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of M‘Laws's division. They seemed howling," a real Southern yell, in high spirits, and, as they passed which rang along the whole line. through the crowd of lookers-on, I heard it that day for the first would treat them to a little chaff time. It was a very peculiar sound. and badinage. The chief joke was By practice, many have arrived at about having “got back into the a high pitch of perfection, and can Union at last, you see.” The Cham- yell loud enough to be heard a mile bersburg public looked on with off. They learnt it from the Indians, stolid equanimity. As long as their I believe. Many of the regiments persons and property are left alone, had little bands of three or four they do not seem inclined to take musicians who played rather discormuch interest in either side. There dantly. The Southerners are said are a large number of young fellows to be extremely fond of music, “i loafing” about the town, who though they seldom take the trouought to be in the army or in the ble to learn to play themselves, “ State militia" at least; which and seem not very particular as to last-named body of defenders of whether the instruments they hear the soil has been called out by the are in tune or not. The bandsmen State Government, but does not are almost all Germans. I spent a seem likely to come. Our landlord pleasant evening at Colonel Allen's professes entire neutrality, and as- quarters, where there were a good serts that, as the Administration at many officers. Whilst I was there Washington has done nothing to a sergeant reported that he had just defend their State, he can see no come in from the country with a lot obligation for them to turn out for of horses, and we went out to look the defence of the Government. at them. There were about twenty His son has stronger Union senti- big heavy animals, better adapted ments than the old man, and thinks for draught than for the saddle. that Hooker is quite sure to whip The parties sent out for supplies, Lee, but is content to see it done horses, waggons, &c., give Confedwithout his personal assistance. A erate notes or receipts for everythick-headed young fellow, a stanch thing they take, and the owners are Unionist, with whom I conversed thus sure of being paid eventually; in the parlour, assures me that the as, if the Confederates do not pay South will be benefited by a re- them, they can, with a receipt in verse. “It is just like a bad boy, hand, easily prove their claim against sir; a good sound whipping does their own Government for war damhim a world of good !" But he does ages, as indeed has since been done. not seem at all inclined to assist in Still they do not like the transaction, performing the operation himself. and hide their horses in the woods There is a fine wooden statue of whenever they can, so that the Franklin, boldly perched on the top scouting-parties have to exercise a of the county court-house, and good deal of ingenuity in finding painted to resemble marble. I am them.* Next day L. was much better, sorry to say that this great man and we breakfasted at the hotel. excited the derision of the passing As none of the Confederate host soldiers, who saluted him with that were permitted to enter its sacred “terrible scream and barbarous precincts, the guests at table were

* A little account of this campaign by a Mr Jacobs, professor of mathematics at Gettysburg College, says of Ewell's “rebel” corps, which passed through Gettysburg going to Carlisle : “ They did not do much damage in the town. In the country, however, they treated the farmers less gently. They there enacted their old farce of professing to pay for what they took by offering freely their worthless ‘Confederate' scrip, which, they said, would in a few days be better than our own currency." I need hardly say here that the Yankees never enact the farce of professing to pay in greenbacks for what they take from the “rebels” when their opportunity comes.

pretty free and outspoken in their of his main force, is said to have opinion of passing events. One lady exclaimed, on finding this order, was especially indignant at the way “Well, if I don't destroy Lee this in which the soldiers marching along time, you may call me what you had not kept to the road (a thing like;" and he immediately pushed which it was almost impossible to on as fast as he could march, and do, as it was crowded with waggons, caught the Confederates before they besides the mud being almost knee- were ready. The drawn battle of deep). The bloodthirsty ruffians, she Sharpsburg, or Antietam Creek, folsaid, had actually marched through lowed; and Lee, not destroyed, but the fields by the side of the road, thwarted in the main object of his treading down the growing crops for campaign, soon afterwards recrossed about twenty yards on each side. the Potomac. In the mean time, The people here are, it seems, begin- however, Jackson had captured ning to feel the horrors of war! Harper's Ferry, with its garrison of

L. rather exasperated the com- 12,000 men, and immense stores, so pany by showing them a twenty- that Lee still reaped some advandollar Confederate note, and saying tage from his ably-conceived plan that in a month it would be worth of campaign. McClellan alludes to more than all their greenbacks in this matter, in his evidence before the North put together.

Congress on the conduct of the war, I went out to the camp again, and in the following terms :was presented to General Lee, who invited me to dinner. It was a “When at Frederick we found the frugal meal, and simply served. original order issued to General D. H. The General has little of the glori. Hill by direction of General Lee, which ous pomp and circumstance of war

vor gave the orders of march for the whole

army, and developed their intentions. about his person. A Confederate The substance of the order was, that flag marks the whereabouts of his Jackson was to move from Frederick by headquarters, which are here in a the main Hagerstown road, and, leaving little enclosure of some couple of it at some point near Middleburg, to acres of timber. There are about cross the Potomac near Sharpsburg, and half-a-dozen tents, and as many bag

hac endeavour to capture the garrison of

Martinsburg, and cut off the retreat of gage-waggons and ambulances. The

the garrison of Harper's Ferry in that horses and mules from these, be direction. General M‘Laws was orsides those of a small escort, are dered, with his own command and the tied up to the trees, or grazing division of General Anderson, to move about the place. The General has out by the same Hagerstown road, and a private carriage, or ambulance, gain possession of the Maryland heights, as it is called, of his own, but he

opposite Harper's Ferry. General Walk

er, who was then apparently somewhere never uses it. It formerly belonged

near the mouth of the Monocacy, was to the Federal General Pope. I re to move through Lovettsville, and gain mained some time at headquarters, possession of Loudon's height, thus and had a good deal of conversation completing the investment of Harper's with the officers of General Lee's Ferry. General Longstreet was ordered staff. Major Marshall mentioned to to move to Hagerstown with Hill, to

serve as a rearguard. Their reserve me, as one of the greatest misfor

trains to Manassas, &c., were ordered to tunes which has happened to them

take a position either at Boonsboro' or during the war (greater, he thought. Hagerstown, I have now forgotten which. than the fall of New Orleans), the It was directed in the same order, that accidental loss last year, through after Jackson, Walker, M'Laws, &c., carelessness by a general of divi- had taken Harper's Ferry, they were to sion, of a very important order of rejoin the main army at Hagerstown or

Boonsboro'. That order is important General Lee's. McClellan, who had

in another sense. It shows very plainly been slowly and carefully feeling

that the object of the enemy was to go his way, totally ignorant of General to Pennsylvania, or at least to remain Lee's plans, and the whereabouts in Maryland. Upon learning the con

tents of this order I at once gave orders quarters were, as usual, very near to for a vigorous pursuit,” &c.

General Lee's, so I walked over, Singularly enough, the same Gen- and was introduced to the General eral lost an equally important order and his Staff, to several members of before the seven days' fighting which I had brought letters from around Richmond, and it was found Richmond. I dined and spent the on a prisoner who was captured at afternoon very pleasantly. Besides Gaines's Mill. Unaware, perhaps, L., who is staying with Longstreet's of its importance, he had not sent medical staff, there was Colonel F. it on to headquarters, or it would of the Coldstream Guards, who came have done incalculable mischief. to the Confederacy by Matamoros,

Next day we moved on a few in order not to run the blockade, miles on the road to Gettysburg, and had a most adventurous jourand encamped near a deserted saw- ney through the whole of the Southmill. General Longstreet's head- ern States.


Early on the following morning, were excited and anxious to hear the 1st of July, the troops began how things had been going ; but it to advance. The trains were enor soon became pitch dark, and we mously large in this army, as, be- could not move about, but had to ing now separated from their base wait patiently till some one should of supplies, they had to carry come in from the front. We lighted everything they wanted with them. fires, tents were pitched, and preAmongst other things, they carried sently the doctors Cullen, Maury, their tents wherever they went, and and Barksdale, of whose camp and the troops were never quartered in mess I was henceforward to be a any village, nor allowed to enter member, rode in and brought us the houses on any account. Although glorious news. Ewell and Hill, this was the case with the Confede- after a stubborn fight, had routed rate army, I believe the Yankees the force opposed to them, driven are not so particular, at least when them through Gettysburg, and taken they are encamping in an enemy's from five to seven thousand pricountry.

soners. The Federal General Rey. First came A. P. Hill's corps and nolds had been killed. Presently waggon-train. After Hill's, Long- General Longstreet and his Staff street's corps, and in his train L. came in and confirmed the news. and myself occupied an ambulance. The Yankees would probably make We got on but slowly, for we were a stand to-morrow on the hills crossing the South Mountains, and south and east of the town, as their the roads were steep and crowded position was strong, and a general with waggons. Presently we heard action was pretty sure to take place. cannonading, and news came from I had not been able to procure a horse the front that Hill's corps was hotly for myself as yet, although I had engaged. Just as it was getting luckily brought a saddle and bridle dusk we reached the crest of the from Richmond ; however, Major mountains, whence we had a mag- Walton, of General Longstreet's nificent prospect of the country be- Staff, very obligingly supplied me yond us ; but of the battle we with one. Major Clarke lent another could see nothing, as the town to Colonel F., and L, had brought of Gettysburg, around which it one from Richmond, so this imporhad been raging, was still hidden tant affair for us three strangers in from our sight. A mile or two camp was satisfactorily arranged. farther on we reached our destina. It was still dusk next morning tion for that night. Of course we when the sound of cannon aroused


me from my sleep. “C'est le sang- and the Yankees were returning the lant appel de Mars !” I sang out fire, but without doing any mischief, to my tent-mates. I went over as far as I could see. Still we did to Longstreet's quarters, a few not take the trouble to go beyond hundred yards off, “fixed” my the town in that direction." saddle and bridle on the horse I We met General Chilton, Lee's was to ride, and then breakfasted Inspector-General, in the town. He with General Longstreet and his was riding about seeking whom he Staff. We had to ride some five could devour in the shape of a demiles before we got to the front, predator or illegal annexer of priwhere we halted at the top of a hill, vate property; but I do not think from which there was a full view he found any. Indeed, the good of the enemy's position. General behaviour and discipline of the men Lee was there with his Staff, and of this army is surprising to me, we let our horses loose in an en- considering the way in which the closed field close by, and lay about Northerners have devastated the for some time looking through our country and wreaked their wrath glasses at the Yankees, who were on women and children in the near enough for us to distinguish South wherever they had an opevery individual figure, gun, &c., portunity. and who were apparently engaged They are as cheerful and goodin the same occupation as ourselves. natured a set of fellows as ever I

As evidently a long time would saw-seem to be full of fun, and elapse before Longstreet's corps, are always ready to talk, and joke, which was to do the chief fighting and “chaff,” but are never pushing that day, could be placed in posi- or insolent. tion, I determined meanwhile to W e also met General Early, a ride into the town of Gettysburg gruff-looking man, but with a high with the doctors. We crossed the reputation as a soldier. ground which had been fought On returning to the hill where over yesterday. The Confederate we had left the generals in comwounded had been removed and mand, we found them still there. their dead buried, but there were They had been joined by Generals still a large number of dead Yankees A. P. Hill and Heth, the latter of lying about, and some of their whom was wounded in the head yeswounded, especially in the cutting terday, and several others. of a railroad where some of the General Hill sent for water, and fiercest fighting had taken place. I they brought him some dirty stuff saw one man who had been en- in a pail, with an apology that no tirely cut in two, his head and good water was to be had within shoulders lying a couple of yards a mile, and an inquiry whether he from the rest of his body-a hor- would wait. “Oh no, that will do rible sight. The wounded men, very well,” said the General, and I too, who had lain there all night began to realise that we were actuwere ghastly to look at; and in- ally campaigning. deed a battle-field the day after Wherever an army is stationary the fight is anything but a pleasant for a few days, the wells and pumps place to come near.

are soon drunk dry; and in fact, Gettysburg is an insignificant before we left this neighbourhood, little town, but contains some large most of the wells had a guard on buildings-county court-house, col them, who only permitted water to leges, &c.-in and about the town. be fetched for the wounded. For These have been turned into hospi- men in health, water brought from tals. At the end of one or two of the nearest brook or creek is good the streets some sharpshooting was enough, and sometimes details of going on at the Federal position on men have to be sent a considerable the Cemetery Hill behind the town, distance for it.

On riding to the rear of our pre- ing, and going forward to get a sent position on the Fairfield road, better view of the enemy's position. we met with Colonel Walton, chief The ground just before us was of artillery to General Longstreet, plain and open, but beyond were and his adjutant, Captain Owens, those hills, since so celebrated, and for some time we lay in a covered with Federal breast-works meadow under a hedge awaiting and rifle-pits, and bristling with events.

cannon. The Federals had also Colonel Walton is a New Orleans possession of the open ground beman, who in the beginning of the low in front of their works, and their war was in command of “The Wash- foremost guns were about a quarter ington Artillery," a picked corps of a mile from the wood we were in. raised in that city, wbich boasts I especially remarked a battery that every member of it is a gentle in a peach orchard, which was blazman of property and position. Of ing away at one of ours not far course their commander was a man off. of mark in his native city, where he A s we passed Barksdale's Missis. was, I believe, a wealthy merchant. sippi Brigade the General came up

Like many others, Colonel Walton, eagerly to Longstreet ; “I wish you though not a young man, had cheer- would let me go in, General ; I fully sacrificed all his worldly ad- would take that battery in five minvantages to his principles, prefer- utes.” “ Wait a little," said Long. ring the hardsbips of camp life and street; "we are all going in presthe cause,” to luxury and ease ently.” at home under Yankee tyranny. The men were as eager as their But such instances are the rule leader, and those in the front line and not the exception in the South. began to pull down the fence beThere are thousands of men now hind which they were crouching. carrying a musket in the ranks, who “Don't do that, or you will draw before the war were gentlemen of the enemy's fire,” said Longstreet, wealth and property, which they are who sees and observes everything. now deprived of—" it may be for We passed on, and very soon years, or it may be for ever,” as one afterwards the General called for of them said to me; but not one his horse, mounted, dashed to the seems to regret it, or would for an front of the line, gave the word, instant dream of submission to the and led them on himself. We all North in order to regain what he followed him. has lost.

It was a glorious sight. The Almost all the young men from men who had been lying down Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, the sprang to their feet, and went in overrun portions of the Carolinas, with a will. There was no lagging Virginia, and Florida, many too behind, no spraining of ankles on from Missouri, Kentucky, and Mary- the uneven ground, no stopping to land, are in this position ; but they help a wounded comrade. Not one seem to be none the worse soldiers fell out of the line unless he was for having been brought up in lux- really hurt. On swept the line, ury and comparative idleness. breaking out with an occasional yell

At about three o'clock in the when they came face to face with afternoon we rejoined General Long- the foe, but on the whole silently. street, who, after a long consultation The guns in the peach orchard were with the Commander-in-Chief, was pounced upon, and half of them at this moment riding down with taken in a trice, whilst the others his Staff towards the front. We limbered up and made off. Hunfound his corps already forming for dreds of prisoners were captured, the attack in a wood.

and everything was going so satisLongstreet rode up the line and factorily that for a time we hardly down again, occasionally dismount- doubted that the enemy would be

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