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been carried on in the enemy's wards, and found, it kept scrupucountry, but enormous supplies have lously clean and well ventilated ; been obtained, which will main- there was not a bad smell about the tain the army for several months place; and, to attend upon the 900 to come. Waggons and horses, to 1000 officers confined there, forty which were very necessary, have negro servants were kept. also been secured in incalculable At Belle Isle, in the James river, numbers. The men, whose meat close to Richmond, there were about ration for several months past has 8000 prisoners living in tents, in been a quarter of a pound of bacon, a regular encampment, with plenty now get a pound and a half of beef. of room for exercise, any amount Fifteen thousand cattle have been of water, bathing allowed in the driven to the rear for the use of season, and better rations than the the army, which at present requires Confederate soldiers get in the field, about three hundred head a-day. though nominally the same. They Then the enemy has had to evacu- had been on Belle Isle six months ate a large portion of Southern ter- when I went there, and I counted ritory, upon which they were press- seventy-six graves in the island. ing heavily, and that, too, just in As many have died in one day at time for the harvest to be secured Fort Delaware—so Captain Boisto the Confederacy. There is no Sieux, the Commandant of Belle doubt, however, that the North Isle, informed me. During the will claim Gettysburg as a glorious first three months only one had victory; and there will, of course, died, but latterly, since the exbe great rejoicings over it in “Yan- change of prisoners had been keedoodledom," as my friends say. stopped, the men easily fell ill,
At the Dutchman's cottage I grew despondent, and died. met two officers who had been pri. The Yankees have tried very bard soners of war in the North, and to get up a sensation in the North, confined in Fort Delaware, near about the alleged ill-treatment of Baltimore. They described the Federal prisoners in the South. horrors of their existence there; For this purpose they have had and it seems, indeed, by all ac- photographs taken of some poor counts that I have heard before fellows who had been for a long and since, to be a very filthy and time ill in the hospitals at Richunwholesome place, utterly unfit mond, and had been sent home to for the confinement of prisoners their friends to save their lives. Of of war. The fact that both sides course, these poor wretches looked speak the same language makes it in the most miserable condition, extremely difficult to recapture a although it was through illness and man when he has once escaped, and not from starvation ; but the Yanrenders it perhaps necessary to re- kees did not scruple to scatter porsort to restrictions far more strin- traits of them about by the million, gent than usual in Europe; and if as samples of the state of all the only close confinement and want of prisoners held in the South. It exercise were complained of, there was a jeu d'esprit very laudable, “as might be some excuse: but there is it might injure the South," like Mr none for choosing a place notori- Seward's forged despatches; but, ously unwholesome, denying the after what I had seen with my own unfortunate captives the means of eyes at Belle Isle and the Libby keeping their prison and themselves Prison, and what I heard with my clean, and supplying them at the own ears from Southerners of their same time with scauty food, which treatment as prisoners in the North, is sometimes so bad as to be almost I could not help being reminded of poisonous. I visited the Libby the old Scotch proverb, “Ill doers Prison at Richmond some time after are ill deemers."
Two days after our return to did not arrive till the evening of Hagerstown, Colonel F. left us, be- the second day's battle. ing obliged to return to England General Lee, when he had comwithout delay, and made straight menced his forward movement, had for the Federal lines, determined to gained several days' march upon take his chance of getting through General Hooker, who was at that them. Most of his friends were time opposed to him ; but at Chamrather anxious about him, but Long- bersburg he had been obliged to street, with whom he was a great halt with his main force for three favourite, was confident he would days, as there had been some delay succeed. “A man who has tra- in forwarding his supply trains. velled all through Texas as suc- This gave Meade, who had now cessfully as the Colonel, is safe superseded Hooker, time to concento get through the Yankee lines all trate his forces in the right direcright," he said.
tion. Otherwise, and if Lee had L. and I visited General Lee in been able to follow closely upon the afternoon, and he spoke very Ewell's corps, which had advanced openly on the subject of the late as far as Carlisle, he would have campaign.
crossed the mountainous region of Had he been aware that Meade Pennsylvania, and got into the rich had been able to concentrate his and fertile valley of the Susquewhole army--for which he deserved hanna without any opposition. great credit-he certainly should Here his army would have found not have attacked him: indeed it plentiful means of subsistence. bad not been his interest nor his Philadelphia would have been intention to bring on a great battle threatened, and Washington, Balat all; but, led away, partly by the timore, and the army of the Potosuccess of the first day, believing mac would have been cut off from that Meade had only a portion of their supplies, and from all comhis army in front of him, and see- munication with the North except ing the enthusiasm of his own by sea. The communications of troops, he had thought that a suc- General Lee could not have been cessful battle would cut the knot seriously interfered with without so easily and satisfactorily, that he the Federal army entirely uncoverhad determined to risk it. His ing Washington and Baltimore. He want of knowledge of the enemy's might have taken up a position movements he attributed to Stuart where it would have been very having got too far away from him difficult for Meade to attack him ; with his cavalry.
and without further fighting, by Stuart, who had gone to within merely maintaining his army at or sight of Washington and captured near Harrisburg or some other cena large train of waggons close to tral point, incalculable results might Georgetown, a suburb of that have been secured. But it was not city, had expected to rendez- so ordained. vous with the main army on the If the campaign had such an obSusquehanna, but when he reached ject in view as I have supposed, it York he found that General Lee was already defeated, when Meade had not advanced as far as he ex- was able to concentrate his whole pected, and that the whole Federal army and place it in Lee's way beforce was between him and General fore he had got through the mounLee. Consequently he had to tains. make a long detour, coming round Far from his base of supplies, by Carlisle, to rejoin the army, and with an enormous waggon - train,
Lee could not hope by maneuvring They tried to impress him with to dislodge Meade from before him; a sense of the gravity of the situaand in that difficult mountainous tion, and urgently entreated that he region, where strong defensive posi- would do something to calm the tions are to be found at every few excitement amongst the people, miles' interval, it would have been whose irritation at the threats of very unreasonable to expect to in the Administration and of the flict such a crushing defeat upon Northern States was getting beMeade's army as would prevent him yond control. from making any further resistance. It was just after the taking of
Had the strong positions at Get Fort Sumter, and Lincoln's having tysburg been stormed, no doubt called out 75,000 men to coerce the cannon and colours and prisoners South. would have been taken, but at a “But what would you have me great sacrifice of life. The Fede- do?" said Mr Lincoln. rals would have fallen back, and “Mr President,” replied one of the probably taken up a still stronger deputation,“I would beg you to lend position a few miles to the rear me your finger and thumb for five Lee would have had to retreat all minutes"-meaning, of course, that the same, especially as, after the he wished him to write something third day's fight, ammunition-par- that should allay the prevailing exticularly small-arms ammunition- citement. was getting short. Had there been But Mr Lincoln did not choose only a portion of Meade's army at to understand him. “My finger Gettysburg, and that portion had and thumb!” he repeated — “my been overwhelmed, of course it finger and thumb! What would would have been a different thing; you do with them? Blow your and, as General Lee said himself, nose?” it was under the impression that The deputation retired in dishe had only a part of Meade's army gust, and Virginia seceded. to deal with that he fought the We remained about a week at battle.
Hagerstown, being all the time, as
we discovered afterwards from the As we were riding back to Hag- Yankee newspapers, in the most erstown we fell in with Colonel frightful danger of being captured Wickham, who commands a brigade by Meade's victorious and pursuing of Stuart's cavalry, in connection army. Lee's army, upon which we with whom the following story was relied for security, was, it is true, told me.
only a mile off, Hagerstown and It will be remembered that Vir- ourselves lying between them and ginia was one of the last States to the Yankees, but it was a demoralsecede, and did not do so until she ised horde of fugitives; and Meade had exhausted every effort to effect lost all the credit he had gained at a compromise; and when she did Gettysburg, because he did not capso, the few Southern States that ture the whole “crowd," or drive were still hesitating followed her them into the Potomac. Fortuexample, and the war became in- nately we were in happy ignorance evitable.
of the peril in which we were placed, Matters were coming to a crisis or it might have disturbed our when the leading men of Virginia peaceful slumbers at the Washingsent a deputation of three of their ton Hotel. number* to wait on the President, Whilst we were at Hagerstown, Mr Lincoln.
the news arrived of the fall of Vicks
* I have since heard that Colonel Wickham, although a very prominent man in the councils of his State, was not one of this deputation, which consisted of Messrs W. B. Preston, G. W. Randolph, and A. N. H. Stuart.
burg, and this may perhaps have the river, and made ourselves had some influence in deciding comfortable. The army is in good General Lee to recross the Poto- spirits in spite of our own retreat mac. Many were disappointed at and the bad news from the west. this decision, as it had been the As for despondency, or being weary general opinion that the army was of resistance and of the war, which only waiting for fresh supplies to kind of feeling I see the Northernrecommence offensive operations. ers are fond of attributing to the
Again the rain came down in tor- South, there are certainly no symprents, and the generals must have toms of it in this army. “We will had an anxious time of it, as the fight them, sir, till h- freezes, Potomac was much swollen already, and then, sir, we'll fight them on the and there was but one pontoon ice,” said an energetic officer to me; bridge at the point where we crossed. and the same sentiment seems to However, all got over safely, and animate every one, though they do Meade did not capture a rearguard not all express themselves in such of two brigades, as he afterwards strong language. boasted he had done. There was, The Southerners are of course however, a furious attack made by not nearly so commercial a race as some forty tipsy cavalry men upon the Yankees, but still they are much the rearguard ; and though they given to “trading” amongst each were entirely cut to pieces them- other; and the other day at an hosselves, they killed General Petti- pital in Gettysburg, an artillerygrew, and several soldiers. Gene- man whose leg was to be taken off, ral Pettigrew, as they came tearing no sooner knew that the amputaalong with a Yankee battle-flag tion was decided upon by the docflying, had forbidden his men to tors, than he turned to another fire at them, thinking it was a party wounded man in the next bed, and of Confederates who had captured before the operation was performed a Yankee flag; he could not con- had “traded” the boot which was ceive it possible that a squad of henceforth to be of no use to him. cavalry should attack his strong The negroes in camp are a great force.
study. Of course they are all slaves. The Yankee cavalry has not the They have a great horror of the credit of doing very dashing things, Yankees, and when in Pennsylvania and at present the Confederate could not be got to move a hundred cavalry is also a little under a cloud. yards from the camp for fear of The cavalry have always artillery being kidnapped, whilst here they with them, and Longstreet says delight in roaming about the counit is this which demoralises them. try in search of poultry, eggs, fruit, When two cavalry parties meet they and suchlike delicacies, for which do not fight themselves, but set they are excellent caterers. I heard their artillery to work at a game of of only a single instance of a servant long bowls.
being lost during the campaign, and I think the fact of the men own- his master was convinced that he ing their own horses is likely to had been stolen, and that he had make them more careful than they not run off of his own free-will. should be. If a man loses his Our excellent cook Jeff is a great horse and cannot buy another, he character, and has arrived at the is transferred to the infantry, which digrity of being an “uncle” on acof course he does not like. Besides, count of his mature age; whilst the perpetual raiding, and pouncing Andrew, a handsome lad of about upon supply- trains and sutler's twenty, who cleans my boots now stores, though capital fun, does not and then, in fine weather, is a conduce to make good soldiers. “boy," and will remain one till he
We pitched our tents a mile or is forty. two south of where we had crossed Jeff is a preacher, and holds religious meetings with his fellow- of them, I suppose ; at least they darkies. They are very shy of mostly wear a toothbrush very prowhite people coming to these meet- minently stuck into their coat butings, and of course their masters ton-hole, as a dandy would carry a let them alone, and do not intrude flower, or a Frenchman his ribbon upon them. Lying in my tent one of the Legion of Honour. morning, I overheard Jeff lecturing They are a very affectionate race, Andrew for using profane language: and the attachment they have for Andrew, I hear you say 'by their masters is very like the clanNow, Andrew, you know you've not nish feeling which we read of as money enough in your pocket to buy having existed formerly in the a bit of biscuit, and yet you say, Highlands of Scotland between by Andrew, you'll never go the lower classes and their chiefs. to heaven," &c. &c. And Andrew Whenever they have occasion for a hung his head, and was ashamed of surname, they make use of their himself. They always call their master's. They display great conmasters and mistresses by their tempt towards the poor “free nigChristian names, whatever may be gers" in the towns, who are genetheir rank and titles. General Lee, rally dirty and ragged. They look for instance, will never be anything up to their masters for protection, but Master Robert to any of his which is readily given, not only as servants. They have a strong sense a matter of course to their own of humour, and are always laughing servants, but to any other "darkies” at something or other. Sometimes as occasion may require. their repartees are not bad. A few If any one in the South wished days ago I was in the tent of an to make quite sure of getting into officer who had just been promoted. trouble, he need only abuse or illHis servant was making up his bed, treat a negro ; and though the and the officer told him to be sure “boy'' might be submissive, he and make it long enough. The would soon have every white man “boy' looked up and grinned in the neighbourhood down upon “ S'pose, Master William, you'se him, and perhaps a revolver or not grown taller since you was two emptied into his body. major," he said. Their teeth are remarkably fine, and they are proud