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he has succeeded. Even though Latin Church. Spain, once the the enterprise has not been popular greatest Power in Europe, has for in France, it at least served to at long been torpid, and, though now tract the thoughts of the French to showing symptoms of revival, will a foreign topic,-it has furnished a never regain anything like its forsubject of conversation and debate, mer position in the world. In
and it has, moreover, shut the America the collapse of the Romish Inouths of the war-party in France, Church has been still more conspicuand established a solid excuse for ous. On the other hand, the Protesthe Emperor not engaging in a tant and Greek Powers are prosperEuropean conflict until he had got ing and extending themselves. The this Transatlantic affair off his greatest change which is impending bands. These were considerations in Europe - the downfall of the of present value which Napoleon Ottoman rule-will bring a vast was not likely to underestimate, extension of power to the Greek though he could not frankly avow Church ; and slowly but steadily them. Nevertheless they would the same Church, following the bathave been void of force if the ex- talions of Russia, is spreading over pedition could not have been justi- central, and will soon spread likefied upon intrinsic grounds. And wise over south-western Asia. It it is to the peculiar character of will extend from the Baltic to the those grounds, as illustrative of the Pacific, from St Petersburg to Petroscope of the Emperor's views, that paulovski. Protestantism has still we desire briefly to draw attention, greater triumphs to show. Accombefore considering what are likely panying the colonies of England, to be the actual results of the en- it has become the dominant faith terprise.
in North America — among the 1 The grandeur of a nation depends thirty millions of the Anglo-Saxon upon the influence of the ideas and race, who may be said to hold the interests which it represents, not fortunes of the New World in their less than upon the material force hands. In India, in the Australian which it can exert. England, for world, at the Cape, and wherever example, is peculiarly the represent England has planted her energetic ative of Constitutional Government colonies, it is the Protestant Church and of the interests of commerce. which reigns supreme. By his inIn Russia we behold the head, and tervention in Mexico, Napoleon representative Power, of the Greek III. endeavours to arrest the decay Church. France, also, we need of the Romish Church in America, bardly say, is a representative and to check the continuous spread Power. Her monarchs for cen- of the Protestant Anglo-Saxons. turies have borne the title of the The “Empire of the Indies," reared * eldest son of the Church ;” they by Spain, and so long a bright gem have been the protectors of, and in the tiara of the Popes, has gone at all events they peculiarly repre- to wreck. Brazil, with its enorsent, the Church of Rome. But mous territory but mere handful the Church of Rome has been losing of people, is the only non-Protesground, alike in the Old World and tant State in America which is not in the New. The great kingdom a prey to anarchy and desolation ; of Poland has dropped out of the and a few years ago, the gradual Inap of Europe, and nearly all its extension of Anglo-Saxon power parts have gone to increase the over the whole of the New World territories of Protestant Prussia, appeared to be merely a question and of Russia the champion of of time. Seizing a favourable opthe Greek Church. The loss has portunity, the “eldest son of the not been compensated by an Church" now intervenes to repair adequate increase of power in the fallen fortunes of the Papacy the States which adhere to the in Central America, and in so doing to erect a barrier against the tide and advantageous frontier. Partly of Protestantism, and to reflect new also, he hopes, by establishing a lustre upon the Church of which league, a community of sentiment he is the champion, and with whose 'and action, between the so-called greatness that of France is indissol- Latin races of France, Italy, and ubly connected.
Spain-in which league France will --- These considerations affect the naturally hold the first place. By moral, rather than the political, his intervention in Italy, he has engreatness of France; but there are deavoured, and not unsuccessfully, others of a different character which to attract Italy to him as a depenmoved Napoleon III. to attempt dent ally. By his intervention in the regeneration of Mexico. The Mexico, he plays a part which will latter, however, relate to the same tend to attract Spain likewise ; and object considered from a different he trusts to complete an alliance point of view. Europe is remodel- with that country by, ere long, supling herself on the principle of porting the claims of the Spaniards nationality. Twenty years hence, to the possession of Gibraltar ; and the Slavonian race will have expe- also, if an opportunity offers, of rienced a great augmentation of effecting a “unification” of the power-partly from increase of pop- Peninsula by obliterating Portugal ulation, which is proceeding rapid- (the ally of England) as an indely in Russia, and partly from a pendent State. Meanwhile, by remore perfect political organisation generating Mexico, he adds to his and community of action estab- own renown-shows himself a fitlished among the now scattered ting leader for the future league of portions of that family of nations, the Latin races ; and, at the same The Teutonic race is destined to time, he opens a new field for the experience a lesser but somewhat commerce and enterprise of France, similar increase of power. Com- which may help to save the nation pelled by disasters which, even in from its social demoralisation and this hour of triumph, may be seen concomitant discontent, and impart to await them, the Germans will to it a new and healthy impulse consolidate their strength by uni- towards increase of population, fication, and will thereby acquire without which it will be impossible much greater power than they now for France to retain her high posipossess, even though they lose a tion among the Powers of Europe. considerable portion of their non- Mexico is a country well fitted German territory. In the face of to engage the attention of a great these contingencies, Napoleon III. monarch, to justify his efforts on meditates, has long been meditat- its behalf, and to more than repay ing, how France is to obtain a com- them by the results which will mensurate addition to her strength. attend its regeneration. The cliCentralisation and organisation are mate of its central and most inhaalready complete in France; no bited region is perfectly suited to new strength is to be looked for the constitution of Europeans, and from these sources. Her popula- especially of the so-called Latin tion, too_unlike that of Germany races. The country abounds in and of Russia-is stationary, and mines of the precious metals ; and even threatens to decline if some 80 great are the treasures hidden new impulse be not communicated in its mountains that the mineral to it. How, then, is she to keep wealth of the country is still, comher place in the future ? Partly, paratively speaking, undeveloped. replies Napoleon in his secret The soil, too, is remarkably fertile ; thoughts, by incorporating the and owing to its peculiar geographiRhine provinces and Belgium — cal formation, the country yields in thereby acquiring at once an in- perfection most of the productions crease of population, and a strong alike of the temperate and the torrid zones. Extending for 1200 ley beneath. Mexico is rich in inmiles along the seaboard of the digenous plants and flowers. On Atlantic, and 900 miles along the the plains, the strange - looking coast of the Pacific, Mexico con- stems of the cactus, like grotesque tains an area three times larger than vegetable pillars, silent and unFrance, situated between the two bending to the wind, rise to the great oceans of the world, and pre- height of twenty feet, gorgeous senting in its southern portion a with scarlet or yellow blossoms.* route well fitted to become a high- The air is perfumed by the wild way between them. Mexico con- and profusely-growing convolvuli, tains within herself all the material with their graceful bell-flowers. elements of a great empire. All And the vanilla plant, whose pods that is wanted is to regenerate her yield an expensive luxury, grows people—to revive in them the ener- spontaneously in the coast-regiongies which they, both Indians and ivy-like climbing the loftiest trees, Spaniards, once exerted gloriously while its large white flowers, striped in the olden time - and thereby with red and yellow, fill the forest make them fit to profit by the ex- with their rare and delicious odour. traordinary natural resources with The coffee-tree is indigenous, and which they are surrounded
can be most successfully cultivated On either side Mexico is bor- in the region above the reach of the dered by a narrow low-lying coast- malaria, on the comparatively temregion, abounding in heat and perate mountain - slopes between moisture, where vegetation presents four and five thousand feet above the full luxuriance of the tropics. the sea. The cocoa-shrub also is The interior of the country, on the indigenous, but requires the damp other hand, consists of a vast table and sultry warmth of the coastland, as level as the sea, of an aver- region. In such districts it is." age height of 7000 feet above the amazingly productive. Humboldt, coast; and out of this great plain in his Tropical World,' says he rise chains of mountains rich in never should forget the deep imminerals, and lofty isolated peaks, pression made upon him by the like snow-capped Popocatepetl, the luxuriance of tropical vegetation breezes from which cool down the on first seeing a cocoa plantation. summer heat. Here and there, “After a damp night, large blosespecially on its outskirts, this soms of the theobroma issue from great plain is seamed by profound the root at a considerable distance valleys or glens, bounded by pre- from the trunk, emerging from the cipitous walls of rock; and stand deep black mould. A more striking ing on the temperate table-land, example of the productive powers the stranger beholds with amaze- of life could hardly be met with in ment the gorgeous scenery of tropi- organic nature." Tobacco, indigo, cal vegetation which opens upon flax, and hemp grow wild, and him in glowing colours in the val- amply repay cultivation.
• "On nearing the towns, vast fields are seen covered with clumps of aloes arranged in the quincunx form, to which the similar plants found in Europe, whether in the open air or in the greenhouse, are not to be compared. This is the maguey, whose juice (pulque) delights the Mexican palate and enriches the treasury. The maguey and the cactus are the two plants characteristic of the Mexican table-land. In uncultivated districts there are immense tracts offering nothing to the eye but aloes and cactus, standing solitary or in scattered groups-a strange and melancholy vegetation that stands insensible to the whistling of the wind instead of replying to it, as do our waving forests, with a thrill of animation. The silent inflexibility of the aloes and cactus might make the traveller fancy, as he loses sight of the villages, that he is traversing one of those countries he has been told of in fairy tales, where an angry genie has turned all nature to stone."-Chevalier's Mexico' (English Edition), vol. i. p. 23.
The vegetable productions wbich presents were brought to him-culsupply the necessaries of life are tivation, aided by irrigating canals, numerous and remarkably produc- overspread the plains and valleystive. Maize, which of all the in- populous cities rose in his path. digenous productions of the New There was a well-ordered administraWorld has been of the greatest tive system, and a powerful priestvalue to Europe, yields about two hood. Immense teocallis, or pyrami. hundred-fold, and on the best cul- dal temples, rose in stages to the tivated land five hundred-fold ; and height of 100 to 300 feet and morein the coast-region, sometimes three covering so much ground, that the crops of it are raised within the base of one of them, not remarkable year. The banana, the most prolific for its height, was twice as large of all vegetables, likewise abounds as that of the Great Pyramid of in Mexico, and might support a Ghizeh : while from their summits population of unusual density. perpetual fires blazed, lighting the Planted with the banana, a piece darkness of night with strange and of land will yield a weight of fruit lurid gleams. Under the Emperor a hundred and thirty times greater were Caciques, or great nobles (like than if planted with wheat, and the Daimios of Japan), ruling their fifty times greater than if planted provinces in unswerving and dewith potatoes. Wheat and barley, voted loyalty to the Emperor. There introduced from Europe, thrive in was a numerous and well-cared-for the temperate region, and, owing army, with orders of knighthood to the natural fertility of the soil, resembling those in Europe,-and yield large returns. The sugar- (remarkable fact) a Chelsea Hoscane of Mexico, famed for its un- pital or Hotel des Invalides, in rivalled abundance of saccharine which the veterans were cared for matter, is cultivated not only in the at the expense of the state. “It coast-region, but on the adjoining shall never be said," wrote the mountain-slopes, above the noxious grave and circumspect Cortez to influence of the terra caliente. The Charles V., “ that I have exaggercotton plant, though yielding its ated facts. I shall do what is posfinest qualities in the moist coast sible to relate, as well as I can, a region, can be cultivated on the few, of which I have been an eyehigher grounds, especially as the witness, so marvellous that they Mexican plant is capable of resist- pass all belief, and for which we ing the effects of frost. In truth, cannot account to our own selves." the vegetable productions, as well The wonder of the Spaniards was as the mineral wealth of Mexico, at its height when, after defiling are almost unrivalled in the world; through the mountain-passes, they and in course of time, when foreign entered the valley of Mexico, and capital has been introduced, and saw before them a great basin or when the population has increased plain seventy miles in diameter, alike in energy and in numbers, it bounded on all sides by lofty mounwill become a great exporting coun- tains, and studded with great and try, and will rise in prosperity while populous cities, clustering around benefiting the world at large. the series of connected lakes which 1 To know what a country may lay in the centre of the valley. become, we must know what it has Several of those cities, like Tezcuco been. When Cortez landed on the and Cholula, had a population of mainland of America, he heard 150,000 ; and the whole valley was from all quarters the fame of a richly cultivated. In the centre of great empire and a magnificent the great lake, approached by three monarch ; and when he began his causeways from the mainland, rose memorable march inland from Vera the capital, Tenochtitlan (Mexico) Cruz, he soon met abundant proofs the Venice of the New World of the prosperity of the country with 300,000 inhabitants. There and the power of its ruler. Superb were the royal palaces of Montezuma, one-storeyed, but covering and flowers for the market of the such large areas that one of them capital, which struck the Spaniards sufficed to contain the whole band alike with wonder and admiration.* of Cortez, including his Tlascalan “I think there is no Soldan nor allies. Pyramidal temples, in great infidel prince known up to this numbers and of immense size, tower time, who has himself waited upon ed aloft, with their perpetual fires re- with so much display and magnififlected in the waters; and the houses, cence,” said Cortez, when he reached coated with solid white stucco, Mexico and beheld the royalty of gleamed in the brilliant sunshine as Montezuma. In the mouth of if constructed of the precious metals. Cortez the phrase “Soldan” is a Like Venice, the city was intersected sort of superlative. Let us rememwith canals from the lake, forming ber, too, that this was written to watery highways, by which goods the Emperor Charles V., the greatcould be transported from the main- est European monarch of his time. land into the heart of the city; and There were botanical gardens, tooin the centre was the great market before anything of the kind had place, surrounded by porticoes been thought of in Europe-and twice as large as the city of Salaman- menageries, and collections of birds. c3, said Cortez, and in which 60,000 “Hanging gardens," rivalling those persons could traffic with ease. “It of Babylon, adorned the mountainis the most beautiful thing in the sides, and the humblest of the peoworld," said Cortez, speaking of the ple had a passion for flowers. Nor capital, with bitter regret, when was intellectual cultivation forgotthe heroic defence of the Aztecs ten, and the monarch mingled with compelled him to demolish it house and took part in the assemblies of by house. Around all was the the men of letters, feeling that by great lake, crossed only by the so doing he added lustre to his three causeways, and dotted by ar- royalty. Their books were collected tificial floating islets, bearing fruits in libraries, and were written on
" Another curiosity existed in the chinampas, or floating gardens, scattered over the lakes. These artificial islets, of fifty to a hundred yards long, served for the cultivation of vegetables and flowers for the market of the capital. Some of these islets had consistency enough for shrubs of some size to grow on, or to bear even a hut of light material. They were at pleasure moved to the bank by poles, or were made to move over the waters with their floral treasures by the same Ineans. This spectacle impressed the Spaniards greatly, and, according to Bernal Diaz, made them say that they had been transported into an enchanted region like those they had read of in the romance of * Amadis de Gaul.'”—Chevalier's Mexico,' vol. i. p. 31.
+ "The Mexicans had a passion for flowers. They collected together in splendid gardens such as were remarkable for perfume or for brilliancy of colour. To these they added medicinal plants, methodically arranged-shrubs distinguished by their blossoins or their foliage, by the excellence of their fruit or their berries--and also trees of elegant or majestic appearance. They delighted in laying out their terraces and bowers on hilly slopes, where they looked as if suspended. Aqueducts brought thither water from a distance, which overflowed in cascades or filled spacious basins tenanted by the choicest fish. Mysterious pavilions were hidden among the foliage, and statues reared their forms amid the flowers. All the kinds of animals that we assemble in our gardens consecrated to science—such as the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and the Zoological Gardens of London-contributed to the ornament or curiosity of these resorts of pleasure. Birds were there of beautiful plumage, kept in cages as large as houses; there also were wild beasts, animals of various kinds, and even serpents. Bernal Diaz there first beheld the rattlesnake, which he describes as having castanets in its tail.' One of the royal gardens, two leagues from Tezcuco, was formed on the side of a hill, whose summit was reached by an ascent of five hundred steps, and was crowned by a basin, whence, by an effort of hydraulic skill, water flowed in succession into three other reservoirs, adorned with gigantic statues. Cortez also mentions the gardens of a Cacique which were not less than two leagues in circumference."-See Chevalier's · Mexico,' vol. i. p. 28-30.