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• assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms, and praying in • the Lord's house.—But especially on the sabbath-day, and on the Lord's-day, do you meet & together more diligently.'

(8.) • Again: 1 Paul and I Peter ordain as follows: Let slaves (or servants] work six days; .but on the sabbath-day, and the Lord's-day, let them have leisure to go to church to be in

structed in religion.--And in the whole great week, and in that which follows, let servants * cease from work; because that is the week of Christ's passion, this of his resurrection. Let "them also rest on the day of Christ's ascension, because it is the conclusion of the dispensation « by Christ. Let them rest on Pentecost, because of the coming of the Spirit wlrich was given to believers. Let them also rest from labour on the feast of the Nativity, and on the day of Epiphany. Let them also rest on the days of the apostles, and the day of Stephen • the protomartyr, and on the days of other martyrs, who loved Jesus Christ above their own lives.'

(9.) Possibly some may (though without reason) pretend, or suspect, that the latter part of this Constitution is an interpolation. I therefore now insist only on the former part of it, so far as relates to servants resting on the sabbath-day, Lord's-day, the great week, and the week follow• ing, and the day of Christ's ascension, and the day of Pentecost.' And it seems to me, that neither Peter, nor Paul, nor any of the apostles, could deliver such Constitutions relating to slaves or servants: such rules could not be proposed in the time of the apostles, and at the first planting of the Christian religion in the world. By the Roman laws servants were as much the property of their masters, as any other part of their estate: they could use them as they pleased; and had the power of life and death till the time of Antoninus the pious, who, by his constitution, restrained or abrogated it. For it is there said: Qui sine causa servum suum occiderit, non minus puniri jubetur, quam si servum alienum occiderit. Inst. 1. i. tit. 8. De his, qui sui, vel alieni juris sunt. Or, if we may credit Spartian, this had been done by his immediate predecessor Adrian. His words are these: Servos a dominis occidi vetuit, & jussit damnari per judices, si digni essent, Spart. in vit. Adrian. cap. 18. But as those laws were not made till after the times. of the apostles, nothing can be more absurd, than to imagine they would lay any such injunction upon slaves, as would deprive their masters two days in seven of their labour, beside other occasional days. Nothing could have more prejudiced them against the Christian religion, than such an attempt upon their property: nor could any thing have been more cruel to slaves, many of whom must doubtless have lost their lives, had they complied with any such Constitution of the apostles: and it may be reckoned contrary to what St. Paul enjoins 1 Tim. vi. 1. “ Let as many servants as are under the yoke, count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.”

(10.) Christian bishops are here supposed to have tribunals, or courts of judicature. They are directed to hold their courts on the second day of the week, or Monday; and the deacons: and presbyters are to be present: that is, as Daillé observes, here is a reference to a privilege allowed by Christian emperors, not till long after the death of the Apostles.

(11.) "The great a number of days distinguished and appointed either for fasts and feasts (as we partly saw in a late quotation) shews this work of the Constitutions to be later than the times of the apostles. These appointments are contrary to the doctrine of Paul in his well known, epistles, and also to the well known practice of the church in the second and third centuries. The Christians had in early times some days of fasting and feasting, but they were not so numerous as those here appointed; nor were they unanimous in the manner of keeping them; nor do they seem generally to have thought them of apostolical appointment, but rather, as Jerom says, counsels of wise men, or institutions answering some good ends and purposes. That all did not think them of apostolical appointment, may be reckoned very probable from the judgment of Socrates formerly taken notice of. Augustine declares: 1 % perceive the gospel teaches us to


a L. viii. c. 33.

• Τα δε δικαςηρια υμων γινεσθω δευτερα σαββαλιν. κ. λ. L. ii. C. 47. in.

Denique rem totanz sic describunt, ut planum sit, nihil aliud eos intellexisse, quam quod multis post apostolos temporibus principum Christianorum benignitate atque auctoritate episcopis indultum fuit. Ubi supr. p. 319.

See Rom. xiv. 6. Gal. iv. Jo. Col. ii. 15, 16. f

Jejania & congregationes inter dies propter eos a viris prudentibus constitūtos, qui magis sæculo vacent quam Deo. Hieron, in Galat, iy. 10.

Vid. I. v. c. 17-19. I. viii. c. 33.

8 Ego in evangelicis & apostolicis literis, totoque instrumento, quod appellatur Testamentum Novum, animo id revolvens, video præceptum esse jejunium. Quibus autem diebus non oporteat jejunare, & quibus oporteat, præcepto

fast; but I do not sze, that in any part of the New Testament, either Christ or his apostles have appointed on what days we should fast, and on what not to fast. And Tertullian represents the ? catholic doctrine of his time about fasts much in the same manner. As for festivals, Origen in the third century mentions but three, Lord's-days, Easter, and Pentecost. I hope I need not enlarge here; but I refer to · Daillé and Turner, who have fully considered the point. And Daillé having summarily o enumerated the fasts and feasts of the Constitutions, and put down, their assertion, that every one is guilty of sin, who fasts on the Lord's-day, or the day of Pen-.

tecost, or, in a word, on any festival of the Lord,' says very well, that the Constitutions, which have distinguished almost every day in the year, either as a fast or a feast, could not come

from the apostles of Christ. Indeed the great apostle Paul says to the Colossians, ch. ii. 16, and in them, I suppose, to all Christians in general, “ Let no man judge you in your meat, or drink, or in respect of an holiday, or of the new moon, or of tlie sabbaths.” But these apostles . (whether false apostles, or true, let any man determine), make no scruple of judging men on such accounts.

(12.) Before I quite leave this point, I would take some particular notice of the respect shewn in these Constitutions for the sabbath, or seventh day of the week.

They ordain, that by 'all Christians in general, the sabbath and the Lord's-day should be kept as festivals: that every sabbath in the year, except one, and every Lord's-day, be kept with joy, without making thein days of mourning, or fasting: that servants should cease from labour, and come to church on the sabbath, and the Lord's-day, that i Christians in general should assemble together for worship on every day, but especially on the sabbath, and the Lord's-day.

Concerning these particulars I would say, that the apostles of Christ never gave such instructions about keeping the sabbath. Secondly, that they are more suitable to the fourth or fifth centuries, than to the most early times of Christianity.

First, the apostles of Christ never gave such instructions about keeping the sabbath. That the apostles did not appoint the keeping of the sabbath as a feast, and forbid fasting thereon, is evident hence, that Christians in general never reckoned themselves bound by any such rule. This will appear from observations of Petavius, which * I place below: to which I shall add a passage from a letter of St. Jerom.

P. 414.


p. 268.

expers fuit.

Domini vel apostolorum non inveni definitum. Ad Casul. επιτελείες συνοδες ευφραινεσθε, κ. λ.

επιθελοντες συνοδος ευφραινεσθε. κ. λ. L. ν. cap. 20. p. 327. ep. 36. al. 76. cap. xi. T. 2.

Vid. & I. vii. c. 36. in. p. 376. a Itaque de cætero differenter jejunandum ex arbitrio, non h Σαββαλον δε και κυριακην σχολαζελιωσαν εν τη εκκλησία,

%, ex imperio disciplinæ, pro temporibus & causis uniuscujusque. δια

την διδασκαλιαν της ευσεβειας. L. viii. c. 33. in. Sic & apostolos observâsse, nullum aliud imponentes jugum μαλισα δε εν τη ημερα το σαββαλε, και εν τη τα κυρια certorum & in commune omnibus obeundorum jejuniorum. αναςασιμω τη κυριακη, σπαδαιοτερως απανίατε. L. ii. c. 59. De Jejun. cap. 2. p. 702. A.

6 Εαν δε τις προς ταυλα ανθυποφερη τα περι των παρ' ημιν "Non enim ubique, nec in totà ecclesià, sabbatum jejunii κυριακων, η παρασκευων, η τ8 πασχα, η της πεντηκοσης.

Etenim Romani, quod Socrates lib. v. cap. xxii. Contr. Cels. 8. p. 758. F. Bened.

scripsit, wav cabbalov 17,58U871. De quo fusissime Augustinus. c Vid. de Pseudep. Ap. 1. i. cap. x. xi.

ep 86. & 118. [al. 30, ad Casulan. & 54. ad Januar.] Quare d As before, p. 242-258.

nulla est ab apostolis edita sanctio, quâ jejuninin eo die proc Cum hoc vero et indubitato apostolorum dogmate equi- hiberetur, uti Augustinus asserit in ep. 118. ubi in rebus hujuse dem obn video, qui conciliari possint illæ tam multæ de per- modi negat quidquam esse ' vel scripturæ sanctæ auctoritate, petuis certorum dierum aut jejuniis aut non jejuniis leges. vel universalis ecclesiæ traditione determinatum. Quâ quie Illi enim & hebdomadam quidem antepaschalem, & quadra- dem præscriptione tamquam spurius & alienus canon ille regesimam, & quartam sextamque cujusvis hebdomadis ferias ab jicitur, qui inter apostolicos 68 numeratur: E. TIS XANAXOS omnibus Christianis jejunari lege in perpetuum latâ præci- ευρεση την κυριακην ημεραν νηςευων, η το σαββατον, πλην τα piunt. Alterâ vero ex parte tum sabbatum, tum Dominicam ενος μονο, καθαιρεισθω· ει δε λαϊκος, αφοριζεσθω. Non potest diem, & omnes quinquaginta a Paschate ad Pentecostem dies, hoc ab apostolis communi esse decreto constitutum. - Nec adhæc Natalis Dominici diem, &c.- -hos, inquam omnes melioris notæ sunt, quæ in Apost. Constit. leguntur I. vii. c. 29. dies jejunio funestari vetant, et si quis uno ex iis jejunârit, eum [stc. 23.] ubi τα σαββαλα και τας κυριακας έορίαζειν precipit. deliquisse, piaculumque commeritum propunciant. 1. V. C. Quod ab apostolis toti ecclesiæ numquam esse præscriptum, Xx. fη. Ενοχος γαρ αμαρλιας εςαι και την κυριακην νηςευων, sanctissimorum patrum consensus approbavit. Petav. Animadv.

-η την ενίγκοςην,- Mittö rei ipsins absurditatem, atque in Epiphan. p. 359. ineptiam. Hoc unum dico, vibil minus istos esse, quam 1 De Sabbato quod quæris, utrum jejunandum sit, sed ego Christi apostolos, qui omnem fere totius anvi diem vel jejunii illud breviter te admouendum puto, traditiones ecclesiasticas mærori, vel prandii lætitiæ addicinit, ac mancipant, &c. Dail. (præsertim. quæ fidei non officiant) ita observandas, ut a de Pseud. l. i cxi. p. 141, 142.

majoribus traditæ sunt.-- Atque utinam omni tempore To calSulev perlou x. TYY xuplaxyy deplasels. L. vii. c. 23. jejunare possimus, quod in Actibus apostolorum die Pente.

costes & die Dominico apostolum Paulum, & cum eo creΠαν μεν τοι σαββαλον, ανευ το ένος, και πασαν κυριακης dentes, fecisse legimus. Hier. ep. 52. al. 28. p. 579.in,

p. 369.

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That the apostles did not require servants, or other Christians, to cease from labour on the -sabbath, is shewn by some following observations of the learned writer just cited. He particularly takes notice, that the council of Laodicea forbids Christians to esteem the sabbath a day of rest from labour.

Secondly, these instructions about keeping the sabbath, are more suitable to the fourth or fifth century, than to the most early times of Christianity.

Socrates, in the fifth century, says, that • Christian churches in general throughout the world met, and had the eucharist every week on the sabbath, excepting the churches of Rome and Alexandria. Sozomen, about the same time, says likewise, that . at Constantinople, and almost every where, except Rome and Alexandria, Christians assembled on the sabbath, as well as on the first day of the week. And in a pretended letter of St. Ignatius, composed by some idle Greek, it is said: He' is an enemy to Christ, who fasts on the Lord's-day, or any sabbatlı, except one.

But it does not appear that the practice mentioned by Socrates and Sozomen of assembling on the sabbath, obtained in the early days of Christianity. Nor was it universal in their time, as it would have been, in all probability, if it had been of apostolical appointment.

St. Luke informs us, Acts xx. 7, that “ upon the first day of the week, when the disciples," ,at Troas, “ came together to break bread, Paul preached to them.” The same apostle, i Cor. ·xvi. 2, directs: “ Upon the first day of the week, let every one lay by him in store:” meaning probably the same, which St. John, Rev. i. 10, calls the Lord's-day.

In like manner, in the times next following those of the New Testament, says Ignatius: • Let' us no longer sabbatize, but keep the Lord's-day, on which our life arose.'

Justin Martyr: • And on the day called Sunday, is an assembly of all who live either in the city or the country, and the memoirs of the apostles, and the writings of the prophets are read.' He afterwards assigns their reasons for meeting together on the Sunday: which are, because it is the first day, on which God dispelling darkness created the world, and our Saviour Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the same day: or in the words of a later writer, in the sixth century, on the first day of the week, that is, on the Lord's-day the foundation of the world was laid, and the creation was begun.

Dionysius bishop of Corinth, in his letter to the church of Rome, says: • To-day k we cele• brated the holy Lord's-day, when we read your epistle to us.'

Clement of Alexandria mentions' the Lord's-day.

Tertullian rejects TM sabbaths and new moons, as foreign to Christians, and speaks of the Lord's-day, and Pentecost, as Christian solemnities.

Origen, in a passage cited not long before, mentions the Lord's-day, but says nothing of the sabbath.

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Ad extremum, de sabbati religionis inter pseudodiataxes -μηκέτι σας αλιζοντες, αλλα κατα κυριακην ζωην ζαντες, apostolicas exstat Petri ac Pauli nomine edita sanctio I. viii. Ev pis xas Śwn ruwe ayeleider di' avle. Ignat. ad magnes. cap. c. 33, 'ut eo die ac Dominico servi ab opere feriati sint.' ix. p. 20. Hoc vero numquam ab apostolis manâsse decretum apparet ex ε Και τη τε ήλι8 λεπομενη ημερα πανίων καλα πολεις η αίρες eo, quod Laodicense Concilium, can. 29. diserte vetat sabbato Nevolwy ETI to auto CUYENEUTIS yovelas. x. 4. Apol. 2. al. 1.- p. otiosOs esse Christianos. 07δει Χριςιανος Ιεδαίζειν, και εν 98. D. Paris. 1636. τω σαββαλω σχολαζειν, αλλα ερίαζεσθαι αυθες εν τη αυτη Την δε το ηλια ημεραν κσινη πανίες της συνελευσιν ποιαήμερα, την δε κυριακης προφιμωνίας, ειτε δυναινθο, σχολαζειν, μεθα, επειδαν πρωτη εσιν ημερα, εν ή ο Θεος, το σκολος και την ως Χριστιανοι. Dominicis potius quam sabbatis, vacare jubet: ύλην τρεψας, κοσμον εποιησε, και Ιησες Χριςος, ο μεθερος & addit tamen, si illorum commodo fieri potest. Ut nondum owing, grung aula rusca ex vexpwr ave59. Ibid. p. 99. A. B. illis temporibus ab omni opere feriatos esse penitus constitutum Εν τη α ημερα, τεΐεςι τη κυριακη, η καταβολη το κοσμο και fuerit, uti Zonaras & Balsamo ad illum canonem adnotant. = ax - khosac keys o. Cosme Egypt. Topogr. I. ii. p. 'Petav. ib. p. 360.

154. E. edit. Montfauc. • Των γαρ πανταχο της οικεμενης εκκλησιων εν ημερα σας- Την σημερον εν κυριακην αδιας ημερας διηλαίομεν. κ. λ. Αγ. "καλων, καλα σασαν εβδομαδος περιοδον επιλελεσων τα μυσήρια, Euseb. H. E. 1. iv. cap. 23. p. 145. B. οι εν Αλεξανδρεια, και οι εν Ρωμη, εκ τινος αρχαιας παραδοσεως, 1 Ούτως εντολην την κατα το ευαγίελιoν διαπραξαμενος κυρίατετο ποιειν παρήθησαν7ο. Socr. Η. Ε. 1. ν. C. 22. p. 286. D. κην την ήμεραν στολείς. . Str. 7. p. 744. C. D.

Αμελει οι μεν και τα σαββαΐω, ομοιως τη μια σαββαλα m Nobis, quibus sabbata extranea sunt, & neomeniæ, & εκκλησιαζεσιν, ως εν Κωνσταντινοπολει, και σχεδον πανταχθ. ferie, a Deo aliquando dilecte.-0 melior fides nationum Ey 'Pun de, xai Aregardpala, exalı. Soz. 1. vii. c. 19. p. in suam sectam, quæ nullam solemnitatem Christianorum 735. B.

sibi vindicat! Non Dominicum Diem, non Pentecosten, etiam d Sed modum excedit Græculus. Cotel. in loc.

si nôssent, nobiscum communicâssent. De idolatr. cap. 14. Ει τις κυριακης η σαββαλον νης ευει, πλην ενος σαββαλε, p. 113. C. 55 Xpis oxlovos €51. Iguat, adscript. Ep. ad Philip. n. 14.


p. 124.

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I might likewise refer to what Eusebius says of Constantine's respect for the Lord's-day. And I shall place in the margin some observations of Petavius, agreeing with, and confirming what is here said.

So that the respect shewn for the sabbath, and joining it with the Lord's-day, are no marks of the antiquity of the Constitutions, but rather otherwise.

(13.) Several inferior officers of the church mentioned in the Constitutions, were not in being in the apostolical times, nor immediately after them. Beside bishops, presbyters, and deacons, here are readers, singers, subdeacons, door-keepers, and porters, and exorcists. Cotelerius says, that Ignatius at the beginning of the second century mentions only bishops, presbyters, and deacons; readers are first mentioned by Tertullian; subdeacons, exorcists, acolyths, and door-keepers, in the letters of Cyprian and Cornelius, about the middle of the third century. In the eighth book of this work are forms of ordination for subdeacons, readers, exorcists. It is also constituted that' ministers or deacons, singers, readers, door-keepers, should marry but once.

(14.) The authority of Christian bishops is highly advanced in these Constitutions, in a way that does not suit the doctrine, or the character of Christ's apostles.

(15.) · Upon this account therefore, O bishop, take care to be pure in thy actions, behaving * agreeably to thy place and dignity, as sustaining the character of God among men: being set over men, priests, kings, rulers, fathers, sons, masters, and all who are subject to thee.

Judge therefore with authority, as God: but receive the penitent.' That is the character which the Constitutions direct a bishop to sustain, of God among men: whereas St. Paul says, “ A bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God,” Tit. i. 7. Compare 1 Cor. iv. 1, 2, and 1 Pet. iv. 10.

(16.) • For it is not fit that you, O bishop, who are the head, should hearken to the tail, that * is à seditious layman, to the destruction of another, but to God alone. For you are to govern those subject to you, and not to be governed by them.'

(17.) • Let' a layman honour a good bishop, love and fear him, as lord and master, as the • high-priest of God, as a teacher of piety. For he that hears him, hears Christ: and he that despiseth him despiseth Christ.'

(18.) • You k therefore, O bishops, are to your people priests and Levites—who stand at the altar of the Lord our God, and offer to him reasonable and unbloody sacrifices, through • Jesus the great high-priest.'

(19.) • Be ' you (or you are] to the laity among you prophets, rulers, governors, and kings: • mediators between God and his faithful people, who receive and declare his word.'

(20.) • The TM bishop, he is the minister of the word, the keeper of knowledge, the mediator • between God and you in the several parts of divine worship. He is the teacher of piety: he • is after God your father, who has begotten you again to the adoption of sons by water and

the • Spirit; he is your ruler and governor, your king and potentate; he is, after God, your God

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• Vid. de Vit. Const. I. iv. c. 18. & 23. Et Conf. Valesii scripsit, agnoscit solummodo tres majores gradus, episcopatum, Anoot. in l. iv. c. 18. n. 242, 243.

presbyteratum, diaconatum. Primus vero, quod sciam, LecDenique quod Epiphanius admonet : triplicem illam iores nominavit Tertullianus. Libro de Pr. Hæreticorum • synaxin dierum totidem ab apostolis esse traditam:' haud cap. 41. Hypodiaconi autem, Exorcistæ & Acolythi, non scio, an satis certo constare queat. Nam primis ecclesiæ tem- comparent ante Cyprianicas epistolas, & epistolam Cornelii poribus unus duntaxat Dominicus dies ad eam rem observatus papæ, quæ etiam Ostiarios adjungit. &c. Ad Const. 1. ii. c. videtur, ut ex apostolo 1 ad Cor. cap. xvi. colligitur. Quine- 25. not. 75.

e Vid. I. viii. c. 21, 22. 26. tiam Justinus in Apol. ii. cum de Christianorum conventibus -υπηρελας δε και ψαλλωδες, και αναλνωσας, και αυλιωagit, solius Dominica meminit: Την δε το ηλια ημερας κοινη ρες, και αυθες μονοψαμες ειναι κελευομεν. L. vi. c. 17. p. 347. σανlες την συνελευσιν ποιεμεθα. Οuare magis id ex privato

γνωρισον τον τροπον σε και την αξιαν, ως Θε8 τυπον ecclesiæ cujusque ritu, quam ex communi apostolorum præ- εχων εν ανθρωπους, τω παντων αρχειν ανθρωπων. L. ii. c. xi. scripto derivatum existimo, ut quartâ sextáve feriâ, aut etiam


δικαιον, κεφαλην ονlα σε, ω επισκοπε, ερα προσεsabbato synaxes conventusque fierent. Quam in rem egregius xelv, Telesi naixw sacice des arbpwtw- -apXely yag sa XP? est Augustini locus ep. 18. ' Alia vero, inquit, ' quæ per των υπηκουν, ο μεν υπ' αυλων αρχεσθαι. L. ii. c. 14. p. 223. • loca terrarum regionesque variantur, sicuti est, quod alii -ως κυριον, ως δεσποζην.-L. ii. c. 20, in. * jejunant sabbato, alii vero non: alii quotidie communicant * L. ii. c. 25. p. 237.

corpori & sanguini dominico-alibi sabbato tantum & Do- 1 Υμεις τοις εν υμιν λαϊκoις εσε προφηθαι, αρχονlες, και 'minico: alibi tantum Dominico: & si quid aliud hujusmodi joqevoi, xai Bacineis. x. 7. Ibid. • animadverti potest, totum hoc genus rerum liberas habet in L. ii. c. 26. • observationes. Petav. Animadv. in Epiph. p. 354. fin. η Ούλος αρχων και ηλεμενος υμων: Ελος υμων βασιλευς, και c Vid. 1. ii. c. 25. p. 238. 1. viii. c. 21-28.

δυνασης: έτος υμων επιδειος Θεος μεία Θεον, ός οφειλει της παρ' + Aperte quidem S. Ignatius, qui initio secundi sæculi vuwy typys agoNavely. %. 1. Ibid.

* Ουδε


p. 239.

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i on earth, who ought to be honoured by you. Let the bishop preside over you, as honoured - with the authority of God, with which he rules over the clergy, and governs all the people.'

(21.) · These * do you esteem your governors and kings: and pay tribute to them as kings.' The apostles of Christ knew how to direct and secure a competent maintenance for Christian ministers, without using such language as this, which could not, in this case, proceed from a humble temper of mind.

(22.) Soon after in the same chapter : • By how much therefore the soul is more valuable • than the body, so much the priesthood excels the kingdom : --therefore you ought to love • the bishop as a father, fear him as king, and honour him as lord.'

(23.) • For if he who rises up against kings is worthy of punishment;how much more he who rises up against the priests? For by how much the priesthood is more noble than the • royal power, as having its concern about the soul ; so much the greater punishment has he, « who ventures (or dares) to oppose the priesthood, than he who opposes the royal power, though neither of them goes unpunished.'

(21.) -whythen should not you esteem the dispensers of the word as prophets, and reverence them as gods.'

(25.) • You ought therefore, my brethren, to bring your sacrifices and offerings to the bishop as to your high-priest, either by yourselves, or by your deacons. Nor do you bring those only,

but likewise bring to him first fruits, and tithes, and free-will offerings. For he knows who are in affliction, and gives to every one, as is convenient.' So then the bishop is to have the distribution of all the gifts of the laity: but he is not accountable to them; for it follows in another chapter : · It' becomes you therefore to give him to distribute : for he is the administrator and • dispenser of ecclesiastical affairs [it should have been said, and secular affairs.) Yet thou shalt . not call thy bishop to an account, nor observe his administration or distribution; how he does o'it, when, or to whom, or where; nor whether he does it well, or ill : for there is one, who will "call him to an account, even the Lord God, who put the administration into his hands, and • honoured him with the priesthood.' Were ever such instructions given before or since? And can any man think, that the apostles of Christ would be at the pains to write instructions to cover or countenance mal-administration ?

(26.) Having spoken of bishops, presbyters, deacons, readers, singers, and door-keepers, it is immediately added : • Let" the laity therefore shew due honour and respect in their presents • to each order. Nor' let them easily (or upon all occasions] give trouble to the governor: but • let them signify their desires by the ministers, that is, the deacons, with whom they may be 6 more free. For neither may we have access to Almighty God, but through Christ; in like • manner let the laity make known their desires to the bishop by a deacon, and do as he directs." Very fine, truly! for our Constitution-bishop is an eastern prince, who may not be seen or spoken to by mean people.

3. Several things in the Constitutions appear to be unworthy of the apostles of Christ.

(1.) I am unwilling to insist upon the direction relating to the beard, though it be joined with other things of a like kind, as we have * in our present Constitutions, forbidding the wearing of fine stockings and shoes, and combing and curling the hair. However, two or three things I shall mention, and leave them to be considered by others.

(2.) Concerning receiving persons to baptism: • Let' a concubine, who is servant to an • unbeliever, and confines herself to her master alone, be received: but if she be incontinent with • others, let her be rejected.' Fewwill think, that St. Paul would deliver this Constitution, as he is here represented to do.

(3.) The Constitution concerning married pregnant women" I take to be contrary to the order of nature, and the appointment of Providence. God joined one man and one woman in

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* Teleς αρχοντας υμων και βασιλεις η Γεισθε και δασμες, ως βασιλευσι, προσφερετε. L. ii. c. 24. in. p. 244. b Ib. p. 245.

· L. vi. cap. 2. p. 330. d L, ii. cap. 29. e L. ii. cap. 27. p. 241. Conf. 1. v. cap. 1. f L. ij.c. 35. fin.

8 Ου μεν τοι λοίμςευσεις σε τον επισκοπον, εδε παρατηρησεις την οικονομιαν αυτ8, πως επίλελει, ή πολε, η τισιν, η σο, η ει καλως, η φαυλως, η δεονίως, κ. λ. Ιb.

b L. ii. cap. 28.

1 Μη ραδιως δε ενοχλείδωσαν το αρχοντι, αλλα δια των υπηρείων α βελονται σημαινείωσαν, τελεσι δια των διακονων, προς ες πλεον σαρρησιαζεσθωσαν. Ιbid.

k Vid. Const. 1. i. c. 3.

1 Παλλακη τινος απις8 δελη, εκεινω μονο σχολαζεσα, wpor exeGH. L. viii. c. 32. p. 413.

m Hæc scilicet Paulus decrevit? Has ille leges tulit ? &c. Dal, de Pseud. 1. i. c. 8. p. 108.

1 Μήτε μην είκυμονεσαις ομιλείωσαν [ανδρες] αυθαις: L. νί. c. 28. p. 357. f.

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