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dicate his memory from the silly poke the fire from the top.” Of charges which were, by the Evange his literary labours it may suffice lical clergy, brought against him in to say that they were as extensive the vigour of his days. “It is a great as they were varied. Essays on all mercy," said the Rev. T. Nelgan, subjects — in religion, from The who sat beside him—“it is a great Kingdom of Christ' to 'The Orimercy, my lord, that though your gin of the Pagan Superstitions,'— body be weak your intellect is vig- sermons, lectures, charges, schoolorous still." “Don't talk to me books, tales, dramas, imaginary any more," was the reply, “ about voyages, followed one another intellect; there is nothing now for in rapid succession. The 'Eleme except Christ."
ments of Logic and of Rhetoric' The readers of this article can went through many editions. His scarcely desire that we should 'Introductory Lectures on Political carry it beyond the point at which Economy' were four times rewe have now arrived, by present- printed. He edited Bacon's 'Esing them with a detailed analysis of says,' Paley's 'Moral Philosophy,' the character, moral and intellect- Paley's 'Evidences,' annotating ual, of the remarkable man whose each. No subject, in fact, appeared career we have been following. above, none beneath, his attention. Enough has been stated to show He prepared the lines which head that Whately was no common the copy-books generally used in man. His intellect was large, his the Irish schools. His book of understanding untiring, his preju- English synonyms is still extendices strong, his inconsistencies sively read; his Thoughts on the very striking. Never stooping to Sabbath' still afford ground for disflatter others, he dearly loved flat- cussion and disputation. But more tery himself, which could scarcely remains to be said. He never be offered to him too broadly or too wrote a line which, though many lavishly. A keen political econo might differ from its teaching, any mist, he was yet generous to those one could with justice say that it who stood in need. Often saying was either childish or unreasonable. rude and harsh things, his heart If Whately may not be classed was as kind as that of a woman. among the profoundest thinkers of The greatest joker and punster of his day, it is past dispute that his his day next to Sydney Smith, his mind never lay fallow. He was natural disposition was tinged with always busy, and never, in his melancholy. He relished the so- efforts, aimed at ends which were ciety of clever women, yet professed mean or selfish. He was religious to hold women's judgments cheap. without affectation, honest and sin“They never reason," he used to cere, a philosopher and a buffoon, say, “or if they do, they either a Christian moralist and a merrydraw correct inferences from wrong Andrew. Peace to his ashes! He premises, or wrong inferences from deserved a better biographer than correct premises; and they always William John Fitzpatrick, J.P.
WHEN Croesus made a display of ing all manner of tongues, are seen all his treasures and good fortune preparing produce and luxuries of to Solon, the Athenian sage is said all kinds for the Temple, which to have hastened his departure from flow thither in long streams across the Lydian Court, feeling assured both land and sea. And still the that such great and uninterrupted work of storing goes on : gold, prosperity would ere long be over- silver, and all precious things, the taken by disaster. If Solon, or delights of life, the cream of the some other ancient Greek, were earth's good things, accumulate amongst us at present, he would higher and higher in the chambers probably experience a similar fore- of the temple. And ever and anon, boding. The gods, in old times, as the recorders announce the inwere thought to be jealous of the creasing tale, there rises a great unbroken prosperity of mortals; shout from the busy throng, which and it was regarded as a tempting sounds in our ears like that which of the gods when men thus happily St Paul heard of old when the circumstanced openly boasted of people cried out with one voice, their good fortune. England is “Great is Diana of the Ephesians, not only remarkably prosperous, whom the world worshippeth !" but we all boast loudly of our It is a remarkable position which prosperity. The Ministers of the England occupies in the world. A Crown lead the jubilant chorus of little spot amidst the northern seas, self-congratulation. Doubtless they almost invisible to the schoolboy as are desirous to make us forget the he seeks for it on his globe, and political humiliation to which Eng, which inadvertently he may hide land has been subjected under their with his finger-point as he turns rule, by extolling in an unusual round the coloured sphere, the Britmanner our material prosperity. ish Isles are nevertheless the heart But the jubilant spirit has become of the world, the centre to which the infectious; and amid the lull of thoughts and acts of men most gepolitics, and the stillness of the Par- nerally tend, and to and from which liamentary recess, the only voices the streams of material life are ever which catch the ear are those which flowing. If we draw on a map the are uplifted in praise and admira- great lines of commerce, we will see tion of the wonderful increase of what a large proportion of them conour trade and commerce. As we verge to our shores. It was once listen, in our study, to this apo- a proverb that “all roads lead to theosis of Trade, our tight little Rome ;” and England, commercialisland seems to rise into the shape ly, now holds in the world at and proportions of a magnificent large the same predominant position temple, thronged with busy crowds which the Eternal City held in the swarming out and in, - making restricted area of the Roman empire. ample use of the sanctuary, but Our country is the chief goal of the seldom even touching their hats highways of commerce. Caravans, as they pass to the golden statue with their long strings of laden of the goddess Fortuna, which camels and horses, are ceaselessly stands in the midst. There they crossing the plains and deserts of are ceaselessly storing up the wealth Asia,-railway-trains, drawn by the that flows to them from the rest of rapid fire-car, rush across Europe the world. Men in strange climes, and America with their freight of and in strange dresses, and speak- goods, — and ships in thousands bring to us from all parts of the --low motive as it may seem to world the staple supplies of our food those who fancy they could have and industry. The sun never sets made the world better than its on the dominions of England : in Maker has done — when rightly one part or other of the globe his understood, through experience of rays still shine on the red - cross life, ever propels us in the end tobanner of St George. But is not wards the good. The first result of England herself a sun-diffusing the contact of civilisation and barcivilisation, while adding to the barism is uniformly war. Yet material comforts of mankind? She slowly and surely peace is winfurnishes employment to tens of ning her triumphs. Broader and millions of people in the uttermost broader expands the area of comparts of the earth. The Chinaman merce-wider and wider extends in his tea-plantations and mulberry- civilisation,—and more and more gardens—the Hindoo in his rice prevail the doctrines of peace and and cotton fields—the poor Indian the principle of international brominer on the Andes—the Gaucho as therhood. The Elysian time, the he follows his herds on the Pampas, golden age of the world, when
-even the Negro of Africa, and the there shall be universal peace, is too native of the far and fair islands of far off to be discernible at the prethe Pacific-are stirred to industry sent day. Wars probably will never and kept in comfort by the employ- cease out of the earth. Like the ment which we in our little island poor, they will be always with us. give to them. If-as has been in Nevertheless they will grow fewer the æons of the Past—the British and milder. The heart of the Isles were to sink slowly beneath world will rest at peace, and the surrounding seas, their disap- wars will only fringe its borpearance would be like the set ders — in the outlying countries ting of a sun, and the world of com- not yet brought within the pale. merce would suffer an eclipse. Why, And in effecting this happy change, then, should we not boast of our the influence of commerce -- the Trade, seeing that it not only in operations of self-interest--will accreases our wealth, but confers be- complish more than all the moralnefits on mankind at large ?
ising of sages or the preachings of True, commerce does not always philanthropy. Have we not felt, appear as a benefactor. With equal during this present year, how firmly indifference we send forth the cloth- the golden meshes of trade have ing which preserves, and the arms wound themselves round the heart which destroy, life. We not only of the nation ? Unfelt, unnoticed, in give employment, but occasion and ordinary times, it is only when we facilitate wars. Our skill is as con- raise our right arm in anger to spicuous in the manufacture of the strike that we become sensible of enginery of war as in the fabrics the golden meshes that have slowly and machinery of peace. True, also, encircled us. We are bound over we fight for markets. If a people to peace by chains which are not will not accept the blessings of unpleasant to us. This, too, may trade, we force them upon them at have its bad side, but that is a the point of the bayonet, or at the question beyond our subject. Let mouth of the cannon. This is inde- it suffice that other nations also, fensible—it is a reproach to civili- our neighbours and rivals, are grasation—but it is natural. There is dually coming into the same golden no unmixed good-but evil itself is bondage, and that the more potent made to develop good. The action that bondage becomes, the less need of self-interest has been made by will there be for “a policeman” in Providence the regulating force of Europe. human progress; and self-interest We send forth the material comforts of civilisation, and we rouse it not a carrying out of the benefito industry and give employment cent work of Providence in the to millions of human beings who world-a work which is left to huwould otherwise stagnate or starve, man hands to accomplish-which But, more valuable than all the must be done by man or not at all ? rest, we export men also—our own And thus trade and commerce have countrymen. Led by the potent a religion of a very practical kindagency of self-interest, they invade invisible in and unfelt by their vothe solitudes and attack the bar- taries, yet appearing in the result barism of the world, -peopling with of their labours, and aiding most a higher race the waste places, and, powerfully the onward progress of as conquerors or masters, leading the world. the natives of other countries into a We are pre-eminently a trading higher life than they could have nation, and the dry figures of the reached of themselves. A new race Board of Trade returns are the inhas repeopled America, — a new dex of our commercial prosperity. population has grown up in Aus- They are the most palpable sign of tralia,—as lords of India, we are our material greatness. Like the rejuvenating the effete world of the Nilometer, which has stood for ages East,-a kindred destiny awaits the in Egypt, recording upon its column gigantic empire of China,—and soon the height of the annual inundation Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and the which regulates the prosperity of African shores of the Mediter- the land of Misraim, these returns ranean will likewise come under show the ebb and flow of trade European tutelage. Where com- which regulate the profits of our merce goes, influence follows. And merchants and the employment of our commerce overspreads the world our people. The ebbs shown in like a rising flood, whose outer the returns mark the bad years, edges indeed are gross with sand, while the increase is a sure sign and whose waves as they advance of present comfort and prosperity. sweep away much and devastate Happily the ebbs are but occasional, not a little, but which enrich the while the increase in the main is soil and produce new and better steady and astonishingly great. It forms of fertility, making the world is marvellous to mark the increase more beautifuland man more happy. of our trade of late years, especially In the old theology of Persia, the from the time when the discovery disciples of the Good Spirit, Or- of the gold-mines of California muzd, were bound to wage ceaseless and Australia added new and imwar with the works of the evil Ahri- mense supplies to the metallic curman,-not only by crusading against rency of the world. We have realien religions, but by warring solved to eschew tables of figures, against all that obstructs the but in this case we make an excepbeauty and fertility of the earth. tion. The subjoined column repreTo keep clear and pure the water- sents the Nilometer of the British courses, to plant fruit-trees, to ex- Isles, and records upon its face the tirpate weeds, to extend cultivation steady rise, with occasional ebbs, of
—these were parts of that old re- the stream of trade which annually ligion, and were regarded as not enriches our country. The exports the least worthy service which man and imports are given in round could render to his Maker. We no numbers, and the figures represent longer call such acts religion; yet is millions sterling :
unparalleled in the annals of comOUR NILOMETER.
merce. The increase of our national Year. Exp. TOTAL. Imp. wealth arises in the main from three 1863 146 395,470,700 249
different sources. It arises (1) from 1862 124
an increase in the produce of the 349,709,200 2253
soil and the rocks (of grain, animals, 1861 125 342,600,200 2173
weaving materials, and fruits, and 1860 136 346,422,100 2105 of coal, iron, and other metals), or 1859 130 309,593,800 179
from a diminution in the cost of
production thereof ; (2) from an 1858 1164 281,192,500 1649
increase in the amount of goods 1857 122 309,910,500 188
which we manufacture and export, 1856 116 288,371,100 1721 or in a diminished cost in the 1855 954 239,230,900 1439
manufacture of them; and (3) 1854 97 249,573,700 152
from a profitable investment of
our spare capital in the construc1853 99257,210,300 158*
tion of railways and suchlike en1852 78 218,692,300 140 terprises abroad. The' Economist' 1851 74 216,745,300 142 reckons that our annual savings 1850 71$ 200,502,700 129
amount to £130,000,000, and the
lowest computation is £80,000,000. 1849634 199,741,400 136
It is impossible to conjecture the 1848 53 173,086,500 120 total income of the country; but 1847 59 175,744,300 117 the contribution made to it by the 1846 573 155,417,100 97
profits on our foreign trade are
rapidly on the increase. It is true, 1845 60 173,636,400 113
the returns of our export trade do 1844 58. 155,540,900 97 not indicate with perfect accuracy 1843 52 142,482,780 90 the amount of profits arising from 1842 477 131,182,200 84
it. There may be over-production,
causing a glut in the foreign mar1841 513
kets, and consequently a fall of 1840 51} 138,085,000 86
prices, and less profit to our ex
porting merchants. Such was the This year our exports are likely case in 1860, but, by good-luck, it to amount to 160 millions sterling, was quickly righted by the sudden and our imports to 280. Between dearth of cotton goods which fol1839 and 1849 our trade increased lowed. It is also to be noted, that rather more than 25 per cent; but during the last two and a half years, in the next ten years, aided by the the profits of our exporting manugold-discoveries, it increased 100 facturers have not been in the same per cent. During the last twenty- proportion to the value of goods five years our trade has trebled in exported as formerly. The great inamount, the exports having risen crease in the cost of the raw materifrom 52 millions to 160 millions, als must be taken into account. It and our imports from 86 millions is only upon the manufacture of to about 280. So rapid an increase is these materials that we derive a
* Previous to 1854, the official returns of the value of our Imports are of no use as showing their real value ; for the scale of prices by which the official value was determined was fixed so far back as 1698, and has long ceased to represent the true value of the articles. But the official value serves to show the fluctuations in quantity. And as for several years after 1854, both the “official" and the “ real " value of the Imports were published, we are enabled to observe the difference between these (the real value being about 2-7ths greater than the official) ; and by applying this ratio to the returns for the fourteen years previous to 1854, we have presented in the prefixed table) our Imports for these years at their real value, or at least at an approximation to it sufficiently correct for our purpose.