« السابقةمتابعة »
6. It appears, then, that the whole of the work, and all the ordinances in it, from beginning to end, are delivered in the name of all Christ's apostles, and as from God himself.
7. These Constitutions assume not only the names of the apostles, but also their characters and actions.
8. • And a to take our own things,' say they, · Judas our companion had part with us in the * same ministry.' " 9. • I Matthew, one of the twelve, who speak to you in this doctrine, was a publican.'
10. “So the Lord was not ashamed of me Matthew, though before I was a publican. And «he received Peter, and made him shepherd of his own sheep, after he had through fear denied « him thrice. And he appointed Paul to be our fellow apostle, who before had been a persecutor.'
11. For d taking a towel, he girded himself; and then put water in a bason, and came round ' to us, as we sat, and washed all our feet, and wiped them with the towel.'
12. • And on the fifth day of the week, when we had eaten the passover with him, he • delivered to us the representative mysteries of his precious body and blood, Judas not being present with us.—He went out to the mount of Olives and we were with him, and sang an hymn according to custom.'
13. For f our Lord and Master Jesus Christ sent us twelve to teach the nations. There : « were with us Mary, the mother of the Lord, and Mary Magdalene, and what follows.'
14. • And after eight days he gave me Thomas, who was hard of belief concerning his resurrection, full assurance, shewing me the print of the nails, and the wound made in his side by * the spear.'
15. · On the day of Pentecost, at the third hour of the day, the Lord Jesus sent down upon us the gift of the Holy Ghost: and we were filled with power, and spake with new tongues, as « the Spirit enabled us; and we preached to Jews and Gentiles, that Jesus is the Christ.'
16.* • Fork we also, for Christ's sake, were often beaten by Caiaphas, and Alexander, and • Annas; and went out rejoicing, that we were accounted worthy to suffer such things for our • Saviour.' See Acts iv. 6. v. 40, 41.
17. Having mentioned divers parts of our Lord's history, they add: • All these things we * testify of him, who did eat and drink with him, and were eye-witnesses of his wonderful works, • of his words, and sufferings, and death, and resurrection from the dead, after which also we • conversed with him forty days. And what follows.' Much more may be seen m elsewhere.
18. That they take upon them the character of the apostles, appears also in the names of the persons whom they speak of as their assistants and companions; all well known to have been companions of Christ's apostles, or some of them.
19. These things we send unto you by our fellow-servant, and most faithful and unani• mous son in the Lord, Clement, together with Barnabas, and our most faithful son Timothy, " and our own son Mark; together with whom we recommend to you Titus, and Luke, and Jason, and Sosipater.'
20. In the twelfth chapter of the eighth book is a constitution, or order of James, the brother of John, and son of Zebedee. In the thirty-third chapter of the same book is a constitution of Paul and Peter. In the thirty-fifth chapter is a constitution of "James the brother of the Lord, and bishop of Jerusalem. Not to mention other things of that kind.
21. These Constitutions therefore are not written or composed, or drawn up by Clement, but by the apostles: they are only sent by him. Thus at the beginning of the sixteenth chapter of the sixth book : “ All • these things we have sent, [or written) to you, that ye may know what our 'opinion is.' And in the eighteenth chapter of the same book, partly cited above: • This ? * catholic doctrine we have left to you bishops, and others, for the establishment of them that • believe; and have sent it to you by our faithful fellow-minister Clement. He also speaks, together with James, in a place before cited. But the whole work, and all the Constitutions in a L. ii. c. 14. p. 222. m.
m See l. v. c. 14. throughout, and l. ii. c. 55. L. ii. c. 39 ° L. ii. c. 24. p. 234.
n L. vi. c. 18. p. 349. d L. iii. c. 19. p. 290. e L. v. c. 14. p. 317.
ο Ταυλα παντα επεςειλαμεν υμιν. "L.jij. c. 6. sub in. 8 Ibid. infr.
P Καταλιπονίες υμιν-την δε την καθολικην διδασκαλιαν h L. . C. 19. 324. i L. V. c. 20. p. 325.
-διαπεμψαμενοι δια το συλλείτορία ημων Κλημεντος. p. 349. k L.V. c. 2.
L. V. c.7. p. 309.
general are drawn up in the name of the apostles, or of them and their assistants; as appears from the many passages that have been transcribed.
22. These Constitutions then, as we have seen, are written in the name of the apostles : and according to the whole tenor of the work, they are rightly termed apostolical.
V. Let us now inquire into the justness of this claim.
1. As the work now before us bears the title of Apostolical Constitutions, and is written in the name of the apostles, as we have sufficiently seen; we are led to inquire what notice has been taken of it in the genuine, uncontroverted works of ancient Christian writers: and then to compare the Constitutions themselves, and other things occasionally mentioned in this work, with the generally received writings of the apostles, and likewise with the doctrines and customs of the early times of the church, so far as we are acquainted with them. In both these ways the Apostolical Constitutions have been largely considered by · Daillé, and since by Mr. Robert Turner.
2. Daillé examined all the several ecclesiastical writers of the first three centuries, Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Dionysius, and Peter of Alexandria, and some others; and has shewn, as it seems to me, with great probability, that the Constitutions were unknown to all those writers. Mr. Turner has again gone over all the same authors, and some others omitted by Daillé; and he could not find in them the Apostolical Constitutions any more than Daillé. To those and other learned writers I refer; I shall, however, observe some things briefly.
3. In these Constitutions is a long history of Simon Magus. Divers other heretics are particularly mentioned: Cleobius, Dositheus, the Ebionites, Cerinthus, Marc, Menander, Basilides, Saturninus, the Nicolaitans, and Hemerobaptists. The evil of heresies is shewn; the causes of them are assigned and enumerated; they are condemned and confuted. Nevertheless, no notice is taken of all this by Irenæus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, or Eusebius ; no, nor by Epiphanius, as before observed : though it would have been very much to their purpose. In short, they could not have omitted it in their censures of the ancient heresies, or in their argu. ments against them, if they had been acquainted with it: for, certainly, the express authority of the apostles would have been of great advantage to them.
4. With regard to Clement of Alexandria, Daillé says, that “ he quotes Clement of Roine, and Barnabas, and other Christian authors. He had also many occasions to quote the Constitutions, if he had been acquainted with them, as Daillé clearly shews : but yet he takes not any the least notice of them.
5. Another thing relating to Clement of Alexandria, well observed by Mr. Turner, is ; that' the Constitutions absolutely forbid the reading of heathen authors. Nevertheless Clement, who was himself a man of prodigious reading, and a great master of heathen learning, frequently quotes in his works all sorts of authors; and has recommended the reading of heathen authors, and the study of philosophy: which he would not have done, if he had been acquainted with these Constitutions, and had acknowledged them to be Apostolical.
6. Mr. Turner adds, Clement of Alexandria was not singular in this. Tertullian, Origen, and a great many more, justify and recommend the reading of heathen compositions: and though St. Jerom (as we are told) was whipped for it, yet it was never said to be because he had broken an apostolical constitution.
7. And says the ingenious - Mr. Brekell: The Constitutions prohibit the reading of heathen authors: and yet many of the ancient fathers, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and others, recommend the reading of such books; a plain proof, that they knew of no such Apostolical Constitution. Besides, if this had been a Constitution of the Christian church, the emperor Julian would have had no occasion to make the same prohibition.
8. There was a dispute in the third century between Stephen bishop of Rome, and Cyprian bishop of Carthage, concerning the method of receiving such as came over from heretics. Cyprian and other African bishops said the baptism of heretics was null and void, and therefore
• Joannis Dallæi de Pseudepigraphis Apostolicis libri ii. Hardervici. 1653.
• Discourse of the pretended Apostolical Constitutions, London. 1715. • Vid. lib. 6. cap. 4–11..
Vid. Dall. ib. p. 268, 269. c P. 93, 94.
1 Των εθνικων βιβλιων πανίων απεχε: L. 1. c. 6. in.
See Divine Oracles, p. 116.
they who came over from them were to be baptized. Stephen, on the contrary, allowed the validity of their baptism; and was for receiving such as came over from them with imposition of hands only. This point is decided in our Constitutions, agreeably to the judgment of Cyprian and his African colleagues: yet nobody then appealed to this work, or took any notice of it. Probably therefore it was not extant at that time.
9. I shall mention a particular relating to Origen, not generally taken notice of. In his books against Celsus he says, that • James and John, Andrew and Peter, were fishermen, and Matthew a publican. But in what way the rest of Christ's disciples subsisted, before they followed him, was not known. But the apostles in the Constitutions say: • Though we are em.
ployed in preaching the gospel, we do not omit working. For some of us are fishermen,
others tentmakers, others husbandmen.' Certainly Origen knew nothing of this. And Cotelerius, in his notes upon the Constitutions says, We are to abide by Origen. There is no certain knowledge what occupations the rest of the twelve followed, beside those mentioned
10. That the Constitutions were unknown to the learned Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria about the year 248, is apparent. Basilides, a friend of his, wrote a letter to him, desiring his opinion upon some points. Dionysius's letter 8 is still extant. In answer to one of the queries put by Basilides, concerning the duration of the antepaschal fast, he says, it is difficult to determine. Nevertheless, the point is clearly determined in our Apostolical Constitutions. And of another question put by Basilides, he gives a solution quite contrary to our Constitutions: and in the conclusion of the letter, he leaves his friend to judge for himself as he sees best. This must be reckoned full proof, that Dionysius was altogether unacquainted with our Apostolical Constitutions.
11. There was a controversy about the time of keeping Easter, which * began in the second century, and lasted ' until the sitting of the council of Nice: yet none appealed to the Constitutions about it. Those cited by Epiphanius determine in favour of one side ; ours in favour of the other. But that neither of those Constitutions was then extant, or received as Apostolical, is manifest: for if there had been an Apostolical Constitution about it, the controversy had been ended, or rather could not have been.
12. Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, speaking of this matter says: the apostles had left it indifferent to every body: that " neither Christ nor his apostles, had appointed an annual festival for celebrating the memory of his passion. And speaking of the several opinions about the duration and manner of the antepaschal fast, he says, that " none of them were able to allege any written order about it. Consequently, Socrates likewise either knew nothing of our Constitutions, or did not esteem them Apostolical.
13. Eusebius of Cæsarea is concerned in several things already mentioned. In his accounts of early heretics, of the disputes about Easter, and other matters, he says nothing of the Constitutions; though they might have been very properly mentioned, if in being, and he had been acquainted with them. Consequently they were unknown to him. There is however one particular which may be distinctly mentioned. Our Constitutions say, that the first bishops of Cæsarea in Palestine, were Zaccheus the publican, Cornelius, and Theophilus: meaning, probably, him to whom St. Luke had addressed both his Gospel and his Acts. Nevertheless, Eusebius no where takes P notice of these honourable predecessors of his in the see of Cæsarea.
a Vid. Const. lib. vi. cap. 15.
» Των δε λοιπων και μεμαθηκαμεν τα ερία, όθεν προ της μαθητειας τε Ιησε περιεποιον εαυίοις τας τροφας. Cont. Cels. . i. p. 48. Cant. p. 376. Bened.
-Οι γαρ εισιν εξ ημων αλιεις, οι δε σκηνοποιοι, οι δε γης elalal. L. ii. cap. 63.
I Vid. Euseb. Vit. Const. 1. ii, cap. 5. η Αλλα την εορίην τα πασχα και τας αλλας εορίας τιμών τη ευλνωμοσυνη των ευεργετηθενίων και λιπον. Socr. 1. ν. c. 21. p. 283. C.
Sed tenendum omnino est cum Origene janı laudato, præter quatuor supra memoratos, et unum publicanum, Matthæum, ignorari quâ ex arte victum sibi comparârint reliqui ex duodeciin, antequam a Christo essent vocati. e See Turner, p. 131-133.
See before, Vol. i. ch. 43. n. 9. p. 629. & Ap. Labb. Conc. T. i. p. 832. b Vid. 1. v. c. 18, 19, 21.
i L. vi. c. 27, 28. See before in this work, Vol. i. ch. 23, and ch, 28, p.
Ου γαρ νομω τε7ο παραφυλαττειν ο σωτηρ η οι απος ολοι σαρη/γειλαν. Ιb. D.
Και επειδαν δεις περι τεΐe είγραφον εχει δειξαι παρα/γελμα, δηλον, ως και σερι τα78 της έκανε γνωμη και προαιρεσει επείρεψον οι αποστολοι. κ. λ. Ιb. p. 286. C.
• L. vii. c. 46. in. p. 382.
p Verum Pseudo-Clementis apocryphos libros aut non legit, aut potius lectos sprevit Eusebius Cæsariensis ; alias tanta ecclesiæ suæ ornamenta nequaquam in operibus suis omissurus. Cot, in loc.
14. We need not particularly examine later writers : for, as Daillé says, if the Constitutions were not Apostolical in the first three centuries, all the wit and industry of later ages cannot make them so. But if we should call up and examine Gregory Nazianzen, Basil, Chrysostom, the Cyrils of Jerusalem and Alexandria, Jerom and Augustine, and all the other eminent Christian writers of the fourth, and the former part of the fifth century, they would be all silent. They give no intelligence concerning the Apostolical Constitutions: they have not quoted them, or mentioned them, in any of their writings. Jerom in particular, who in his Catalogue of Illustrious Men, has distinct articles for all the writers of the New Testament, and for Clement Bishop of Rome, mentions not any work of theirs called Constitutions, or Apostolical Constitutions. Certainly this must be sufficient to satisfy us of the non-existence, or vast obscurity of the Apostolical Constitutions in the early days of Christianity. 15. The first who has mentioned them, excepting Epiphanius, and the first of all
, who has mentioned them as divided into several books, is the author of the Imperfect Work upon St. Matthew, probably ' a Latin writer, and plainly an Arian, who wrote some time after the reign of Theodosius the great: how long after it cannot be determined. But there is as much reason to think he did not write till after the end of the fifth century, as that he wrote sooner.
16. Consequently, the Constitutions are destitute of all external evidence, that should entitle them to the character of Apostolical.
VI. I proceed to the internal evidence. Here I shall mention divers things, marks of a later age than that of the apostles, and unsuitable to their character: at the same time willingly omitting many other things, for the sake of brevity, and supposing it not necessary to be more particular.
1. The manner of quoting the books of the New Testament in this work does not suit the apostles, as, I think, every one may perceive.
(1.) • Christ says in the gospel.' [Matt. v. 27.]
(2.) • In the like manner it is written also in the gospel.' [Luke vi. 28.] And presently afterwards: · Again' he says in the gospel.' [Matt. v. 44, 45.]
(3.) · The Lord often says in the gospel reminding men: “ He that has ears to hear, let - him hear." (4.) · For
· For our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ says in the gospels.' (Matt. v. 23, 24.] (5.) • Concerning' this the Lord declared, saying:-And again he says to his disciples, even • to us, thus:' Where are quoted Matt. x. 33, 37, 38, 39, and xvi. 22, and x. 28.
(6.) Having given an account of the circumstances of our Lord's being betrayed, and of his crucifixion and resurrection, it is added, “ All * these things also are written in the gospels.'
(7.): Let' a bishop be knowing, and studying the Lord's books, that he may rightly explain • the scriptures:--that the interpretations of the law and the prophets may correspond with the
gospel. For the Lord Jesus says: “ Search the scriptures. For these are they which testify • of me.” And again: For “ Moses wrote of me.” (John v. 39. 46.] Certainly, this order was not given until after St. John's gospel was written and published, probably not until after all the Lord’s books, or scriptures of the New Testament had been written, and put into the hands of Christians.
(8.) Daillé did not overlook this argument.
19.) I add no more here: but several things of a like kind will occur in a following article, concerning this writer's testimony to the scriptures. There will be seen a Constitution about the method of ordaining bishops, expressly said to be a Constitution of the Twelve, and Paul,
a Nam si primis tribus Christianismi sæculis Apostolicæ non fuerunt Bovianæ istæ Alaialai, nemo non videt, nullâ sequentium temporum vel auctoritate vel industriâ fieri eas apostolicas posse. De Pseudep. p. 321.
• Vid. Veterum Testimonia de Constitut. Ap. ap. Patr. Ap. T.i.
• Vid. Montfaucon. Diatriba ad Op. Imp. in Matt. ap. Chrysost. opp. T.Ö. ed. Bened.
« Λεύει γαρ εν τω ευαγίελια, L. 1. c. 1.
* Και ο κυριος εν τω ευαγίελιω μνημονευει.-L. i. c. 6. p. 217. f.
h Λείει δε ο κυριος ημων και σωτηρ Ιησες ο Χριςος εν ευαγίο21015. L. ii. c. 53. p. 258. in.
L. v. cap. 4. p. 303. * Ταυτα δε και εν τω ευαγίελιο εγραφη. L. ν. c. 14. fin.
-πολυδιδαχθος, μελείων και σπεδαζων εν ταις κυριακαις 8.62.015.-X. X. L. ii. cap. 5.
m Cum ergo nostri @salaseis iis temporibus & vixerint, & congregati fuerint, quibus Joannis Evangelium editum erat,clarum est, fieri nequaquam posse, ut Aialaleis Christi Apostoli vere sint. De Pseudep. Ap. L. i. c. 14. p. 168. Vid. 8 p. 169. 186.
and the seven deacons : wherein it is appointed, that the gospels should be held over the head of the bishop to be ordained, or just ordained. But how was it possible that all the apostles, and all the seven deacons, should join in such a Constitution ? Did none of the apostles or deacons die before the publication of the gospels? Were all the gospels written before the death of James, son of Zebedee, and brother of John, and before the martyrdom of Stephen ? None will say it. The reader is also desired to observe the first quotation in that article, and to consider whether all the apostles could join in appointing the reading of the Acts? which, certainly, were not written till after the sixtieth year of our Lord's nativity.
2. I proceed to other things later than the time of the apostles.
(1.) It cannot be shewn that the several heretics above mentioned had appeared before the end of the apostolical age. Moreover they are here said, to have * published wicked books in the names of the apostles: calumniating the creation of God, and marriage, the law and the prophets; which cannot be shewn to have been done before the death of the apostles.
(2.) There are many things in these books, which seem to shew, that the reign of heathenism in the Roman empire was over, and that Christians enjoyed ease and prosperity.
(3.) • Nor does the Lord desire that the law of righteousness should be made manifest by * us only, say the apostles here. It has also been his good pleasure that it should appear and • shine by means of the Romans: for they also have believed in the Lord, and have forsaken
polytheism and unrighteousness; and they cherish the good, and punish the bad.' Cotelerius in his notes says: certainly this could not be said by the apostles. And if it could be made out, that it might be truly said, at some season before there were Christian emperors, (which cannot be easily done:] it would not be very
material. (4.) The ease and prosperity of Christians appear in the description that is given of a church. • Let d'the building be oblong, pointing eastward, with vestries on each side at the east end, that • it may be like a ship: let the bishop's throne be placed in the middle: on each side of him (or
that] let the presbyters sit: let the deacons stand near in short and light garments: let the • reader stand upon an eminence.' And what follows.
(5.) In another place and book: · When this is done, let the deacons bring the gifts to the bishop at the altar; and let the presbyters stand on his right hand, and on his left, as disciples • stand before their master: and let two deacons on each side the altar hold a fan made of thin * membranes, or of the feathers of a peacock, or of fine cloth : and let them silently keep off the • small animals that fly about, that they may not get into the cups. Let the high priest, there* fore, with the priests, pray by himself, and being clothed with his splendid garment, and * standing at the altar, let him make the sign of the cross with his hand upon his forehead before
all the people.' And what follows. This is particularly said to be a Constitution of James the brother of John, and son of Zebedee. But who can think, that such state and grandeur were brought into the church in his time, who was beheaded by Herod Agrippa within ten or twelve years after our Lord's ascension ; Yea, who can think, that such a method of celebrating the eucharist was introduced in the time of any of Christ's apostles ?
(6.) I might likewise object to the style of this and many other passages of this work. For it cannot be shewn,' that the Christian writers of the apostolical age, or soon after it, called, Christian Ministers, high priests,” or “ priests,' or · Levites:' nor that they called the communion-table • the altar.' Moreover it is now generally allowed, that in the first and second centuries, Christians had not any regular or spacious buildings to meet in.
(7.) Another Constitution, shewing the church to be at ease is this: · When you teach the • people, O bishop, command them to come to church morning and evening every day—do you
Kai Ta sm ovouale ruwe wo.pa Twv Qobuv xoglurgerla mentis scilicet, Polycarpi, Justini, vocabula pontificis, sacerdoβιβλια μη παραδεχεσθαι. κ. λ. L. vi. c. 16. in.
tum, Levitarum, Christiano clero significando numquam usur. Τοιαυτα και νυν εποιησαν οι δυσωνυμοι, διαξαλλονες δημιερ- parunt. Νeque magis Clementine etatis est vocabulum fran, yapon, vopov, wcoorlas. Eod. cap. sub tin.
Guriasypov, altare, ad eucharistiæ mensam indicandam. b L. vi. cap. 24.
Basnag. Ann. 100. n. xii. · Certum ac manifestum est, non potuisse hæc ab apostolis
μεν των αποφολων 7ε η εκκλησια εκομα μεν χαρισscribi. Sed an dedici debeant usque ad teinpora imperatorum μασι πνευματικοις, εδρυε δε σολίβεια λαμπρα, εκκλησιαςηρία Christianorum, id vero, ut parvi momenti, ita ambiguum, 8x yv. x. i. Isid. Peius. Ep. 1. ii. n. 246. At forte sic legeuobscurumque mihi videtur. Cot. in loc.
dum: όλε-ερυε δε σολίλεια, λαμπρα εκκλησιαςηρια σκην. d L. ï. c. 57. p. 261. · L. viii. c. 12. p. 398.
h L. ii. c. 59. ' Ac sane germana virorum apostolicorum scripta, Cle