thou. As a son of the church therefore, transgress not those bounds : - meditate upon the books of the Old Testament, which, as has been already said, are two and * twenty: and if you are desirous to learn, fix them in your memory, as I enumerate them one by one. Of the law the first are the five books of Moses : Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Num• bers, Deuteronomy. Then Jesus the son of Nun, and the book of the Judges, with Ruth, making • the seventh. Then follow the historical books, the first and second of the kingdoms, which • according to the Hebrews are one book : in like manner the third and fourth book.' And the • first and second of the Chronicles, also reckoned by them one book. The first and second of • Esdras too are computed one book. The twelfth is Esther. These are the historical books. • The books written in verse are five: Job, and the book of Psalms, and the Proverbs, and Eccle• siastes, and the Song of Songs, the seventeenth book. After these are five prophetical books, * the twelve prophets, being one book, of Isaiah one, of Jeremiah one, with Baruch, and the · Lamentations, and the Epistle: then Ezekiel, and the book of Daniel, the twenty-second book • of the Old Testament.
• The books of the New Testament are the four gospels only; the rest are falsely inscribed,
• Cyrill's Hierosolymæ episcopus, sæpe pulsus ecclesia, & εν εκκλησια μετα σαρρησιας αναξινωσκομεν. Πολυ σε φρονίYeceptus, ad extremum sub Theodosio principe octo annis in- μωλεροι, και ευλαβεςεροι ησαν οι ατοςολοι, και οι αρχαιοι επισconcussun episcopatum tenuit. Exstant ejus καληχησεις, , κοποι, οι της εκκλησιας προςαται, οι ταυλας παραδονίες: συ 8, quas in adolescentiâ composuit De V. I. cap. 112.
τεκνον της εκκλησιας ων, μη παραχαρατ1ε τες θεσμες. κ. λ. • Vid. Ant. Aug Touttée Benedictin. Diss. i. De Vit. Cy- Ib. c. 35. ril. Hieros.
και Της δε καινης διαθηκης, τα τεσσαρα μονα ευαγγελια τα · Vid. Toutt. ut supr. Cyril. ex edit. Tho. Milles Oxon. δε λοιπα ψευδεπιίραφα και βλαβερα τυχανει - Δεχε δε και Cav. Hist Lit. Tillem. Men). Ec. T. viii.
τας Πραξεις των δωδεκα αποσύλων προς τους δε και τας επτα d Cat iv. n. 33–30. Ed Bened. n. 20-22. edit. Milles.'
Ιακωβε, και Πειρα, Ιωανν8, και Ιεδα, καθολικας επισολας: • Ταυλα δε διδασκασιν ημας αι θεοπνευσοι γραφα της αμ- επισφραισμα δε των σανίαν, και μαθηλων το τελευταιον, τας λαιας τε και καινης διαθηκης. Cat iv. n. 33. in. Bened. Παυλό δεκατεσσαρας επιςολας. Τα δε λοιπα παντα εξω κεισθω
f Tadων τας εικοσι δυο βιλλες ανατινωσκε. Προς δε τα απο- εν δευθερω. Και όσα μεν εν εκκλησιαις μη αναξινωσκείαι, ταυλα κρυφα μηδεν εχε κοινόν ταυλας μονας μελεία σπουδαιως, ας και μηδε καία σαυτον αναίινωσκε, καθως ηκέκας. Ιb. n. 36. p. 69.
• and hurtful. Receive likewise the Acts of the twelve apostles: as also the seven catholic epistles of James and Peter, John and Jude: and the seal of all, and the last (work] of the disciples, the fourteen epistles of Paul. As for any beside these, let them be all held in the • second or no rank. And whatever books are not read in the churches, those neither do thou * read in private, as thou hast heard.'
III. This is the catalogue of the sacred books of scripture, publickly read at that time in the church of Jerusalem, and the only books from whence doctrines were to be proved. I leave it to my readers to make several remarks which I omit: but it must hence.appear evident to all, that no books written after the times of the apostles, or by any men who were not either apostles, or companions of apostles, were esteemed by the church of Jerusalem a part of the New Testa1nent, or of the rule of faith.
IV. I now add some other observations concerning the latter part of the Catalogue, and the gospels in particular.
1. One thing observable is the order in which the books of the New Testament are placed : the gospels, the Acts of the apostles, the catholic epistles, and the epistles of St. Paul. “In like manner in another place: • There yet remain many other texts, that might be alleged from * the Acts of the apostles, the catholic epistles, and the fourteen epistles of Paul.'
2. Cyril says, that · St. Matthew wrote his gospel in Hebrew.
6. There was no doxology at the end of the Lord's Prayer in Cyril's copies. The prayer in him concludes after this manner: “ And : lead us not into temptation, O Lord, but deliver us from evil. Amen.'
7. He quotes St. Mark's gospel expressly.
V. The book of the Acts of the apostles k is often and largely quoted by Cyril in his Catechetical Discourses, and as divine scripture.
He is very clear, that 'the epistle of the council of Jerusalem, recorded in Acts xv. was sent to all Gentile Christians in general.
VI. Cyril, as we have seen, received fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul : he mentions that number of Paul's epistles several times.
VII. St. James's epistle, in his enumeration, is the first of the twelve catholic epistles. If .by the author of that epistle he meant the brother of our Lord, and the first bishop of Jerusalem, he did not reckon him to be an apostle, as appears by several " places. Touttée particularly acknowledges as much in a ° note.
VIII. The book of the Revelation seems not to have been received by Cyril, or the church of Jerusalem, in his time. It is not mentioned in the catalogue above transcribed : it may be
a Reliqua vero omnia extra in secundo [ac nullo] ordine Και γραφεσιν οι αποστολοι και πρεσβυτεροι πασι τοις εθνεσιν habeantur. Versio Benedictin.
καθολικην επιςολης. Cat. 4. cap. 28. Vid. & Cat. 17. p. xxix. • Λειπει γαρ ημιν πολλα δε απο της Πραξεως Αποσολων Τεθαυμακα αληθως της τα αίτια πνευμαίος οικονομιαν πως
λειπει δε πολλα και εκ των καθολικων, και εκ των Παυλό τας μεν των αλλων επιςολας εις ολιδον σεριείραψεν αριθμoν: δεκατεσσαρων επιςολων. Cat. 17. n. 20. p. 274.
Παυλω δε τω προθερον διωκίη γραψαι δεκατεσσαρας επισολας • Ματθαιος ο γραψας το ευαγίελιον, Εβραϊδι γλασση τελο εχαρισατο. Cat. 10. η. 18. είραψε. Cat. 14. p. 212. D.
Επιλειψει γαρ με διηδεμενον ο χρονος, ει εξελoμην λείειν τα « Εαν τοινυν ακεσης τα ευαίγελιε, λείονloς. Βιζλος γενε- λειπονία περι αια πνευματος εκ τ8 Παυλά τεσσαρων και δεκα σεως Ιησε Χριςο υιε Δαξιδ. Cat. 1. η. 5. in.
επιςολων. Cat. 17. n. 34. Vid. ibid. n. 20. • Ιωαννης ο βαπτισης, ο μελισος μεν εν προφήταις, αρχηλος δε
εχεις δωδεκα μαρτυρας. Ει τοις δωδεκα απισεσι, της καινης διαθηκης, και τροπον τινα συναπλων αμφοτερας. Cat. τες πεντακόσιες δεχεσθωσαν. Επείθα ωφθη Ιακωζω το εαυθε 10. n. 19. p. 146. Β.
μεν αδελφω επισκοπω δε πρωθω της παροικιας ταυλης. Cat. 14. * Παλαιας το τελος, και καινης διαθηκης αρχη το βαπτισμα. η. 21. p. 216. Α. Ιωαννης γαρ ην αρχηλος. Cat. 3. η. 6.
αλλ' ηδη και τους αποσολοις, και Ιακωζω, τω ταυτης και Vid. Cat. 23. cap. 17, 18.
της εκκλησιας επισκοπα, σπεδη γεγονε. Cat. 4. n. 28. p. 66. Α. Α Ο γαρ εν τρίτη ωρα σαυρωθεις, ως Μαρκος φησι. Cat. 17. Notandum, sive in hoc loco, in quo sancti Jacobi aucto2. 19.
ritatem & dignitatem maxime extollit Cyrillus, sive Cat. 4. i Oι των αιων ευαίγελιων ακροαίαι Ιωαννη τω θεολοβω σεισ- n. 28. solam illi episcopalem dignitatem tribui, nusquam aposθωμεν. Cat. 12. c. 1. in.
tolicam. Imo eum utrobique ab apostolis secernere videtur. * Και μου λαξε των λοίων αποδειξιν απο της θειας γραφης: Τοuttée, not. 1. p. 216. Κορνηλιος ην ανηρ δικαιος ---Cat. 3. η. iv. p. 41. C. Σιμαν, δ εν ταις Πραξεσι των Αποσολων.- -Cat. 6. 2, A. in.