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driven from his very strong position General Ewell occupied the left of our on the hills in front.

line, General Hill the centre, and GenBut at a critical moment General

eral Longstreet the right. In front of Hood was severely wounded, Gene

General Longstreet the enemy held a

position, from which, if he could be ral Barksdale killed, and their men,

driven, it was thought that our army at the very moment of apparent could be used to advantage in assailing victory, when they had overcome the more elevated ground beyond, and almost all the difficulties that lay thus enable us to reach the crest of the between them and entire success. ridge. That officer was directed to hesitated, halted, and at length fell

endeavour to carry this position, while

General Ewell attacked directly the back, losing thereby far more men

high ground on the enemy's right, than they would have done if they

which had already been partially forti. had continued their advance.

fied. General Hill was instructed to But still we gained decided threaten the centre of the Federal line, advantages, taking prisoners and in order to prevent reinforcements being guns, and getting possession of the sent to either wing, and to avail him

self of any opportunity that might preground up to the foot of the hill.

sent itself to attack. General Lee, in his report to the

“ After a severe struggle, Longstreet Government, describes this day's succeeded in getting possession of and fight as follows :

holding the desired ground. Ewell also

carried some of the strong positions “The preparations for attack were not completed until the afternoon of

which he assailed, and the result was

such as to lead to the belief that he the 2d of July. The enemy held a high

would ultimately be able to dislodge and commanding ridge, along which he had massed a large amount of artillery,

the enemy."


The battle ceased at dark. As pillows. Some of the officers had we rode back from the field, Gen- blankets, but, as I had none, Major eral Longstreet spoke with me Latrobe shared his with me, and about the failure to take the posi- we slept soundly after the fatigues tion on the hill, saying, “ We have of the day. not been so successful as we wish At early dawn on Friday, again ed ;” and attributed it chiefly to the sound of cannon awoke us, and the causes before mentioned – told of the bloody fight that was to Hood's wound and Barksdale's be renewed that day. The morning death. Perhaps if the attack had was spent in riding over the battlebeen made a little earlier in the field of yesterday, the Generals day it might have been more suc- holding a long consultation, and cessful ; for Sedgwick with the 6th reconnoitring the position to be atFederal corps reached Meade just tacked to-day. I was standing in in time to assist in repelling the the road with Dr Cullen and some assault, and without this reinforce- officers, when Pickett's division of ment the Northerners would pro- three brigades, which had been left bably have been defeated. The men at Chambersburg, and was to take might have been put in position a a prominent part in the fight, passed good deal sooner; and in fact one us. They halted and rested for of the commanders of division, about half-an-hour, and I conversed Major-General M‘Laws, was blamed with several of the officers ; among by some people for having been too others with Colonel Allen and Maslow.

jor Wilson, whom I had met at We did not return to the camp, Chambersburg. They were both but lay down in a meadow near the killed a few hours later; and indeed battle-field, tying up our horses to but few of those I met that morna fence, and using our saddles as ing came unhurt out of the terrible VOL. XCVI.-NO. DXC.

2 Y

charge made by Pickett's division the battle, and where I now found that afternoon.

a good many officers assembled One hundred and forty-five guns, watching the fight. I was subsequently informed by The assault by Pickett's division Colonel Walton, were on this day had just been repulsed. They had placed in position, to open 'fire gone in splendidly, led in gallant simultaneously on the enemy, pre- style by their daring chief, had paratory to the assault which was to stormed the breastworks, and taken be made on their works. Whilst the the enemy's cannon. Heth's divipreliminary arrangements were be- sion, commanded by the senior ing completed, General Longstreet Brigadier Pettigrew, was to have rode with his Staff to the rear of the supported them, and they went in guns, where his men were lying for that purpose, steadily at first, down in line in the woods. Here but soon got shaken by the storm it would have been impossible to of shot and shell that met them. have a view of the battle; and we Presently a small column of the were recommended to ride into enemy, emerging from a wood, beGettysburg, and take our station gan to form on their flank ; the on the top of a certain church- men saw it, wavered, stopped, and tower, whence we should have a then fell back in a panic, getting very good view. Accordingly Colo- terribly punished as they did so. nel F. and I started in that direc- In vain were all efforts to stop tion. We had just reached the top them. Longstreet, who had seen of a hill from whence we could the threatening move, sent off Latoverlook both positions, when in robe to warn General Pettigrew, one instant, at a given signal, the but the rout had commenced before whole hundred and forty-five Con- he could meet him. Pickett, whose federate guns burst into a roar of men were now well in, and in the cannonading. They were quickly full flush of the victory they deseryanswered by the enemy, and the ed and would have gained if they effect was grander than words can had been supported, galloped down express. We could see but few of and implored the men to rally. the guns on either side, as both Many other officers did the same, they and the men were hidden from but it was all in vain ; it was a our view by the woods; but the panic such as will strike the bravest smoke rising above the trees pre- troops sometimes, and no efforts sently formed a dense cloud above could induce them to form anew them, and showed us where the whilst under that terrific storm of work was going on. We left the fire. The division lost frightfully, hill and rode on towards Gettys- but the worst effect was that Picburg ; but as we approached the kett's men, who had behaved glortown we found that we could not iously, were now left to fight alone reach it without passing through a against overwhelming odds. Ensharp fire from both sides, as Ewell couraged by their success, the eneon our side and the Yankees on the my, freshly reinforced, now turned Cemetery Hill were pounding away upon them with redoubled energy at each other across the road. A and courage, and soon their fate was shell or two bursting not far from sealed. Some surrendered at once, us, warned us to proceed no fur- the rest retreated, nearly half the ther. Colonel F. rode back to re- men of the division were killed, join Longstreet, and I, who was wounded, or captured. But they feeling quite faint with hunger, for- had won undying fame by their tunately fell in with General Heth, glorious onslaught, and as long as who gave me and my horse a feed, the war is remembered, so long after which I returned to the hill will the charge of Pickett and his where we had witnessed the grand Virginians be spoken of by their spectacle of the commencement of countrymen with the same proud

and yet regretful satisfaction with thus acquired a skill in handling which Englishmen tell of the charge the weapon which no amount of of the Six Hundred at Balaklava. drilling can supply, and which the

Another assault was made, I Irish, Dutch, and city Yankees, think, under Trimble, but it was who form the mass of the Federal unsuccessful ; 'nor, indeed, had it army, can never hope to attain. much chance of success, and would, Altogether, I am perfectly conperhaps, not have been made but vinced that in the three days' fightfor the confusion inseparable from ing the Federal loss was far heavier the state of affairs in the battle than the Confederate in killed and field. The grand assault had al- wounded; and it is only the fact of ready miscarried, and Colonel G., about 6000 Confederate wounded an Englishman, who was wounded having been left behind in the hosin the charge, told me afterwards pitals around Gettysburg that gave that before they made it he had the Northerners even a nominal seen and spoken to Pickett, and preponderance in the number of said that as he had been repulsed, prisoners taken. Longstreet's corps, he did not think that they were which was the most heavily engoing to succeed. However, they gaged, lost 6920 men. Pickett's went in very gallantly, but had to loss was 3500, M‘Laws's 1660, and retire, losing a good many men. Hood's 1760. I do not know the

The enemy made no attempt to numbers lost in A. P. Hill's, nor in follow up their advantage, and it Ewell's corps. was well for them they did not. I We returned to the camp after

see that a General Butterfield, in the battle, and spent the evening . evidence given before some Federal rather gloomily. In the night it

committee, blames General Meade began to rain heavily ; and whilst for not attacking Lee's right after we were asleep a thief came into the repulse, imagining that enor- our encampment and stole two mous captures of guns and other trunks out of the tents in which we great successes would have been were lying—one from Major Moses, the result. It was, however, well which had 5000 dollars of public for the Federals that General Meade money in it, and one from Dr Barksdid not do so, for he would have dale containing personal effects. found M'Laws's and Hood's divi. Both were, naturally, much prosions there perfectly ready and voked ; and Dr Barksdale's disgust willing to give him a much hotter seemed only increased when his reception than he would have trunk was found in the course of liked. But in fact the Yankees the morning in a neighbouring were a great deal too much cut up field, open, robbed of its most valuthemselves to think of anything able contents, and the rest saturmore than holding their own. They ated with rain. Major Moses' trunk had been huddled up in masses in was also found in the same state. their contracted position (which Colonel F. and I had returned was not half so extended as that our horses to their owners, but L. of the Confederates) in order to re- still had his (a very seedy animal); pel the expected assault, and the and the officers of the Staff and the artillery had done tremendous exe- medical department being occupied cution among them. Then, though with their respective duties, we salpartially protected by breastworks, lied forth together after breakfast, they had lost very heavily by mus- two on foot and one riding alter ketry fire during the assaults, for nately, and in this way we wanderthe Southerners possess a great su- ed about the lines. periority in this weapon. AlmostW e met General Longstreet, who every individual Southerner has had been much amused by hearing, been accustomed to use the rifle through a flag of truce, that he from his earliest youth, and has was severely wounded and in the enemy's hands, but would be well artillery to the army, and remained taken care of. We also met the some time in conversation with Rev. General Pendleton, chief of him.


L. presently rode off to see For a time the yard in front of General Lee, and when he return- Bream's tavern seemed a regular ed, told us that a retreat had been rendezvous for generals and their decided on. We were kept a long staff-officers, and all who passed time at the cottage of a silly old stopped on their way and entered Dutchman, by a heavy downfall of into conversation. rain, and then went to Bream's Here I met General J. E. B. tavern on the road to Fairfield, Stuart for the first time, and was which lay in the direction of our introduced to him, and to many retreat. The road was crowded others too numerous to name. with waggons, as the whole train When it was dusk we went on a had but two roads to move on the mile or two farther on the FairFairfield and the Cashtown one. field road, and presently came upon When Lee's army entered Mary- a blazing fire, around which were land, the waggon-train alone, with Generals Lee and Longstreet, with out the artillery, was forty-two all their Staff. miles long, and it was now larger We were to remain here till the than ever, though most of the wag. train had passed, when the main gons and teams procured in Penn- body of the army would be withsylvania had been already sent to drawn from its position and join the rear.

the retreat. Bream's tavern, house, stables, It soon grew pitch dark, and barn, and every out-building, were then the rain began again. Oh, full of wounded men, some of how it did pour! I never saw anywhom were being moved into the thing like it. Now and then it ambulances, and others more bad- would relax a little, and then again ly wounded were being removed and again would rush down in torto the better accommodation left rents. “This is too heavy to last," thereby vacant.

I thought to myself many a time, It was a grievous sight to see but it did last. these fine young fellows, many of Fortunately for me I was tolerthem probably crippled for life, ably weatherproof, as Colonel F. and yet all were cheerful and smil- had very kindly lent me his indiaing. Looks of deep sympathy rubber overcoat, he and L. having greeted them on every side as they gone off in an ambulance, as a were borne past on stretchers. And covered four-seated “buggy," spesometimes the wounded men would cially belonging to the headquaraddress a few encouraging words ters of the medieal department, was to some friend who stood near, called. himself too sad to speak.

It was certainly a dismal night. Many were to be left behind, too The fire was kept up and protected severely wounded to bear removal; from the rain by continually piling and it struck me very much that it on fresh wood, and it was a roarshould be they who would speak ing one, yet I wondered that it was words of comfort to their more for- not extinguished. It lighted up tunate friends who had escaped the the scene with a strange glare. dangers of the battle.

Lee and Longstreet stood apart Not one complained. All bore engaged in earnest conversation, themselves in the same proud manly and around the fire in various

groups lay the officers of their Staffs.


Tired to death, many were sleep- arrived, as some of the enemy's ing in spite of the mud and drench- cavalry had attacked the trains. ing rain ; and I well remember one They succeeded in capturing about long log of wood, a fence rail, which forty of Ewell's waggons and amwas much coveted as a pillow. bulances, and twenty of Stuart's, Once Major Moses, unable to sleep, but were driven off before they got up and politely offered me his could do further damage. On this share of it.

occasion the teamsters were said I accepted and lay down, but to have behaved very well, and the edges were very sharp, and each to have repelled an attack of the time I fell off into a doze, I began enemy by themselves after their to dream so vividly that my head own cavalry guard had “skedadwas being cut off, that at last I dled.” We managed to get on a could stand it no longer, and re- couple of miles beyond the town; turned the Major his part of the but L., Colonel F., and myself, bolster with thanks. Again and returned next day, and took up again during the night reports our quarters together in Hagerscame in from Law, M‘Laws, Ewell, town, at the Washington Hotel. &c., stating that the enemy had We were anxious to get some supretreated, and that they had no plies here, but the shops were all thing but cavalry in front of them. shut, so we made interest with the

General Lee said, a few days landlord of our hotel; and as we afterwards, that he had hesitated engaged to pay in "greenbacks," whether he should not counter- he promised to introduce us to mand his own retreat, which he a “store” keeper of the place. certainly would not have com- “You'll find him a very fine genmenced if he had anticipated such tleman, sir, and quite honest,” he dreadfully bad weather. But the said. Next morning we were waggon-trains were now well on turned out early, our black waiter their road to the rear, and their announcing that the “lady” wished safety might have been compro- to make the beds, so we had to mised if the army had not followed make room for the chamber-maid, them. By eight o'clock next morn- and went down-stairs, and were ing the whole waggon-train had introduced to the “fine gentlegot past us, and the troops began man.” I very nearly forgot to to move. It had ceased raining, shake hands when this ceremony but the road was a sea of slush and was performed, which would have mud, and we got along very slowly. been a terrible breach of etiquette. I was on horseback this day, but the However, all went on smoothly; next I travelled with L., in an am- we got into his store through the bulance, a most tedious way of pro- back-door, and invested a large ceeding on a march, as one has to amount of greenbacks in the purstick to the line of mud called the chase of coffee, white sugar, stearoad, and keep time with the train, rine candles, &c. &c., all which which comes to a stop every now luxuries are at present almost and then by a waggon getting unprocurable in the Confederate “stalled” in some hole or rut. States. Once well stuck, it takes a good in the afternoon I rode out to deal of hard pulling by the mules, the camp, and stayed there till the and almost as much hard swearing, evening, talking over the late batI am sorry to say, by their drivers, tles. It seemed undecided whether to get a waggon afloat again ; and we should advance again ; but in so we moved along, but very slowly, summing up the advantages already and it was dark before we reached obtained by this forward moveHagerstown.

ment of Lee's, it is obvious that Some smart skirmishing had the campaign has not been a fruitbeen going on near here before we less one. The war has not only

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