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in station, subjects against controlling government, the individual against restraining society and authority, the poor against the rich, the criminal against the law. And this crime takes the sacred name of progress, and misleads the cheated people. The true liberty on which only a nation can be happily founded, is an intelligent liberty that sees and guards all classes with an equal eye and arm.. Have not false patriotism and legislation for votes gone far enough, and would it not be statesmanship to recog. nize the fact ?

If the principle of acqnired property in another's labor, which can be accumulated, or transferred by purchase like other property—and the fact of its always entering into the value of a structure built, or an article manufactured or sold, and of the products or results of labor in general, bodily and mental, both by making a part of the claim for wages by the workman, and also a part of the claim for profit by the employer—if, we say, this principle and these facts could be known and practically felt by the employed and the employer, the hard thoughts, the questions at issue, the quarrels, and the ill-temper and evil of protective unions, and masters' unions, and of strikes and combinations, would be done away with.

The laborer should know and feel that his daily work represents not only the value of what he does that day himself, but it represents also in part the labor or property of his parents and of himself in his childhood and youth; what it cost them or him while he was growing up large enough to work, and also while he was learning how to work, and all that learning cost them or him. Then he can calculate and claim all his rights and the full and proper amount of his wages. And the employer (the laborer probably of the year before), making the same calculations in his case, it will be seen that he has the represented labor, with its claims to be paid, of others, perhaps of many, who lived before him, and which claims have become his property in some way under the name of capital, accumulated and transferred, perhaps through several persons. He can now explain it and make his fair claims. It is only an arithmetical question of division, what amount of labor the employer, and what amount the employed is to be paid for, in its different shapes.

With the above principles to guide us, let us now search for a practical answer to the plain question, What is at this time in the United States, a fair day's wages for a fair day's work? We will first take the simplest form, what is called uneducated labor, which does not require special instruction or apprenticeship.

In the United States, the man who has only his labor is born with the claim that his labor shall give him “life,” his physical wants, food to keep him in good working condition, sufficient comfortable and decent clothing, and comfortable shelter; liberty, that is, his proportion of taxes for the support of a government-of statesmen but not of politicians, administration of justice at home and foreign protection ; and the pursuit of happiness, which also appears in the shape of taxes for all the public expenses of social life and civilization, roads, schools, hospitals, etc. More than that, he is entitled to the interest at current rates, not to the principal, on account of the impossibility in the aggregate, say seven per cent. per annum, upon that sum which it cost his parents as a gift to him, or himself if he had to support himself in his boyhood while he was growing up.

We find all this can be readily calculated upon the single, simple datum of the price of board for the different classes of occupations. This price will upon examination be found to be nicely graduated upon a sliding scale, that takes in the occupation, the times, the locality, the season. We find also that the clothing required by any condition always bears a stated proportion to the board, say one-third. And so does his spending money for his improvement and amusement, the latter as much a necessity as the former, or to express it more broadly and philosophically, for the harmonious action and development of all his faculties. This item is less exact than the others, but it may be put down as equal to that for dress, one-third of the board. So much for his current claims.

From the same data it will be easy to calculate the amount of represented and accumulated expense of child

this item is les

dress, one-third wat it may be put in

hood, 14 years, and youth, 6 years, from birth up to the age of wages, say 20 years: children are boarded at half price till 14, and at full price afterwards. Such are the natural claims which stop with the individual; but the world must be replenished with men and women; half the children die before 5 years of age-two children would keep up the population, but even mothers allow it the chance of increase80 that we may allow the average of four children born to each man and woman, especially as the wife's proportion of such expenses will in like manner be calculated and allowed as her wages, and we must calculate the cost of bringing up the two children that will live, to the age of work. The man's proportion of this item will be four-sevenths, considering the woman's necessary withdrawal from work. And now come in the data of vital statistics, slightly used before; and our inquiries take a inore scientific turn. We must now know how long the uneducated laborer will live to want wages, or support; here the Census Tables show us, so as to know how long he will require the above expenses of " life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

We must also know what will be the annual price or premium of what is called an endowment life policy of assurance, or one payable at a certain age selected, (or at death if it happen before that age is reached,) so as to furnish enough money to meet the laborer's above weekly expenses during the rest of his life, between the age at which he can no longer work, which age we must also know from vital statistics, and the age at his death. In the class of labor first to be discussed, the laborer in town or city can work during his whole average life, and will on an average be sick only about 13 weeks of that time.

We must also know how many days in a year on an average he can work. In this class it will be, say three hundred. The difference is in indoor and outdoor work.

At the manufactories of the beautiful painted porcelain wares, the painters are not permitted to work at their trade more than seven years, on account of the deleterious effects of the materials they use for their colors. The poison of the compound used by the friction match factories forbade,

under the penalties of frightful disease, the devotion of more than a few years to the work. Lately, however, the lucky invention of a French chemist suggested, as the two ingredients were harmless by themselves, the putting of one of them on the match and the other on the rough rubber whose attrition supplied the heat, and thus the chemical union which made the poison took place only at the moment of their destruction by ignition : just as the dangerous explosive union of the gases, oxygen and hydrogen, is rendered safe by uniting them only at the point of burning. But these extreme cases of dangerous occupations must remain exceptions and occupy only a small part of the labor time of life, while their operatives turn to other trades. The painter's trade is familiar to every one in its liinits, and is more to the point which we are illustrating.

Society has need of a careful list of the average lives, and the number of years of work, and the number of days of work in a year, and the classified prices of board of the respective occupations in the United States. We have statistical societies that can collect and furnish such a list from study, inquiry, and observation.

TABLE 1.

Showing the expectancy or arerage duration of Life of each individual;

calculcated from the Carlisle Table of Mortality.

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TABLE II. Showing the expectation of life in England in 24 trades and occupations,

within decennial periods of ages from 20 to 60; and the average number of days of sickness in the same.

Will Live at Age of 20.

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Eng. & Wales, gen. sv. 39 yrs.
Manchester Unity, av. 41"
Bakers.
Blacksıníths.
Bricklayers.
Butchers.
Carpenters.
Clerks & Scboolmastrs.
Coopers
Dyers,
Hatters
Laborers, town & city.

rural,
Millwrights.
Mill operatives
Miners.
Plumbers.
Potters.
Printers
Sawyera
Domestie Servants.
Shoemakers.
Spinners
Stonemasons
Tailors
Weavers,
Wheelwrights.
Woodcombers.

1354 105

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We give above a table of the general length of life to be expected at any age from birth to seventy-nine years. Also a table showing the general length of life in England and Wales, the actual length of life among the thousands of members of the Manchester (Eng.) Unity of Odd Fellows, and the different expectations of life between the ages of 20 and 30, 30 and 40, 40 and 50, 50 and 60, as shown in twenty-five different trades and occupations in England. We have also inserted in the last table, as germane to the matter in hand, the different average number of days of sick. ness in a year in those trades and periods of age. These were published by H. Radcliffe, Secretary of the last named Society. Similar subjects are treated of in Mr. Ansell's " Treatise on Friendly Societies in England,” Mr. Nieson's “ Vital Statistics,” and with more or less extent and particularity in several other publications and articles in Europe and in the United States. A table showing the rate of anpual premiums which our life insurance companies charge

VOL. XVII.—NO. Xxxiv. 22

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