« السابقةمتابعة »
the point, I have transcribed him somewhat largely in the margin. But he thinks, that the opinions ascribed to Apollinarius by Gregory Nazianzen, in the letter to Nectarius before quoted, written about the year 385, not to have been held by him; as that our Saviour brought his body from heaven, and that his divinity suffered. Though Gregory quotes as a voucher, a work of Apollinarius himself; he says, it - could not be his
, but rather a work of one of his disciples. He moreover argues, that Theodoret in his Heretical Fables does not ascribe the opinion of the descent of Christ's body from heaven to Apollinarius, but to some of his followers.
10. To which I would answer, that there appears not any good reason to deny the genuineness of the book alleged by Gregory Nazianzen. To do so is an arbitrary proceeding : for what account can be given of Gregory's mistaking the author ? Secondly, Theodoret in his work of Heretical Fables does, indeed, make two chapters, one of Apollinarius, another of the Polemians, and others his disciples. And in this last chapter he says, that some of these were of opinion, that the Lord's body came down from heaven. Nevertheless, in his Ecclesiastical History, Theodoret speaking of Apollinarius says: Sometimes " he said, that our Lord took flesh, or his body, of the holy virgin: at other times, that his flesh came down from heaven, together with God the Word. Sometimes he said, that the Word was made flesh, without taking any thing from us. Which diversity of sentiments is hinted also in the just cited chapter of the Heretical Fables. Yea, he there expressly says, that those of his followers, who said, that the Lord's body came down from heaven, supported themselves by his writings. Thirdly, all the sentiments ascribed to Apollinarius by Gregory, in his letter to Nectarius, appear in other authors of the same time, who wrote against him. That ° the body of Christ came down from heaven; that' his flesh and Divinity were homoüsian; that his Deity suffered; are all opinions of Apollinarius, or his disciples, taken notice of by Athanasius in his books against the Apollinarists in 372, or thereabout. The same things are observable in the letter of Athanasius to Epictetus bishop of Corinth, written about the year 371, particularly those offensive notions, that the body of Jesus was "consubstantial and coëternal with his Deity. The like things are taken notice of by Epiphanius * in his article concerning them, written in 377. As Apollinarius was then living, it seems to me to make little difference, whether they were his notions, or his disciples. I might refer likewise to Gregory Nyssen's long work against them published by Zacagni, where all the same sentiments are disputed: as the mortality of the Deity in Christ, the " pre-existence of his body, and " its being brought down from heaven, as well as the Word's supplying the place of 'a rational soul in Christ. And Gregory Nyssen supposeth all along that he argued with Apollinarius himself, as he had expressed his notions in his own work. Indeed some of these things are very strange; which may make us doubt, whether Apollinarius be not misrepresented, and whether some of the opinions ascribed to him are not consequences which he did not own: but I apprehend, that they are as much his, as his disciples.
11. The principal doctrine, by which Apollinarius and his followers were distinguished, was, that Christ had no rational soul, and that the Word supplied the office of it. With respect to that opinion, Epiphanius ' gave them the denomination of Dimoritæ, and so entitled his article
τα λο/α θεοληλος ; Απο γαρ το78 καλόν εσιν αρξασθαι. Ιb.
P: 903. E.
· Librum tamen Apollinaristæ potius, quam Apollinaris ipsius esse existimamus- -Librum ea impia continentein subditum esse existimamus. Ib. p. 7. a.
• Και αλλοι δε τινες εκ της Απολλιναρια συναλωσης, εκ των ερανων εφασαν καλεληλυθεναι το κυρια σωμα. Διαφορα δε εύροντες εν τοις εκεινε συ/γραμμασι δολματα, οι μεν τελους, οι δε εκεινοις ηρεσθησαν. Η. FI iv. cap. 9.
• Ποτε μεν γαρ συνευμολοΓει και αυτος εκ της αξιας παρθενα προσειληφθηναι την σαρκα: ποτε δε έρανoθεν ταυτην τω Θεω Λούω συ καθεληλυθεναι φησιν· αλλο7ε δε αυτον γεψεν ησθαι σαρκα, * εδεν εξ ημων ειληφόλα. Η. Ε. 1. ν. c. 3. p. 200. D.
d See note.b
• Πως υμεις παλιν λεξετε εξ εραντο σωμα ; Athanas. Contr. Apollinarist. 1. i. n. 7. T. i. p. 927. B.
Και γαρ και ομοεσιον την σαρκα της θεότητος λεξεις επιχει. peilε. Ib. p. 929. B. Vid. et E.
8 Μαλαιοι αν οι τη θεότηλι αυτο παθος προσαίοντες.-1. ii.
Η Ποιος αδης ηρευζαίο, ομοεσιον ειπείν το έκ Μαριας συμα TOS TB 2018 Decirlos ; Ad Epict. p. 902. B.
Ποθεν υμιν επηλθεν ειπειν, ω ετοι, ομοεσιον είναι το σώμα της
- ώςε ειπειν μη νεωτερον ειναι το σωμα της το Θεο Λούα θεοληλος, αλλα συναϊδιον αυτω διαπαντος γείενησθαι, επειδε εκ της ασιας της σοφιας συνεση. p. 902. D.
k Vid. H. 77. n. ii. p. 997, 998.
1 Απας γαρ αυθω της λοίο ραφιας και σκοπός τερος τείο βλεπει, To Sylvy t'a plovoleves 028 Toy S89111a. Gr. Nyss. adv. Apoll. ap. Zacagn. Monum. Vet. p. 132. in.
Ει γαρ αυτη τεθνηκει το μονο ενος θεολης, συναπεθανε ταυλη πανίως και η ζωη. κ. λ. Ibid. infr. Vid. et p. 133, 134.
in Ib. p. 150, 151. et alibi.
p Dimæritarum porro nomine Apollinaristas insectatur Epiphanius, Hær. 77. Cujus appellationis causam aperit Gregorius Nazianz. cum ait Orat. 46. p. 722. corpus et animam esse in Christo Torpilypopios, tertiam partem. Apollinaristæ quippe aiebant, in Christo partem unam hominis, yety scilicet, seu mentem, a Verbo suppleri, solumque Verbum junctum corpori et animæ, (nempe sensitivæ, ut dictitabant illi] totum coustituere Christum. Quamobrem, cum ex Catholicorumu
p. 955. C.
concerning them: denoting persons who maimed the person of Christ, and made him consist of two parts only, animated flesh, and Divinity: whereas the catholics supposed him to have an human soul, or mind, and a human body, with the Word.
IV. I now proceed to observe some of his works, which have not yet been taken notice of.
1. Basil, in a letter written in 376, mentions - a book concerning the Holy Spirit, which he had not seen. Whether this book regarded any of his peculiar notions, I cannot certainly say. Here Basil says, he had heard, that Apollinarius was become the most voluminous of writers: but he had seen few of his works. In another letter, written in 377, he says, that. Apollinarius, being endowed with a great facility of writing, had filled the whole world with his books, neglecting the advice of Solomon in Ecc. xii. 12.
2. When Basil gives an account of Apollinarius's doctrine concerning the incarnation, he may be supposed to refer to some writing of his. When Gregory Nazianzen speaks of the same matter, he appears d to have had a volume of Apollinarius before him, though he does not mention the title. Gregory Nyssen expressly names the book confuted by him.
3. When Basil gives an account of Apollinarius' notion concerning the Millennium, he seems also to refer to some book: whether he means the work against Dionysius bishop of Alexandria, mentioned by 5 Jerom, I cannot say.
4. Apollinarius wrote verse easily, and agreeably: and "accordingly composed short psalms and hymns, fitted for festivals, and for all seasons, and upon a great variety of subjects, all tending to the praise and glory of God. The men sung them at their work, and at their entertainments; the women sung them at their spindle: and some were sung by his followers in their religious assemblies, in the room of those which were generally used. So says Sozomen in his Ecclesiastical History. Gregory Nazianzen, referring to these poems, speaks, as 'if they had a new Psalter, but dissonant from that of David; and as if his writings were made by his followers a third Testament, or a part of sacred scripture: in which he may be supposed to aggravate more than a little.
5. There is a collection of small poems, fifty-three in number, called Homerici Centones de Christo. The subjects are taken out of the Old and New Testament, chiefly the latter: They are such as these, our Saviour's conception and birth, the presents brought by the Magi, the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem, John the Baptist, the wedding at Cana, the woman of Samaria, the raising of Lazarus from the dead, and several other of our Saviour's miracles, our Lord's crucifixion, burial, resurrection, and ascension. But these are not generally ascribed to · Apollinarius.
6. I hope I have now given a sufficient account of the works and opinions of Apollinarius; not thinking it needful to enter farther into the history of his followers, or the sentences of condemnation pronounced by councils upon him, or them. They who desire a more particular account of those things may consult the writings of the learned moderns formerly referred to.
V. It is almost needless to observe, that Apollinarius received all the scriptures of the Old and New Testament which we do, without adding to them any other, so far as we know. His firm belief of the Christian religion, appears in the books written in the defence of it, and in the
sententiâ tribus, constaret Christus, Verbo scilicet, mente f Ep. 263. p. 406. Vid. supr. p. 459. not. 6
- παρα τας νενομισμενας ιερας ωδας, εμμέθρα τινα λιον, η αποσαλεν υποδεξαμενος. Αλλα πολυφωνολαιον μεν αυτον μελυδρια ψαλλοντες, παρ' αυΐα Απολλιναρια ευρημεναακαω πανιων συγραφεων γεγενησθαι. κ. λ. Εp. 244, al. 82. Ανδρες τε παρα τες σοίες και εν ερίοις, και γυναικες παρά τ8ς T. iii. p. 378.
ίσες τα αυλα μελη έψαλλον. Σπυσης γαρ και ανεσεως, και εορb Ep. 263, al. 74. p. 404.
7ων, και των άλλων, προς τον έκανε καιρον ειδυλλια αυτω πεποEp. 263. p. 407. A. Vid. supra p. 459. note.
νητο, παντα εις ευλοίαν Θεε τεινονία. Soc. 1. vi. c. 25. p. 671. -876
por συκλιον εν χερσι το Απολλιναρια, ενώ τα καλα- B. C. σκηναζομενα πασαν αιρετικην κακιαν περιερχείαι, Or. 46. p. * Ει δε οι μακροι λοξοι, και νεα ψαλτηρια, και αντιφωνα τα 722. A.
Δαξιδ, και η των μετρων χαρις, η τρίτη διαθηκη νομιζεται και • Ως δ' αν μη δοκoιη λοιδορια το λεπομενον ειναι, ένα των παρ' ήμείς ψαλμολολησομεν, και πολλα γραψομεν, και μείρησόμε?. αυλα περιφερομενων λοίων προσθησομεν, και η επιτραφη εςιν αυλη: Greg. Νaz. ad Cledon, ep. 1. p. 745. Β. C. Αποδειξις, φησι, σερι της θειας σαρκώσεως της καθ' ομοίωσιν Ap. Bib. PP. Morell. T. xiv. p. 95–152. avgcute. Gr. Nyss. Antirrhet. adv. Apol. ap. Zacagn. p. 125, 'See p. 258. note b. 126.
various compositions designed for the benefit of Christians in the troublesome time of Julian's reign. His respect for the scriptures is manifest to all, from his numerous coinmentaries upon them, which have been particularly taken notice of in this chapter.
VI. I never intended to draw the character of Apollinarius. Shall I, nevertheless, present the reader with that given by Tillemont? but without adopting it. • He seems,' says that laborious writer, to have preserved always the outside of a holy and exemplary life; of which • nevertheless Gregory of Nyssa seems not to have been fully persuaded. But he also maintained • to the end his impiety, and died in his heresy. So that we cannot admit the hope of any other • lot for him, but the condemnation of hell. Such has been the unhappy condition of this great * man, who had received so extraordinary talents of nature, and so great gifts of grace, who had • combated with so much courage, and so much glory, for the true faith against the enemies of it. • But because he trusted in his own wisdom, because he would solve those difficulties, which, • human reason cannot clear up, because he gave way to the desires of a vain curiosity; all the
advantages which he had, became unprofitable to him, and he has deserved to be regarded by • all the church, as a schismatic and a heretic.'
It must be owned, that the notions advanced by him in the latter part of his life have greatly diminished his credit: but yet, I would hope, they need not to be understood to have obliterated the merit of his past services for the Christian religion. And I believe, that all my readers in general may concur in a wish, that we still had his confutation of Porphyry, which has been highly commended by learned Christians of different sentiments in former times.
Du Pino having mentioned Apollinarius's Paraphrase of the Psalms, adds: “ All the other • works of this author are lost, except some fragments. His error, in all probability, occasioned • this loss: the.catholics had such a dread of the books of heretics, that they have not preserved
so much as those which had no relation to their heresy, and which might have been useful • to the church: for which reason we have scarce any books of heretics left. And the Eutychians were obliged to put out the works of Apollinarius with the names of catholic authors.'
If that be so, we must acknowledge, that the catholics were to blame; it is like rooting up. ţares and good corn all together. And we may hence receive this instruction; to be upon our guard, that we admit not too great an aversion for men on account of difference of sentiment, in things of a speculative nature; lest by violence in opposing error we should obstruct the progress of knowledge, and the cause of truth, which we are desirous to serve.
I have written the name of this author Apollinarius. I shall here transcribe a note of ^ Du Pin, as it may serve for my justification with those who are but little acquainted with such things. • The Greeks,” says he, . always call him Afonuvapios. St. Basil alone writes his name with two • 11. ll. St. Jerom calls him Apollinarius. The generality of the Latin writers give him the name • of Apollinaris, as more soft. I have chosen to follow the Greeks, and Jerom in the termination of his name: unless I might have dropped the harsh ending, and written' his name Apollinaire, as the French do. I shall only add, that in L. Kuster's edition of Suidas, a Greek. author, the name is written with a double l. His name is written in the like manner, in the Paschal Chronicle.
• Il semble avoir toujours conservé l' extérieur d'une vie sainte et exemplaire. Les Apollinaristes. Art. 13. Mem. T. vii.
• De sorte qu'on ne peut espérer d' autre sort pour lui que la condamnation d'enfer. Ibid.
© Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. ii. p. 127.
CII A P. XCVI.
DAMASUS, BISHOP OF ROME.
1. DAMAsus, though not without a warm contest with Ursinus, or Ursicinus, his competitor, succeeded Liberius, bishop of Rome, who died in September 366. The disturbances in the city, occasioned by that competition, are taken notice of by Jerom in his · Chronicle, and by Aminianus Marcellinus a heathen author, as well as by our Ecclesiastical Historians. Socrates says, “there was at that time a great disturbance among the citizens of Rome. Nor was it owing ito a contention about any doctrine of the faith, or about heresy, but only who should have the
episcopal chair' Damasus sat in that see above eighteen years, and died in 384, being then almost eighty years of age.
2. Damasus is in Jerom's Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers: and I transcribe the article e below. What he says of him is chiefly this: That he had a good talent for poetry, and wrote several small pieces in verse. In another place he says, that.' Damasus had written in praise of virginity, both in prose and verse. There are still extant several small poems, which are ascribed to him, but not allowed by all to be genuine, which have been published, together with his epistles, and a history of his life, and numerous testimonies to him, collected out of ancient and later writers.
3. Damasus had a great regard for Jerom, on account of his learning and knowledge of the scriptures. Jerom whilst in the east wrote to Damasus, asking his advice concerning his own conduct. When · Jerom came to Rome in 382, Damasus employed him as his secretary, to write letters for him upon ecclesiastical affairs, in answer to councils or bishops in foreign parts. Here * Jerom stayed three years, that is, till some time after the death of Damasus, and returned into the East in 385.
4. At the desire of Damasus, Jerom ' corrected the edition of the Latin version of the New Testament, or of the gospels at least. At his request it is also said
At his request it is also said that Jerom revised the Latin version of the Psalms, which had been made from the Greek of the Seventy: and it is certain, that this was done by him when at Rome. Damasus ° put Jerom upon translating
: * Romanæ ecclesiæ tricesimus quintus ordinatur episcopus Bib. PP. Max. T. xxvii. p. 55–97. Vid. et Baron. Ann. 384 Damasus. Et non post multum temporis intevallum Ursinus n, xxxi. &c. a quibusdam episcopus constitutus Sicinnium cum suis invadit. h Vid. Hieron, ep. 14. al. 17, T. iv. P. 2. p. 19. ep. 16. Quo Damasianæ partis populo confluente, crudelissimæ inter- al. 58. p. 22. fectiones diversi sexûs perpetratæ. Chr. p. 186.
'Ante annos plurimos, quum in ehartis ecclesiasticis juva. : 6 Damasus et Ursinus, supra humanum modum ad rapien- rem Damasum Romanæ Urbis episcopum, et Orientis atque dam episcopatûs sedem ardentes, scissis studiis asperrime con- Occidentis synodicis consultationibus responderem. Ad Ageflictabantur, ad usque mortis vulnerumque discrimina adju- rach. ep. 91. T. iv. p. 744. f. mentis utriusque progressis.Et in concertatione superae k Pene certe triennium cum eis vixi. Ad Asell, ep. 28. al. verat Damasus, parte quæ ei favebat instante. Constatque, in 94. T. iv. p. 66. in. basilicâ Sicinini, ubi ritûs Christiani est conventiculum, uno die "Vid: Hieron. ep. 142. seu Præf. in. ir. Evangelia. T.i.p. centum triginta septem reperta cadavera peremptorum : 'effe- 1426. edit. Bened. ratamque plebem ægre postea delenitam. Ammian. l. xxvii.c.3. m Vid. Baron. Ann. 382. n. 27. et Tillem. S. Damase. art.
• Vid. Socr. I. iv. c. 29. Soz, I. vi. c. 23. Ruf. l. ii. c. 10. 13. Mem. T. 8. Faustin. et Marcellin. Lib. pr. in Præf. ap. Bib. PP. T. V. in Psalterium 'Romæ dudum positus emendaram, et juxta
Septuaginta Interpretes, licet cursim, magnâ illud ex parte « Ερασιαζον Bν προς έαυλες, και δια τινα πισιν η αίρεσιν, αλλα correxeram. Pr. in libr. Psalm. T. i. p. 1222, σερι το μονον τις οφειλει το επισκοπικό θρογ8 ευκρατης γενεσθαι. . Psalterium quoque, quod certe emendatissimum juxtà sep1. iv. c. 29.
tuaginta Interpretes nostro labore dudum Roma suscepit, • Damasus, Romanæ Urbis episcopus, elegans in versibus rursus juxta Hebraïcum vertens, præfatione munivi. Adv. componendis ingenium habuit, multaque et brevia metro Ruf. 1. ii. T. 4. p. 429. edidit, et prope octogenarius sub Theodosio Principe mortuus • Cum in Babylone versarer, et purpuratæ meretricis essem est. De V. I. cap. 103.
colonus, et jure Quiritum viverem, volui garrire aliquid de 'Legas-beati Cypriani volumen egregium, et Papæ Spiritu Sancto, et cæptum opusculum ejusdem Urbis PontiDamasi super hac re, versu prosâque composita. Ad Eusto- fici dedicare Itaque, mi Pauliniane frater, quia suprachium. ep. 18. al. 22. T. iv. p. 37. m.
dictus Pontifex Damasus, qui me ad hoc opus primus impu& S. Damasi Papæ Opera quæ exstant, et Vita ex Cod. mss. lerat, jam dormit in Christo.Pr. in libr. Didym. de Sp. cum potis M. S. Sarazanii. Romæ 1638. Paris. 1672. et ap. S. T. iv. P. i. p. 494.
Dydimus's Treatise upon the Spirit out of Greek into Latin: but it was not finished until after his death.
5. Damasus often wrote to Jerom letters containing questions concerning difficult texts of scripture. To him is addressed · Jerom's explication of the vision of the Seraphim in the sixth chapter of Isaiah. In a letter still extant, Damasus desires Jerom to give him a clear expli. cation of the word Hosanna found in the New Testament, he having met with very different interpretations of it in the Greek and Latin Commentaries of catholic writers, which he had read. This occasioned Jerom to write a letter upon that subject, which we still have. At his request likewise Jerom explained the parable of the Prodigal Son. I shall transcribe below
a part of Damasus's letter, which is inserted in Jerom’s answer : whereby it appears that there were then two common interpretations of that parable: some by the elder and younger sons understanding the Jewish people and the Gentiles, others righteous men and sinners.
6. These three epistles or discourses upon the Seraphim, Hosanna, and the Prodigal Son, are mentioned by Jerom in the last chapter of his Catalogue, where he enumerates his own works. To his discourse upon the Hebrew word Hosanna, he refers likewise in' his Commentary upon St. Matthew, and to that upon the Seraphim in 6 a letter, written about the year 398 or 399.
7. There is also still extant another letter of Damasus, written in the last year of his life : in which he says, there could be no higher entertainment, than to confer together upon the holy scriptures: and he desires, that he may propound questions, whilst Jerom makes answers. Here he proposes several difficult texts to Jerom, which he afterwards explained. In the same letter Damasus passeth that judgment upon Lactantius, which was formerly * taken notice of.
8. Finally, Jerom' calls Damasus a great man, and says, he was well acquainted with the scriptures.
9. For a fuller history of Damasús, and his works, I refer to in several.
C H A P. XCVII.
BASIL, BISHOP OF CÆSAREA IN CAPPADOCIA.
I. His time, and works. II. Books of scripture received by him. III. A passage relating to the
epistle to the Ephesians considered. IV. Respect for the scriptures. 1. As St. Basil is in Jerom's Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, and the chapter is not long, I place it entire at the bottom of the
page. • Ep. 142. T. iii. p. 515. ed. Bened.
& In lectione Isaïæ, in qua duo Seraphim clamantia descri6 Commentaria quum legerem Græco Latinoque sermone buntur. Habetur liber in manibus, ante viginti annos edi-' in Evangeliorum interpretatione a nostris, id est, orthodoxis Ad Pamm, et Ocean. ep. 41. al: 65. T. iv.p. ii. p. 243. in. viris, olim ac nuper scripta de eo quod legitur Osanna Filio 1 Neque vero ullam puto digniorem disputationis nostræ David (Mait. xxi. 9,] non solum diversa, sed etiam contraria confabulationem fore, quam si de Scripturis sermocinemur insibi proferunt. Dilectionis tuæ est, ut ardenti et illo strenuita- ter nos : id est, ut ego interrogem, tu respondeasi Quâ vità tis ingenio- -quid se habeant apud Hebræos vivo sensu scri- nihil puto in hac luce jucundius, quo animæ pabulo mella ombas. Ep. 144. ap Hieron. T. iv. P. i. p. 145.
nia superantur, &c. Ep. 124. Vid. T. ii. p. 561. Ep. 145. ib. p. 145. &c.
· Ep. 125. p. 262, &c. ib. Ais : 'Quis est iste in Evangelio Pater, qui duobus filiis * See p. 260, 261. substantiam dividit ? Qui duo filii? Qui major, quive minor? | Dum adhuc viveret sanctæ memoriäe Damasus, librum "Addis insuper: Scio multos in hac lectione diversa dix- contra Helvidium de beatæ Mariæ virginitate perpetuâ scripsi‘isse : et fratrem majorem Judæum, minorem existimasse mus. Nam vir egregius, et eruditus in Scripturis, et virgo, • Gentilem populum. Sed quæro, quomodo Judaïco populo et ecclesiæ virginis doctor, aliquid in illo sermone reprehendit? possit aptari: Ecce tot annis servivi tibi, et numquam Ad Pamm. ep. 30. al. 50. T. iv. P. 2. p. 240. f. "mandatum tuum præterii.'Si autem, ut ais, de justo et m Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 230, and his Life of Damasus, in • peccatore voluerimus esse parabolam, justo non potuit con- the Appendix to the Lives of the primitive Fathers, Vol. ii. venire, ut de salute alterius, et maxime fratris, contristetur.' p. 30. Du Pin Bib. T. ii. p. 151. Tillem. Mem. T. yiii. Ad Damas. ep. 146. Vid. T. iv. P. i. p. 149.
Pagi ann. 384. n. ii. iii. and Mr. Bower's History of the De Seraphim, et Osanna, et de frugi et luxurioso filiis. Bishops of Rome
Bishops of Rome, Vol. i. p. 179-233. De V. I. cap. ult.
Basilius, Cæsareæ Cappadociæ, quæ prius Mazaca vocą. In Matth. T. iv. P. I. p. 95, 90.
batur, episcopus, egregios contra Eunomiuin elaboravit libros, VOL. II.