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Tillemont is much of my mind : and Cave, though at the beginning of his article of Pierius he roundly calls him master of the school at Alexandria, afterwards proposes divers difficulties affecting Philip's account.
Photius says that Pierius was a martyr; and that a brother of his, named Isidore, suffered at the same time: but the silence of Eusebius must needs render this doubtful: and Jerom is positive that Pierius outlived the persecution under Dioclesian, as before seen : nor does Tillemont receive this account. But though we have
no good reason to think that Pierius was a martyr, he appears to have been in great esteem. Epiphanius speaks of a church at Alexandria called by his name : and Photius • intimates that there were temples and churches built by the faithful in honour of him and his brother.
There is still somewhat farther to be taken from Photius, who read a work of - Pierius in twelve books or discourses: Photius does not mention any other title. His character of it is this : * His style is clear and perspicuous, easy and familiar, like that of extemporary discourse. • He expresseth himself after the manner of the ancients, very differently from what now obtains • in the church. Of the Father and the Son he speaks rightly enough, except that he makes • two substances and two natures : nevertheless, as appears from what precedes and follows the • place I refer to, by substance and nature he may mean only subsistence, and not in the sense of • the Arians. But of the Spirit he speaks dangerously and impiously, for he makes him inferior • in glory to the Father and the Son. And, with Origen, he seems to hold the pre-existence • of souls.'
Photius here also mentions Pierius's writing upon Hosea and Easter, and therein treating of the Cherubim and Jacob's stone pillar ; and something written by him, upon St. Luke; which words of Photius are not very clear: but it seems as if the title of one of the twelve books abovementioned was to this purpose: Upon Luke, or Observations upon Luke's gospel.
This is what we know of Pierius: from which it is easy to conclude, that in his time he adorned the Christian profession by his piety, learning, and public labours. As we have none of his works, we cannot particularly judge of his sentiments: but from the testimonies which we have collected it appears that a great part of his time and labour was employed in studying and interpreting the scriptures; and it may be supposed that his canon was the same as that of Origen, or very little different.
Pierius is placed by Cave at the year 283: some may be apt to think he should have been put lower ; but it is likely that learned writer supposed Pierius was made presbyter in the beginning of the episcopate of Theonas. Moreover, Jerom spoke of Pierius as Aourishing in the reign of Carus.
CH A P. LV..
I. Dorotheus, presbyter of Antioch. II. Dorotheus, author of the Synopsis of the life of the
prophets, and of the apostles and disciples of Christ. 1. Says Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical history, · About this time Timæus succeeded Domnus in • the episcopate of the church of Antioch, whom Cyril succeeded within our memory. In 'his • time was Dorotheus, presbyter of the church of Antioch, a learned man whom we knew. He * was very studious in the sacred scriptures, and acquainted himself so far with Hebrew, as to • be able to read the ancient scriptures in their own language with understanding : he was a man
a Mem. Ecc. T. iv. Saint Theonas. p. 583. Ed. de Paris. T. iv. P. 3. p. 1225. à Bruxelles.
• Hær. 69. c. 2. p. 728. C.
• Oις ως φασι, και νεα και οικοι υπο των ευσεβενίων ιδρυνθηcav. Cod. 118. p. 300. A.
« Λοίες δε το βιβλιον περιειχε δωδεκα. Cod. 119. p. 300.
χρησιν εις τον λογον, και η επιγραφη, Εις το κατα
Λεκαν. κ. λ. ib. p. 300. m.
Καθ' ών Δωροθεον πρεσβεια τα καλα Αντιοχειαν αξιωμενον τηνικαδε λoγιον ανδρα εγνωμεν φιλοκαλος δ' ουίος περι τα θεια γεγονως, και της Εβραιων επεμεληθη γλωττης ως και αυλαις ταις Εβραϊκαις γραφεις επιστημονως ενθυγχανειν' ην δ' έτος των μαλισα ελευθερων, προπαιδειας τε της καθ' “Ελληνας εκ "Apospos. %. , Eus. 1. vii, cap. 32. in. p. 284. B, C.
• of a liberal mind, [or was extremely well educated, or perhaps was a man of high birth,) and • was not unskilled in Greek literature : but he was an eunuch from his birth : this being an • extraordinary thing, the emperor took notice of him, and made him overseer of the purple dye-house at Tyre. We have heard this person expound the scriptures indifferently well, Cyril was succeeded in the episcopate of Antioch by Tyrannus.'
I have transcribed this passage after this manner with the connection, that we might the better perceive the time of Dorotheus. Cyril • is supposed to have been bishop of Antioch from about the year 280, to the year 300, or longer. We may therefore reckon that Dorotheus flourished about 290, and afterwards. Who is the emperor meant by Eusebius is not certainly. known ; but it seems to me not improbable to be Dioclesian, in the early part of his reign.
It ought to be supposed that Dorotheus first served in civil offices, and after that became presbyter in the church of Antioch.
This Dorotheus ought to be distinguished from one of the same name, elsewhere mentioned by · Eusebius, who was one of the eunuchs of Dioclesian's palace, and suffered martyrdom; and from another Dorotheus, author of the Synopsis, or short history of Christ's apostles and seventy disciples. Fabricius indeed supposeth, that this presbyter of Antioch, and the martyr of the same name, were one and the same person, and that there is not sufficient reason to distinguish them: but I think that he is almost singular in that opinion.
Dorotheus, presbyter of Antioch, not being a writer, is not in Jerom's Catalogue: and for the same reason there is no distinct article allotted him in Cave, or other modern authors of ecclesiastical libraries, or such like works : nevertheless I have thought it proper to insert his history here distinctly, though it be short, as a proof that there were men of learning and quality among Christians in those early ages ; and that Christianity did not discourage any branch of useful knowledge : though, as we have here and often elsewhere occasion to observe, the scriptures were their principal study.
II. I take this opportunity to give an account of the supposed author of · The Synopsis of • the life and death of the prophets, and also of the apostles and disciples of Jesus Christ.
It has been thought by some that' he was bishop or presbyter of Tyre at the beginning of the fourth century, in the year 303, about which time he underwent many sufferings in the persecution begun by Dioclesian, and afterwards died a martyr under Julian the year 363, when he was 107 years of age.
Cave s has divers just observations upon this piece and its author: he thinks the Synopsis to be the work of an anonymous author in the sixth century. Frederick Spanheim computed the author to have lived in the same age. Cave was of opinion, that they who called this Dorotheus presbyter, instead of bishop of Tyre, confounded him with Dorotheus presbyter of Antioch. And may I not rather say, (if I too may propose a conjecture) that possibly this Dorotheus is a mere fictitious person called bishop of the church of Tyre for no other reason but because Dorotheus, of whom we spoke before, is said by Eusebius to have been overseer of the purple dye-house at Tyre?
Tillemont argues, that k there could be no bishop of Tyre at the beginning of the fourth century named Dorotheus; if there had he would have been mentioned by Eusebius or Jerom.
Fabricius ' may be consulted for the editions of this work.
1 Τατο μείριως τας γραφας επι της εκκλησιας διηγεμενα καθηκοσαμεν. ib. C.
b See Tillem. in St. Lucien d'Antioche. Mem. T. v. P.iji. p. 149, et note (4) p. 406, et Pagi Ann. 283, n. viii. Basnag. Ann. 283. n. ix.
< Vid. Cav. in Dorotheo Tyr. Hist. Lit. T. i. p. 163, et
d H. E. I. viij. c. 1. p. 292. A et, cap. vi.
hoc est, anno Christi 525,
-2. Admodum probabile est, hunc anonymum fuisse ipsius Synopsis Dorotheanæ condito
Cav. ib. p. 170. h Quod vero habet Epiphanius, Hær. li. quæ est Alogorum, et ex eo Pseudo-Dorotheus in Synopsi de lxx. discipulis, seculi mininum vi. scriptor, hinc Nicephorus, et alii, fuisse Marcum unum ex iis qui a Christo adlecti fuerunt, magis dubium, imo falsum. Spanh. De Hist. Evang. scriptor. cap. 12. Opp. T. ii. p. 275.
και τιμησαι γε επιδροπη της κατα Τυρον αλεργο βαons. Eus. H. E. p. 284. C.
Dorotheus, Tyriorum urbis, ut volunt, episcopus. Presbyterum quidem cum martyrologio Romano faciunt recentiores. Quod non aliunde profluxisse videtur, quam quod hunc com Dorotheo Antiocheno male confuderunt. Cav. H. L. [ad ann. 303.) T. i. p. 163. a.
81. Ex hoc fragmento perspicere licet, hunc Dorothei, ut præ se fert; exscriptorem, scripsisse Probé et Philoxeno Coss.
k Mais il est encore plus difficile de s'imaginer, que avoit été en ce temps là un Dorothée tel que le depeint Théophane, Eusébe n'en eût rien écrit, ni S. Jérome même, qui le doit révérer comme un père de l'église, et comme niartyr, &c. Tillem. Not. 8. sur S. Dorothée. ib. p. 342.
! Bib. Gr. T. vi. p. 145, 146.
As for the work itself, though it has been too often quoted, it is now generally allowed by learned men to be fabulous, and of little or no value. For preventing such quotations of it for time to come, and that my readers may be the better satisfied about its real character, I shall place divers censures upon it in the margin. One is that of the author of the Collection of the Bibliotheca Patrum maxima, which I make use of; another is taken out of Bellarmine's book of Ecclesiastical writers; and the third from the Annals of Baronius.
This Synopsis might be compared with some like books ascribed to Hippolytus, of which • 1 spoke formerly, and with some articles in Epiphanius, and with the last chapter of the second book of the Apostolical constitutions, and Cotelerius's notes upon it.
I shall take notice of but very few things in this Synopsis.
Christ's seventy disciples the first here named is James, the brother of the Lord: of whom he says, that he was stoned by the Jews, and was buried in the temple at Jerusalem, near the altar.
Here likewise are absurdly numbered among Christ's seventy disciples the seven deacons, and others, mentioned in the Acts, and Clement, and Timothy, and Titus, and almost all others, mentioned by name in St. Paul's epistles.
VICTORINUS, BISHOP OF PETTAW.
1. 'His history. II. Others of the same name. III. His works, and extracts out of a poem against
the Marcionites, ascribed to him. IV. Testimonies to him. V. His opinions. VI. His testimony to the scriptures of the Old and New Testament.
ICTORINUS, bishop of Pettaw, or Petaw upon the Drave in Germany, flourished according to · Cave about the year 290; according to Sixtus Senensis about the year 270. He had the honour to die a'martyr for Christ under the persecution of Dioclesian; and, as is' supposed, in the year 303.
Št. Jerom's account of him in his book of Illustrious men is to this purpose: Victorinus, ok bishop of Pettaw, understood Greek better than Latin: hence his works are excellent for the • sense, but mean as to the style. They are such as these: Commentaries upon Genesis,
Exodus, Leviticus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Habacuc, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, and the Revelaition of John, Against all heresies, and many other works. At last he was crowned with • martyrdom.',
* Dorotheus Exstat hic sub ejus nomine Synopsis, invenerimus,) ejus rei auctor fuit Dorotheus, qui falso cognosed plane fabulosa, nulliusque apud eruditos auctoritatis. Vid. mine Tyri episcopus inscribitur, -Hic inquam Dorotheus Ind. Alphabet. in Bib. 'P. P. Max.
Cæsarem quemdam unum fuisse dicit ex discipulis Domini, • At hujus Dorothei nullam mentionem inveni apud Euse- &c. Baron. Ann. 33, ii, 40. bium, s. Hieron. vel. Gennadium, aut etiam Joan. Trithe
d Vol. i. chap. 35. miam, qui scripserunt de viris illustribus. Ipsa vero Synopsis e Vid. Epiph. H. 20, n. iv. et H. 51, n. vi. p. 428. plena est fabulis. Consulat lector quæ iste auctor scribit in * Jacobus, frater Domini secundum carnem, qui et Justus vitâ Isaïæ, Hieremiæ, Elisæi.- Præterea consulat quæ vocatur, et primus Hierosolymnorum episcopus constitutus est. scribit in vitâ Jacobi Alphæi, et Clementis, et in summâ Lapidibus ibi a Judæis, adobrutus occubuit, atque in templo sciat, ab'isto numerari inter 72, discipulos Christi omnes, qui prope altare sepultus est. ap. B. P. P. ib. p. 427, G. ab apostolo Paulo numerantur, etiamsi ethnici fuerint vel 8 Cav. H. L. T. i. h Sixt. Sen. Bib. S. lib. iv. F. 308. feminæ; et illos omnes non solum discipulos Domini, sed i Cav. ib. Vid. et Pagi Ann. 303, ix. Basnag. 303. n. xvi. etiam episcopos facere. Non meminissem libri tam fabulosi, k Victorinus, Petavionensis episcopus, non æque Latine ut nisi vidissem a multis citari, et non minimi fieri. Ex Bellar- Græce novit. Unde opera ejus grandia sensibus, viliora videnmino de Scrip. Ecc. ap. Bib. P. P. Max. T. iii. p. 421, H. tur compositione verborum. Sunt autem hæc: Commentarij
Nomina autem discipulorum, qui a Domino fuerunt electi, in Genesim, in Exodum, in Leviticum, in Isaiam, in Ezechiel, dum singula exprimere conati sunt, omnes fere, quorum inve. in Abacuc, in Ecclesiasten, in Cantica Cantichorum, in Aponerunt in epistolis Pauli fieri mentionem, -inter discipulos calipsin Johannis, adversum omnes hæresis, et multa alia. Ad Domini adnumerarunt. Primus post Hippolytum (quod
-Primus post Hippolytum (quod extremum martyrio coronatus est." De V. I. cap. 74.
Cave thinks that Victorinus was a Greek by birth, or else born in the confines of Greece. I suppose that learned man concludes this from what Jerom says concerning Victorinus's style in this and some other places, which will be taken notice of hereafter. Cave likewise supposeth that Victorinus professed rhetoric, or oratory, before he was a bishop. And so • Cassiodorus says more than once.
Tillemont thinks it probable that · Cassiodorus confounded our Victorinus with Victorinus of Africa (of whom we shall speak presently), because what Jerom says of our bishop's style does not agree to one who had been a professor of rhetoric: but I think that camot be easily admitted: for Cassiodorus appears to have known both these authors, and speaks of them distinctly. It is not likely therefore that he should confound their characters. And, notwithstanding what Jerom says, Victorinus might be a man of good learning, and able to write elegantly in Greek, as he himself seems to allow. Victorinus's disadvantage, therefore, probably was this: that whilst he was well skilled in Greek he wrote chiefly in the Latin tongue, which was in use in the country where he lived, though he was not completely master of the propriety and elegance of that language. I might add, that ° the style of Victorinus the African is not admired, though he gained so much reputation in his professorship.
We must content ourselves with this short history of our Victorinus, unless some more particulars should offer themselves to us when we come to observe his works, and the testimonies given to him,
II. But it is fit that we first take notice of some other ancient writers of this name.
Our Victorinus had been long supposed bishop of Poictiers in France, until John Launoy' in the last century published his Dissertation concerning him: and he was so fortunate as to prove his point, and satisfy the learned in general, that Victorinus, bishop and martyr, of whom Jerom speaks in the forecited chapter of his Catalogue, and often elsewhere, ought not to be numbered among Gallican bishops, but was bishop of Petabion, or Petabium, in upper Pannonia : or, according to the modern division of that country of Pettaw, in the dukedom of Stiria and circle of Austria.
At the end of that Dissertation, Launoy added an appendix concerning five illustrious persons of this name; that is, four beside our bishop.
The first of which is Victorinus, who wrote in defence of Praxeas, and is mentioned by Tertullian.
The second is our Victorinus, bishop and martyr.
The third is Victorinus, an African, who, after he had long taught rhetoric at Rome with great applause, embraced the Christian religion: he is mentioned by Augustine,' Jerom, and Cassiodorus. According to 'Cave, he flourished about the year 362, and died in 370, or soon after.
The fourth is - Victorinus of Marseilles, likewise professor of rhetoric. He flourished about 434.
The fifth is Victorinus Lampadius, of Antioch, who published a piece entitled Consular and Imperial orations, mentioned by • Photius.
-si non origine Græcus, in Græciæ saltem confinio • Stylus Victorino parum felix, præsertim in dogmaticis natus videtur, ex oratore episcopus, ut non uno loco nos docet perplexus et ingratus, et qui vix ulla adeo decantatæ eloquenCassiodorus. Cav. ib.
tiæ vestigia retinet. Cav. H. L. in Fab. M. Victorino, De
quo libro (Ecclesiaste) et Victorinus, de oratore epis- Scripsit adversus Arium libros more dialectico valde obscuros. copus, nonnulla dis eruit. Cassiod. Inst. Div. Lit. c. 5, T. ij. Hieron. De V. I. cap. 101. p. 512. De quo (Mallhæo) et Victorinus, de oratore episco- Joann. Launoii Constantiensis
. Paris. Theologi, de Victopus, nonnulla disseruit. Ib. c. 7. p. 513.
rino Episc. et Mart. Dissertatio. Ed. Secund. Paris. 1664. See Saint Victorin de Pettau, in Tillem. Mem. T. v. P. ii. & Sed post hos omnes etiam Praxeas quidam hæresina introp. 215.
duxit, quam Victorinus corroborare curavit. Tertull. de Pr. d What Cassiodorus writes of our Victorinus may be seen Hær, cap. 53, p. 255, A. h Confess. I. viji. cap. 2. before at note ", or hereafter at k m n under numb, ji, He i Victorinus, natione Afer, Romæ sub Constantio principe likewise mentions Victorinus the rhetorician several times. rhetoricam docuit, et in extremâ senectute, Christi se traQuorum Commenta a Mario Victorino composita, in Biblio- dens fidei, scripsit,
--Hier. de V. I. cap. 101, Vid. ejusd. thecà meå vobis reliquisse cognoscor. Cass. de Rhetorica. T. Proæm. in Ep. ad Gal. Vid. et adv. Ruf. 1. i. T. iv. p. 367, in. ii. p. 535, b. in. Præterea secundum Victorinum Enthyme- k See before, note d.
I H. L. matis altera est definitio. Ib. p. 536, m. Modum autem hy
m Victorinus rhetor Massiliensis, &c. Gennad. de V. I. potheticorum syllogismorum si quis plenius nôsse desiderat, cap. 60, Conf. Sidon. Ep. I. v. ep. 21. legat librum Marii Victorini, qui inscribitur de Syllogismis
'n Cav, ubi supra.
• Cód. ci. p. 270.
There is another author sometimes - called Victorinus; but it is now generally thought that - his name is more properly Victorius, of Aquitain. He flourished about · 457.
Beside these, it is supposed that there were many others of the same name, who bote a glorious testimony to Christ in times of persecution: but it is by no means necessary that I should give any particular account of them at present.
III. We saw just now, in Jerom, a catalogue of this writer's works. Trithemius - makes no additions: he only names the same pieces in a little different order. We must now take some farther notice of them.
1. The first work of our author, mentioned by Jerom in his Catalogue of ecclesiastical writers, is a Commentary upon Genesis. In another place Jerom quotes Victorinus as having commented upon the history of Isaac's blessing of Jacob, which is recorded in Genesis, ch. xxvii. The fragment concerning the creation of the world, published' by Cave from the library of the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, may be a part of this Commentary.
2. Of the Commentaries upon Exodus, Leviticus, Ezekiel, Habacuc, the Canticles, we have nothing remaining: nor is there any farther notice taken of them, except in such catalogues of his works as have been already mentioned.
3. The Commentary upon Isaiah is again mentioned by Jeroms in the preface to his own exposition of that book: he speaks there of Victorinus, as the only Latin who had written upon that prophet; or, at least, who had explained any large part of him, whilst several Greek writers had bestowed a great deal of labour that way. In another place he mentions a mystical explication, which Victorinus gives of a passage in Isaiah, ch. vi. 2.
4. In his Commentary upon the book of Ecclesiastes, Jerom observes Victorinus's' explication of Ecc. iv. 13, in which he agreed with Origen. I have put part of Jerom's passage in the margin, as of some use, to shew, our author's manner in his Commentaries: and I would likewise refer
readers to what there follows. This Commentary upon Ecclesiastes is expressly mentioned by * Cassiodorus: it seems by him that Victorinus had explained some parts or passages of this book.
5. In his Catalogue, Jerom says nothing of Victorinus's having written upon St. Matthew: but, in the preface to his own Commentary upon that evangelist, he mention's Victorinus with other Latin commentators. Cassiodorus too mentions" Victorinus's explication of that gospel. The expressions used both by Jerom and Cassiodorus seem to imply, that Victorinus's performance was no large work; but contained either short notes upon the whole, or else explications of some passages only.
6. The Commentary upon the Revelation is also mentioned by Cassiodorus as well as Jerom. Says Cassiodorus: · Victorinus," the bishop, already mentioned by us more than once, explained briefly the most difficult places in this book.'
There is still extanto a Commentary upon the Revelation, which is ascribed to Victorinus; but its genuineness is not unquestioned. Čave P says, “it either is not his, or has been greatly inter
A Vid. Gennad.de V. I. cap. 88.
cim apostolos interpretatus est. Hieron, ad Dam. T. iii. p. Vid. Laun. ut supra, p. 44 et 45.
c Cav. ib. 518. Bened. al. Ep. 142. Vid. Trithem. cap. 46.
i Origenes et Victorinus non multum inter se diversa senseQuoniam autem polliciti sumus, et de eo quid significaret runt. Post generalem illam sententiam, quæ omnibus patet, in figurà adjungere, Hippolyti martyris verba ponamus, a quo quod melior sit adolescentulus pauper et sapiens, quam rex et Victorinus noster non plurimum discrepat: non quod senex et insipiens; et, quod frequenter evenit, ut ille per omnia plenius executus sit, sed quod possit occasionem præ- sapientiam suam de carcere regis egrediens, imperet pro do. bere lectoiï ad intelligentiam latiorem. Hieron. ad Dam. Qu. minatore perverso; et rex insipiens perdat imperium, quod 3, p. 569, in. T. ii. Bened. al. Ep. 125.
tenebat; super Christo et diabolo hunc locum interpretati Exstat quidem penes me Victorini tractatus—de Fabricâ sunt, quod puerum pauperem et sapientem, Christum velint, Mundi. Videtur esse hic libellus ATOCTOO Mation quoddam, &c. Hier. 'in Ecc. T. ii. p. 741, fin. ex Commentariis vel in Genesin vel in Apocalypsin, decerp- * De quo libro [Ecclesiaste] et Victorinusnonnulla tum; quod proinde, tum propter venerandam antiquitatem, disseruit. Inst. Div. Lit. cap. 5. tum propter celeberrimi martyris famam, hic subjungam. | Legisse me fateor--et Latinorum, Hilarii, Victorini, Cav. Hist. Lit. in Victorin. T. i. p. 147, 148.
Fortunatiani opuscula. Hier. P. in Matth. p. 3, f. & Magnique laboris et operis est, omnem Isaïæ librum velle m De quo (Matthæo) et Victorinus, ex oratore episcopus, edisserere, in quo majorum nostrorum ingenia sudaverunt, nonnulla disseruit. Cassiod. ib. c. vii. Græcorum dico. Cæterum apud Latinos grande silentium " De quo libro [Apocalypsi] et Victorinus, sæpe dietus est, præter sanctæ memoriæ martyrem Victorinam, qui cum episcopus, difficillima quædam loca breviter tractavit. Id. ib. apostolo dicere poterat: Etsi imperitus sermone, non tamen
Ap. Bib. P. P. T. iii. p. 414, &c. scientiâ. Hier. Pr. in Is.
# Sex alæ uni, et sex alæ alteri,' Victorinus noster duode
♡ Cay, ubi supr.