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Newman's past writings to prove my excluded, by the terms of my exassertion. I have declared Dr Newman planation, from using any other to have been an honest man up to the of Dr Newman's past writings to 1st of February 1864; it was, as I shall show, only Dr Newman's fault Prove

ut prove my assertion.” Ordinary morthat I ever thought him to be anything

tals, thus hampered, would have else. It depends entirely on Dr New. done nothing. They might have man whether he shall sustain his re- fretted a little over the unpleasant putation so recently acquired. If I give nature of the scrape in which they him thereby a fresh advantage in this found themselves, but the sermon argument, he is most welcome to it. He needs, it seems to me, as many ad

and the past writings of their torvantages as possible. But I have a right,

mentor being sealed books to them, in self-justification, to put before the they would have bent to the blast, public so much of that serion, and of and thereby saved their own credit the rest of Dr Newman's writings, as as men of honour. Not so Mr will show why I formed so harsh an Kingsley. “I have a right," he opinion of them and of him, and why I says. “in self-justification. to put still consider that sermon (whatever i may be its meaning) as most dangerous

before the public so much of that and misleading. And I have å full sermon, and of the rest of Dr Newright to do the same by those many man's writings, as will show why I passages of Dr Newman's writings formed so harsh an opinion of them which I left alone at first, simply be. and of him.” It is very well to talk cause I thought that Dr Newman

of hault courageand “strict honwished for peace.”

our" in the abstract. They would, of

course, deter me, if I paid attention We beg that our readers will give to them, from following a certain to this curious passage a second line, and I assure the public that no perusal, and observe what it states, man holds them, abstractly speakwhat it promises, and what it shows ing, in more profound respect than that the writer is prepared to do. I; but there is a matter which I hold First of all, we have the acknow- in more profound respect still, and ledgment-implied, indeed, rather that is, that I should stand well than expressed—that Mr Kingsley's with the world. Therefore, the opinion regarding theuntruthfulness exclusion of which I speak, and the of his adversary never, from first to fine flourish of chivalrous sentilast, underwent the slightest change. ment which follows, are to be takHe had, indeed," declared Dr New- en for no more than they are worth. man to be an honest man up to the Dr Newman's sermon, and, indeed, Ist of February 1864;" but between all his writings, are fair game to me, making a statement of this sort, and as such I mean to hunt them and believing what is stated, there down. Accordingly, the pamphlet is all the difference in the world. is neither more nor less than a In spite of this declaration, Mr series of quotations from Dr NewKingsley feels that his original man's works, interspersed with comcharge is capable of justification; mentaries from the pen of the and being goaded to the attempt by pamphleteer-of the pamphleteer Dr Newman's ungenerous mode of who sets out with the uncalledaccepting the amende which had for and ostentatious announcement been tendered, he resolves to go that he cannot, except at the cost through with it. But difficulties at of self-respect, make any use of once arise. “I am of course pre- them at all !!! cluded from using the sermon en- We are afraid that this disposition titled “Wisdom and Innocence to to play fast and loose with hault couprove my words ;” and, harder rage and “strict honour" is a princase still, “ I am informed by those ciple scarcely of yesterday's growth from whose judgment on such points with Mr Kingsley. Not that we there is no appeal, that, en hault charge him, as he charges Dr Newcourage and strict honour, I am also man, with writing and teaching that

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1864.]
Rev. Charles Kingsley and Dr Newman.

297 “truth, for its own sake, need not, fluence for good over youths whom and, on the whole, ought not, to he had so deeply offended. He be regarded as a virtue.” But could not, assuming that he had truth, like the chameleon, can told the truth, unsay what had change its colour, or appear to do been said. Mr Kingsley, however, So, when a clever man has an ob- is not to be arrested by common ject to serve and is bent on serving obstacles. As he has recently dealt it. A good many years ago Mr with Dr Newman, so in 1863 he Kingsley published a novel which, handled both “Alton Locke' and with much in it that was noxious, the undergraduates of Cambridge. and still more that was absurd, at He prepared a new edition of the tained, as it deserved to do, a large book, re-wrote the objectionable share of public favour. Alton passages, and brought them out, in Locke, the tailor and poet, ran, in their altered form, with a preface deed, such rigs as the tailor or poet explanatory of his reasons for so in real life never did or could run. doing. The reasons are charming. But he served well enough the pur- Under the sunshine of a continupose which the author appeared to ous Whig Government, society has have in view; he was an appro- everywhere ripened in the interpriate hero in a tale which aimed val between 1849 and 1863. The at the inculcation of Christian com- Church, the army, the manufacturmunism. It happened that, among ing population, undergraduate life other vivid scenes, undergraduate in Cambridge itself, all acknowlife was described in this novel; ledge this power. There was a and the description gave, as indeed time when society seemed to be it well might, decided offence to composed of elements everywhere all classes in the University of discordant-when the rich oppressCambridge. “Alton Locke' pro- ed the poor, and the poor hated the fessed to paint the Cambridge men rich. There were days, not very of 1849. We are not aware that the long ago, when the very sports of habits of Cambridge men were very young aristocrats insulted and ofdifferent in 1849 from what they fended plebeians. are now; and Mr Kingsley's account

“How changed, thank God, is all this of them, if it was a just account

now! Before the influence of religion, then, may probably be taken as a both Evangelical and Anglican-before just account still. But, just or un- the spread of those liberal principles just, it made the writer extremely founded on common humanity and unpopular. That was a circum justice, the triumph of which we owe stance of very little moment so to the courage and practical sense of long as the writer rested in the ob

the Whig party-before the example of

a Court virtuous, humane, and benefiscurity of a country curacy; but

cent, the attitude of the British upper from the obscurity of a country classes has undergone a noble change. curacy, his own merits, and the There is no aristocracy in the world, favour of a Liberal Ministry, gra and there never has been one, as far as dually withdrew him. Mr Kings- I know, which has so honourably reley became rector of Eversley. A pented and brought forth fruits meet canonry was next conferred upon

for repentance-which has so cheerfully

asked what its duty was, that it might him; by-and-by, the honourable

do it. It is not merely enlightened office of Chaplain to the Queen;

statesmen, philanthropists, devotees, and, last of all, the Regius Professor- or the working clergy, hard and heart ship of History in the University ily as they are working, who have of Cambridge. Here, then, was à set themselves to do good as a duty dilemma out of which it would specially required of them by creed or have been difficult for almost any

by station; in the generality of younger

laymen, as far as I can see, a humanity other Christian communist than in the highest sense of the term has been Mr Kingsley to find a way. He awakened, which bids fair, in another could not hope to exercise an in- generation, to abolish the last remnants of class prejudices and class grudges. that they will scarcely thank him The whole creed of our young gentle for a compliment of which they best men is becoming more liberal, their de- understand the value. They know meanour more courteous, their language" more temperate. They inquire after

S -he evidently does not—that of all the welfare, or at least mingle in the the officers in the Queen's service, sports, of the working man with a simple none see so little or know so little cordiality which was unknown thirty as the Guards about their men. years ago. They are prompt, the more This is not their fault, but the fault earnest of them, to make themselves of

of a system which, denying to these use to him, on the ground of a common manhood, if any means of doing good

gentlemen rooms in barracks, cuts are pointed out to them; and that it is

them off from the opportunity of in any wise degrading to associate with cultivating those friendly relations

low fellows,' is an opinion utterly obsowith their men into which, as the lete, save, perhaps, among a few sons rest of the army is well aware, they of squireens in remote provinces, or of have, from time out of mind, been parvenus who cannot afford to recognise

ready to enter as often as circumthe class from whence they themselves have risen. In the army, thanks to the

stances threw them together. But purifying effects of the Crimean and

this is not the only mistake into Indian wars, the same altered line is which Mr Kingsley falls. “If I patent. Officers feel for and with their wish," he says, “for one absolute men, talk to them, strive to instruct proof of the changed relation beand amuse them, more and more year by tween the upper and the lower classyear. And as a proof that the reform has not been forced upon the officers by

şes, I have only to point to the Vol

e public opinion from without, but is

unteer movement. In 1803, in the spontaneous and from within. another face of the most real and fatal daninstance of the altered mind of the aris- ger, the Addington Ministry was tocracy, the improvement is greatest afraid of allowing volunteer regiin those regiments which are officered ments, and Lord Eldon, while pressby men of the best blood; and in care ing the necessity, could use as an for and sympathy for their men, her Ma

argument that if the people did not jesty's Foot Guards stand first of all."

volunteer for the Government they If there be not in all this the very would against it. So broad was essence of what Carlyle calls “flun- even then the gulf between the keyism,"and vulgar flunkeyism too, governed and the governors." The we really do not know what the ex- Addington Ministry, afraid of alpression means. Can Mr Kingsley lowing (the formation of) volunteer be ignorant that the Young Eng- regiments! A gulf between the land party to whom much of this governors and the governed in 1803! renewed intercourse of class with Why, it was in the early summer of class may be attributed is not, nor that very year that a movement beever was, composed of Whigs ? Has gan, which, before the autumn closhe never heard of such men as Ben- ed, assembled upwards of 300,000 jamin Disraeli, Lord John Manners, volunteers under arms. Has Mr and Lord Robert Cecil ? And must Kingsley never looked into the Anhe be told that it enters, and al- nual Register, nor read Lockhart's ways did enter, into the spirit of Life of Scott,' or even Lord StanToryism to acknowledge the influ- hope's 'Life of Pitt?' This is ence of that common humanity about really too bad ; but it is of a piece which he prattles? Or is it an at. with the wisdom which, while it tempt to ingratiate himself still bids the undergraduates beware more with the powers that be la of a Conservative reaction, and depalpable exhibition of that kind of precates a crusade against tradesgratitude which the great Whig unions, goes out of its way to flatMinister so well understood, and so ter royalty by proclaiming that the aptly defined in the days of the first “House of Lords will be conserved, Georges ? As to her Majesty's Foot just in proportion as the upper Guards, we are inclined to believe classes shall copy the virtues of royalty, both of him who is taken that living intelligence by which I write, from us and of her who is left.” and argue, and act. He asks about iny If Mr Kingsley expected to ride mind and its beliefs and its sentiments.

and he shall be answered. Not for his away triumphantly upon his pam

own sake, but for mine ; for the sake of phlet he grossly deceived himself. the religion which I profess, and of the Nothing could have occurred more priesthood in which I am unworthily satisfactory to Dr Newman than included, and of my friends, and of my the appearance of such a publica- foes, and of that general public which tion under such a name- What, consists of neither the one nor the other, then, does Dr Newman mean ?'

but of well-wishers, lovers of fair play,

sceptical cross-questioners, interested inIt was the question above all ques

quírers, curious lookers-on, and simple tions which he most desired to strangers, unconcerned, yet not careless have put to him; and to have it about the issue." put under circumstances so propitious gladdened the old man's heart.

Having arrived at this concluHe felt acutely - he had often,

sion, Dr Newman is content, in a we understand, admitted—that his

brief introduction, to extinguish Mr past career, looked at as a whole,

Kingsley as a logician. This done, stood in need of explanation. Not

he addresses himself to his more that he cared for the eloquence of

important task; and how grave and

solemn he feels it to be, may be Exeter Hall, or the weekly abuse of religious newpapers ; but he was

gathered from the tone almost sensitively alive to what might be

more than from the matter of the thought of him by friends from

short sentences with which the whom, not without a pang, he had

narrative opens : withdrawn himself. “No decent “It may easily be conceived how opportunity had, however, as yet great a trial it is to me to write the presented itself of pleading his own

following history of myself, but I must cause fully and fairly before the

not shrink from the task. The words world. Now it came, and it was a

Secretum meum mihi keep ringing in my

ears; but as men draw nearer towards satisfaction to him to think that their end they care less about disthe bitterest of all his revilers had closures. Nor is it the least part of supplied it.

my trial to anticipate that my friends "He," writes Dr Newman in reply

may, upon first reading what I have

written, consider much in it irrelevant to Mr Kingsley's last attack, “had a

to my purpose; yet I cannot help

tom positive idea to illuminate his whole thinking that, viewed as a whole, it matter, and to stamp it with a form, will effect what I wish it to do." and to quicken it with an interpretation. He called me a liar—a simple, a We cannot tell what Dr Newbroad, an intelligible, and, to the Eng.

man's anticipations may have been, lish public, a plausible arraignment; but

but we have no hesitation in statfor me to answer in detail charge one, by reason one, and charge two by rea

ing the effect which his remarkable son two, and charge three by reason history has produced upon ourthree, and so to proceed through the selves. We believe him to be whole string both of accusations and re- now, and always to have been, a plies, each of which was to be indepen- thoroughly honest man. We do dent of the rest, this would be certainly labour lost, as regards any effective re.

not distrust one word of all that sult. What I needed was a correspond.

he has written about himself. His ing antagonist writing in my defence,

confessions may appear to some and where was that to be found ? .... childish-to others forced and unYes, I said to myself, his very question natural ; in our eyes they take at is about my meaning,— What does Dr

once the character of absolute Newman mean?' It points in the very simplicity and candour. He has same direction into which my musings had turned me already. He asks what

of painted a mind in great distress I mean. Not about my words, not about great things; bent upon about my arguments, not about my ac. discovering the right way, not for tions as his ultimate point, but about itself only, but for others-pausing,

hesitating, deflecting, as such minds them St Augustine was the highest invariably do, yet never once fall- of all authorities, not in regard to ing into the moral abyss of hypo- matters of fact alone, but on points crisy or false seeming. From his of dogma referring specially to the very childhood he is earnest, and question of God's foreknowledge earnest after religious truth. He and man's free-will. And then begins life a dreamer of dreams, came Newton on the Prophecies, but they all point in the same di- creating an assurance, not absolutely rection. As a schoolboy

set aside for many long years, that "I used to wish that the Arabian the Pope was the Antichrist preNights' were true; my imagination dicted by Daniel. Strange to say, ran on unknown influences, on magical however, it was at that very timepowers and talismans. ... I thought at the period when Milner and life might be a dream, or I an angel, Newton were studied and believed and all this world a deception; my that a conviction took possession fellow-angels, by a playful device, concealing themselves from me, and de

of the young enthusiast that God ceiving me with the semblance of a

had set him apart for a life of celimaterial world, and I was very super bacy. The idea never afterwards stitious, and for some time previous to departed from him. It became at my conversion (when I was fifteen)

once the cause, as to a certain used constantly to cross myself on going extent it was the effect. of those into the dark.

ascetic habits to which from tender A youth who could name the age he was addicted, and which, year of his conversion, took natu- while they sharpened the imaginarally to the school of Low-Church tion, went a great way to weaken or Calvinistic divinity. Romaine, the power of controlling it. Thus and Thomas Scott of Acton Sand- Newman, as years grew upon him, ford, became his spiritual guides, lived daily more and more the life and the late Bishop Wilson of Cal- of a visionary, but of a visionary cutta his Coryphæus. It is charac- whose aims were always of the loftteristic of the man, however, that iest kind. He accepted it as a setall this while young Newman was tled truth, that his calling of God at once a reader of deistical publi- would require from him such a cations, and prone to ornament his sacrifice as celibacy involved; and copy and Latin verse-books with though it was long before he could pictures of crosses and rosaries. Aldetermine what the calling really ready his mind was faltering amid was, he felt that already he had its excess of steadfastness. The become separated from the visible extremes of Evangelicalism fought world, and that the severance would against latent infidelity ; indeed, grow continually more decided. the only settled principle which In due time Mr Newman entered seems to have rooted itself within Trinity College, Oxford, where, in him was a conviction that men 1821, he graduated with high are divided into two classes : the honours. He was soon afterwards elect, who, come what will, cannot elected a Fellow of Oriel, where be lost; the non-elect, on whose he formed the acquaintance of final destiny it is not for children Richard Whately, afterwards Archof time to pronounce a judgment. bishop of Dublin. Mr Whately

It was inevitable that a disciple appears to have exercised at first of Romaine and Thomas Scott a great and salutary influence over should read with interest Milner's the young enthusiast. He taught *Church History.' From Milner Mr him to take interest in things of Newman learned to become en real life; and when nominated amoured of the Fathers, whom, how- himself, in 1825, to the headship ever, it is fair to add, both Milner in St Alban Hall, he carried New. and he studied through a medium man with him in the twofold capaof the most blinding prejudice. For city of vice-principal and tutor.

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