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have been nearly on a level. In reasonable order among the boys of his this respect, though both Harrow house, especially during the evening; and Rugby occupy a good place as

to assist the master who calls the compared with other public schools, to investigate and to punish any serious

"bill” in school in maintaining quiet ; our public-school training is plainly moral offence, as bullying, drinking, not so successful as it should be. gross language or acts, &c.; or any vio. A fact stated by Professor Price, lation of a well-known school rule, as one of the most eminent mathema- smoking, being in a public - house, ticians at Oxford, illustrates this throwing stones in the street, &c.rather remarkably. The great test Of the advantages of the system of high mathematical proficiency both head-masters speak in the acquired at school is the junior most unhesitating language. Mr of the two university scholarships, Butler says :which can only be competed for up “As to the general question, whether to the ninth term from matricula- it is desirable that the elder boys in tion. This scholarship, says Mr a great school should be formally inPrice, “has never been gained by a trusted with some authority over the young man from the great public younger, I can only state in the most schools." but they have gained the emphatic terms my own conviction, that

no great school could long live in a senior scholarship repeatedly, which healthy state without it. The limit of may be supposed rather the result the authority may vary, and the recog. of university training.

nised means of maintaining it may vary The monitorial system exists in according to the traditions of each its full development both at Har- school; but I am satisfied that the only row and Rugby, and is very much

true way to train boys is to train them the same in both, although there

to govern themselves. It is not merely

that boys become aware of a thousand are of course some minor details instances of misconduct more or less which are characteristic of each serious which a master can never detect school. Perhaps the most import- without an amount of surveillance ant difference is that while the which would be fatal to all generous Rugby præpostors are above forty training ; but independently of this, the -comprising the whole Sixth Form

knowledge on the part of the school at

large that a certain portion of their own -the Harrow monitors are never body of which they hope some day to more than fifteen. In both cases become themselves members, is charged the privilege is attached strictly to to maintain right and to put down place in the school, the reward en wrong, must have a most powerful tirely of school work, and depend moral influence in forming manly char. ing in no way upon age or other

acters. They see justice done, and evil qualifications ; excepting that at

discountenanced or punished, by those

who share their syimpathies, whose Rugby a boy is not permitted to

standard of right and wrong is not so pass into the Sixth (however quali- much above their own as to seem ficti. fied by attainments) until he is six- tious, and who represent in the main teen, and that as a boy's place in the ability and the physical strength of the Sixth, once obtained, never the school.” afterwards changes, and he can Dr Temple speaks briefly but deonly rise to the top by his seniors cidedly to the same purport; and leaving school, it is seldom that a he remarks that “the Sixth-Form very young boy can obtain the rank boys, though they are in every way of monitor at Harrow. The powers treated as boys, are considered by and responsibilities are very much their schoolfellows as the natural the same in both schools. Mr But- guardians of the good name of the ler's statement on this head may school." It may be just observed, stand as well for Rugby as for that while Mr Butler may be supHarrow:

posed to speak somewhat enthu“Without attempting to define accu

siastically in favour of a system rately the duties of a monitor, I may under which he himself was trained, say that he would be bound to keep Dr Temple's judgment cannot be otherwise than impartial, as he was and then you will be able perhaps to not himself a public-school man. point out where the failure would be. But it may be said, this theory

my Supposing that boys come out of church

together, and the monitors are about of “governing through the upper

the streets as the other boys themselves boys," as one of the Commissioners are, the other boys are under the eye fairly terms it, is a very fine theory, of the monitor, and the monitor is an if you take the masters' view of an obstacle to the boy going into the upper boy's responsibilities : but Tap' without being seen?” Mr C.-what view do they take of it them

“Then I think this upper boy must selves ? how far, in practice, are

never do such a thing himself.” Mr V.

-“I mean, supposing that he would not they found equal to these responsi.

do such a thing himself, would it not bilities, and how far do they main- be an advantage in that respect?Mr tain the moral discipline which so C.-" In Utopia I think it would,” Mr much depends upon them, and the V.-"Such a thing as a boy in the Sixth good name which they are supposed Form not going into a public-house, to have so much at heart? Where

then, in the apprehension of an Eton

master, is an Utopian impossibility ?" will you find the monitor or præ

Mr C. “No, I think that is a very postor whom you can trust not hard way of putting it. I think you only to avoid for himself but to cannot insure that a monitor would check in others such common not do such a thing."-Evidence, Eton, schoolboy irregularities as smok- 6037-6041. ing, for instance, or going into a It does appear to be insured, public-house? Mr Carter, Lower however, sufficiently for all practimaster of Eton, where, as we have cal purposes, both at Harrow and before shown, the monitorial powers at Rugby, where the Eton master's have fallen into abeyance, is re- Utopia is found in actual existence. markably sceptical on this point. It might be hardly fair to rest this Anything like bad language, or assertion on the sole authority of conduct which would be generally the masters of either school; an held disreputable, would be put earnest and conscientious master down at Eton as much as at Har- may have a tendency (a very row or Rugby ; not indeed by any natural and allowable tendency) to direct authority of the upper boys, see in the moral state of his school but by the general feeling of the rather that which he desires and school. But when Mr Carter, in strives to produce than that which his examination, is pressed about actually exists; and there must certain institutions at Eton known always be in a large school some as “the Tap” and “the Christo- irregularities of which the most pher,” to which the boys are proved watchful master can know nothing. to resort, to say the least, much too It is not, therefore, altogether often (for the mere habit of enter- because Dr Temple and Mr Butler ing a public-house, putting any express their confidence that, as a possible excess out of the question, general rule, a Rugby præpostor or is most objectionable), it is suggest a Harrow monitor would neither ed to him by Mr Commissioner allow a lower boy to smoke or go Vaughan that possibly the moni- into a public-house, nor do such a torial authority (supposing it to be thing himself, that we should feel acknowledged at Eton)"might have satisfied that the exceptions to this the effect of checking bad habits of rule were not more common than such a description." Mr Carter those gentlemen honestly believe ; answers that he thinks not;" and but when we have the same asthe following rather remarkable surance from young men whose conversation ensues :

high standing both at school and Mr Vaughan._"Could you point out college gives weight to their evihow it would fail ?" Mr Č. - "I could dence, while they must have had not point out how it would succeed." opportunities of knowing the priMr \'.-"I will show you what I mean, vate habits of their schoolfellows which no master could have, it puts of any offence which would be visited, the fact beyond reasonable doubt. as regards a boy in the forms below the Here is an extract from the exami

Sixth, by any punishment to be adminis.

tered by the Sixth, to be committed by nation of Mr Ridley, who left Har

a Sixth Form boy himself, - what would row as Captain in 1861:

happen !—There would be a Sixth levy * 1530. Do you consider that the mo

called by some fellow in the Sixth, and nitorial system is very beneficial ?-Yes,

they would probably decide to ask the I think that it checks breaches of dis

head-master either to send him away, cipline much more than the power of or to put him down a certain number of the masters does : at all events certain places. kinds of breaches of discipline. 1531.

* “1577. (Lord Lyttelton.) Do they What kind of breaches of discipline ?

(the boys generally) go to public-houses Such breaches as drinking, immorality,

to drink -Very little indeed. 1578. and so on. 1532. That is to say, the

That you think was rather discounten. sort of cases not so likely to be known

anced ?-Yes. 1579. (Mr Thompson.) to the masters as to the monitors ?

Would a monitor stop that ?-Yes. Yes. 1533. Do you think the monitors

“1593. (Lord Clarendon.) The Sixth would be as much disposed to check or

Form would consider themselves bound punish those offences as the masters ?

to interfere in the case of any gross imI have known cases in which perhaps

morality ?-Certainly. the monitor might have failed in his

“1598. (Lord Devon.) Take another

offence which is not a moral offence, duty, but I can conscientiously say that the general tone is such that a mo

take smoking : would the Sixth Form nitor who saw an offence committed

interfere to support any prohibition of would consider himself bound to punish

the masters with regard to smoking ?the boy who committed it. 1534. And

The Sixth always punished for smoking. public opinion would support him in so

1599. And never smoked themselves? doing ?- Decidedly. 1535. You think

- I suppose some of them did ; of course the exercise of the monitorial authority

if they were discovered smoking by a is not unpopular!-I think that if any

Sixth fellow, he would call a Sixth levy. monitor is found to neglect his duty he

1600. (Mr Thompson.) They would be is despised by those who are subject to

obliged to leave the Sixth in that event ? his authority. 1536. If he neglect his

- They probably would." duty ?-Yes.

The reader of this evidence will 1523. Would they stop bullying ?Yes; of course I meant to include that in the term keeping order. 1524. Temple, in the course of his exathey observed any boys going into mination, says—“I expelled a boy public-houses, would they report them in the Sixth Form once for knowing -No, but they would be punished. of something very wrong and not

stopping it.” It seems quite clear, Here, again, is the evidence of

from the evidence which has been Mr Lee Warner, who was six years quoted, that although instances will at Rugby, and left in 1860 :

occur of bad example or connivance "1515. They (the præpostors) would on the part of the upper boys to consider themselves called upon to in. whom these powers are intrusted, terfere if they saw anything going on the system on the whole works exthat was very wrong, such as going into cellently for the moral discipline of a public-house!- They would at once interfere, and either send the boy up,

Harrow and Rugby, and is very far or they have the power of licking him

indeed from being the Utopian if they prefer it; only that, of course,

theory which some Eton authoriis subject to appeal.

ties are disposed to regard it. " 1538. With regard to keeping order certainly, when we compare Mr in the house: Suppose there was any Carter's assertion, that “the general card-playing going on in the studies, would the Sixth take notice of it?

good conduct of the school has inCertainly.

creased in almost exact proportion “ 1546. (Lord Devon.) I ask, of to the decrease of authority placed course, merely the general question, but in the hands of the upper boys," * supposing the case which is conceivable, with his own evidence as quoted

* Appendix, p. 121.

above, and with the complaint of It must be remembered that both another Eton master, that it is "a at Harrow and Rugby “no boy is fashionable thing with the leading bound to take a punishment from boys of the school” to frequent a monitor if he considers it an unsuch places as the Tap and the just one." He has the right of Christopher, and that “ very often appeal ; either to the general body a hundred boys go there in the of monitors, or to the head-master. course of a day," * we readily un- The right, as may be supposed, is derstand how the monitorial autho- very seldom exercised, and the aprity is indeed, as one of the masters peal, when made, has very rarely explains it, foreign to the whole been successful ; it may be fairly spirit of the place; but it is not assumed that, unless the abuse of so easy to understand the further power is very flagrant indeed, the explanation, occurring more than tendency amongst the monitors once in nearly the same words in would be to support a member of the course of the Eton evidence on their own body, and that the this point, that “the exercise of master would also feel that, in the those powers has fallen into de- maintenance of general discipline, suetude from the excellence of the such appeals were not to be enschool discipline and the ease with couraged. The same feeling prewhich it is maintained." +

vails (and, on the whole, with Perhaps the most reasonable ob- benefit to the service) in courtjection which may be made to the martials and other similarly conexercise by boys of seventeen or stituted tribunals. No captain of eighteen of these disciplinary pow- a ship likes a “sea-lawyer," and a ers is the possible bad effect upon lower boy who is always questionthemselves. There is a risk, no ing the judgment of the præpostors doubt, that, as the Commissioners had better be removed at once from express it, “individual boys may Rugby to Eton. But the right of be rendered by it stiff and priggish, appeal is universally acknowledged or imperious, or” (which seems to exist, and all the evidence goes not so probable)“ that they may be to show that, however seldom exoppressed by a responsibility for ercised, it practically serves as a which they are unfitted by charac- check upon the abuse of monitorial ter and disposition.” To this dan- power. Mr Lee Warner, when ger neither the masters of Rugby asked whether, as a lower boy at nor of Harrow are insensible. But Rugby, he ever saw “boys who both masters and boys agree that, habitually abused their powers as practically, the risk of this detri. præpostors,” replies, that he does ment to character is very little. The not think he knows of any such most important autocrat amongst cases—“ because we should at once his schoolfellows soon finds his have an appeal to a Sixth levy on level at the university : and the it.” Mr Lang speaks quite as conremark with which the subject is fidently of the temperate exercise dismissed by the Commissioners of these powers at Harrow; on the seems sensible and just, that “per- part of the lower boys, he says, the haps even the slight Pharisaism monitors' discipline is “cheerfully which monitorial authority has submitted to " - " if they think been observed by others to engen- there is anything arbitrary, they der in characters not quite conge- can always appeal." I nial with their position, may also It is curious to note from these lead sometimes to the gradual, but volumes of evidence how much a real, assumption of good habits.” schoolboy's notion of his indefeas

* Eton Evidence, 8224, 8225.
+ Mr S. Hawtrey, Appendix, p. 160. Mr Browning, ib. p. 146.
I See Harrow Evidence, 1904, &c.

ible rights and liberties varies at postor, more private and domestic different schools. At Eton, as we than that of the master, hardly goes have seen, the exercise of monito- the length of demanding admitrial discipline would be resented tance into the fortress (about the by public opinion as “not the size of the Commissioner's table, thing”-and no phrase could be as Dr Temple describes a schoolmore expressive. On the other house study) in which the smallest hand, at Eton, as well as at Har- fag has intrenched himself, for lawrow, it is the custom-and appears ful or unlawful purposes, in the to the authorities there, as it does evening. Sir Stafford Northcote is to the Commissioners, as nothing examining a late member of the more than a wholesome precaution Rugby Sixth Form“ with regard to

--for the masters to visit occasion- keeping order in the house : ”ally the private rooms or studies of

“1538. Suppose there was any card. the boys in their respective houses.

playing going on in the studies, would The same takes place in College at

the Sixth take notice of it?–Certainly. Winchester; and in none of these - Did they ever go into the boys' schools is this kind of occasional rooms to see if there was any mischief surveillance complained of by the going on?—They would not go into boys as any violation of their pri their studies on purpose ; but if they vacy. Mr Harris, one of the as

came upon it by accident they would sistants at Harrow, is asked in the

notice it. If they knocked, the fellows

would probably lock the door.- Was it course of his examination by Sir

considered legal to lock your door?S. Northcote

It was considered legal. --So that any "986. Are you in the habit of going

mischief might be carried on, which up into the boys' rooms at all ?-Yes ; I

could not be prevented in that way?do always once in the course of the

Except by the influence of the Sixth evening. When I am at home during

fellows generally.' the evening I generally go up before Sir Stafford, with an Etonian's prayers ; I always go up once after- natural preference for his own inwards. 987. Do you go into each room, or only into some of them !-It depends

stitutions, returns to the attack on circumstances. I have no uniform subsequently : practice; the less uniform the better. “1556. It is not the habit of the I always knock at the door and go in." masters to go round the house at night,

is it?-In our house the masters very Again,

seldom did, except late at night to see * 487. As a matter of discipline, are that there was no chance of a fire or boys allowed to lock their doors :—They anything of that kind.-Do you think it are not. 488. Would that be considered would be a better system if, instead of an offence ?-Yes."

trusting the discipline to the Sixth, the

masters had themselves occasionally At Rugby, on the contrary, any gone to the boys' rooms ?-No; I think such system would be looked up that would engender distrust between on as little better than espionage. the masters and the boys, and the By time-honoured tradition, every

Sixth would not think it their business Rugbeian's study is his castle. No

so much if the masters took it into

their hands." doubt, a master has a right to make a domiciliary visit, and would An ancient author with whom probably do so if he had strong we trust Eton and Rugby men are reason to suspect the prevalence of alike familiar tells us how a certain any such habits as gambling or tribe of Indians, of advanced utilidrinking in a particular house ; but tarian views, who piously and reit is a right very rarely exercised, verently ate their aged parents, had and such a visit would require to their feelings terribly shocked when be justified by very peculiar circum- it was suggested that they should stances in order not to violate the adopt the Greek practice of burning traditionary feeling of the school. them ; they cried out and stopped Even the jurisdiction of a prae- their ears against the indecency of

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