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after heavy losses and exhausting all their ammunition, are obliged to surrender.
November 1st: From the report of the adjutant-general of the army, Brigadier-General Corbin, made public today, it is learned that the army is practically at its maximum strength. The military forces now in the service of the United States are as follows: regular army, 64,586; volunteers, 34,574; total, 99,160. The monthly statement of the public debt, issued today, shows that at the close of business October 31, 1899, the debt, less cash in the treasury, amounted to $1,146,629,581, a decrease during the month of $2,766,199. This decrease is accounted for by the increase in the amount of the cash on hand, and in the increased redemption of national bank notes:
2nd: A voluminous preliminary report on the Philippines, signed by
Sherman, George Dewey, Charles Denby and Dean C. Worcester, is submitted to President McKinley by the Philippine Commission. After briefly telling how the commission conducted the task imposed upon it, the report reviews at length the various rebellions in the islands up to the breaking out of the Spanish-American war; shows the relations existing between Dewey and Aguinaldo, proving that never at any time were the Filipinos offered independence by any representative of the American government, and that no alliance was ever entered into between the Americans and the rebels. The report goes on to show that from the time Aguinaldo arrived in the islands his determination was to attack the Americans and that many attempts were made to obtain arms, the lack of which alone prevented such attack. The many reforms undertaken by the Americans are traced, showing the improvement made in affairs in Manila, the establishment of native law courts there; the inauguration of municipal government in many places; the institution of public schools with an attendance of 6,000 students. The failure of the attempt at self-government in the island of Negros, where it was undertaken under the most favorable conditions, and the necessity of American control there is shown, and on this point the report says: “Here the natives had adopted the extension of the American system, had adopted a local form of government, including a congress, and had raised the American flag. They believed themselves capable of managing their own affairs and asked for a battalion of troops to hold in check a mountainous band of fanatics. The battalion was furnished, but the people proved unable to carry out their programme, owing to ill-feeling among their own officials. The Americans remained popular. At the request of General Otis, a new and simplified scheme of government for the island, giving the people a large voice in their affairs, but placing an American in full control, was put into
operation. It brought about satisfaction, and public order is better in the island today than at any time during the last twenty years. The flat failure of this attempt to secure an independent native government in Negros, conducted, as it was, under the most favorable circumstances, makes it apparent that here, as well as in the less favored provinces, a large amount of American control is at present absolutely essential to a successful administration of public affairs." The visits of Aguinaldo's envoys are discussed and it is stated that nothing was accomplished thereby, because those emissaries were without powers and came again and again merely for information. The commission says: “Courteous reception was accorded to the insurgent commissions and earnest appeals made to stop further bloodshed, all witnessing the spirit of patient conciliation, exhibited by the American commission in endeavoring to reach an amicable adjustment with the insurgents as well as the obduracy of Aguinaldo,” and continues: “No better proof could be furnished that the primary object of this struggle is not, as is pretended, the liberty of the Filipino peoples, but the continuance of his own arbitrary and despotic power. In any event the American people may feel confident that no effort was omitted by the commission to secure a peaceful end of the struggle, but the opportunities they offered and urged were all neglected, if not, indeed, spurned." The report reads as follows on the subjects named:
THE PRESENT WAR.
“Deplorable as war is, the one in which we are now engaged was unavoidable. We were attacked by a bold, adventurous and enthusiastic army. No alternative was left to us, except ignominious retreat. It is not to be conceived that any American would sanction the surrender of Manila to the insurgents. Our obligations to other nations and to the friendly Filipinos and to ourselves and our flag demand that force should be met with force. Whatever the future of the Philipines may be, there is no course open to us now except the prosecution of the war until the insurgents are reduced to submission. The commission is of the opinion that there has been no time since the destruction of the Spanish squadron by Admiral Dewey when it was possible to withdraw our forces from the islands either with honor to ourselves or with safety to the inhabitants." And further: “Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn the commission believe the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate the intervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them. Only through American occupation, therefore, is the idea of a free self-govern
ment and united Philippine commonwealth at all conceivable. And the indispensable need, from the Filipino point of view, of maintaining American sovereignty over the archipelago is recognized by all intelligent Filipinos, and even by those insurgents who desire an American protectorate. The latter, it is true, would take the revenues and leave us the responsibilities. Nevertheless they recognize the indubitable fact that the Filipinos cannot stand alone. Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coincides with the dictates of national honor in forbidding our abandonment of the archipelago.”
THE INABILITY OF THE PEOPLE TO MAINTAIN INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT.
“The masses of the people are uneducated. That intelligent public opinion on which popular government rests does not exist in the Philippines. And it cannot exist until education has elevated the masses, broadened their intellectual horizon and disciplined their faculty of judgment. And, even then, the power of self government cannot be assumed without considerable previous training and experience under the guidance and tutelage of an enlightened and liberal foreign power. For the bald fact is that the Filipinos have never had any experience in governing themselves.”
THE VALUE OF THE ISLANDS.
The commission gives a general view of the value of the islands, their general richness in agricultural and forest products, their mineral wealth and their commanding geographical position. They state that the Philippines should soon become one of the great traders of the east. Manila is already connected by new steamship lines with Australia, India and Japan and she will become the natural terminus of many other lines when a ship canal connects the Atlantic with the Pacific. It cannot be doubted that commerce will greatly increase and the United States will obtain a large share in this.
The announcement is made that the three ex-cruisers of the Spanish navy at Manila--the Isla de Cuba, Isla de Luzon, and Don Juan de Austria—were ready to proceed to Manila and join Admiral Watson's squadron. The reconstruction of the vessels has been under the supervision of Lieutenant Hobson. The vessels will be placed on blockade duty in the Philippines. The three cruisers were sunk at Cavite by the ships of Dewey, and the estimated cost of repairing the ships exclusive of armament is $304,000. Aguinaldo has issued a proclamation announcing that the American Con
gress will meet in December to decide whether the “imperialist policy" and “this bloody work” are to be continued. He exhorts his soldiers to conduct themselves so that Congress will consider them worthy of independence, and requests the priests to abstain from politics and to redeem the church from the name the misdeeds of the friars have given it.
3rd: At a Cabinet meeting in Washington the preliminary report of the Philippine Commission is approved; the status of our insular possessions in relation to the postal union is discussed, and the question of a civil government for Cuba receives attention.
5th. An important move is made in the Philippine campaign. A fleet of transports and gun-boats leaves Manila for Dagupan one of the insurgent strongholds in the north of Luzon, and it is believed that the purpose of the expedition is to move down the Dagupan-Manila railroad toward Tarlac, in order to prevent Aguinaldo's forces from making another base farther north.
6th: At Bacolod, in the island of Negros, the autonomous government of the Filipinos is established. General Smith, governor of the island of Negros, administers the oath of office to the judge of the supreme court, who, in turn, swears in the governor, three judges, twelve councilmen, the auditor and the secretary of the interior. The natives of the entire island attend the ceremony. The officers from Iloilo are also present. Three days of feasting will follow in celebration of the new government.
7th: Ezra Thompson, the Republican candidate, is elected mayor of Salt Lake City.
General Wheaton's expedition to the north of Luzon, lands at Dagupan.
The United States cruiser Charleston which has been patrolling the northern coast of Luzon, was wrecked on a reef off the northwest coast. All on board were saved.
8th: The following cablegram is received at the War Department from General Otis:
MANILA, NOVEMBER 7TH.
The civil governor, judges and secretaries who con-
new era will open up to this region which will en-
* . *
It is officially announced that an agreement, subject to the approval of the United States, had been arrived at between Great Britain and Germany, by virtue of which the Samoan act is repealed and the islands of Upolu, Savaii and the small adjacent islands fall to Germany as free property, and the island of Tutuila and the subsidiary islands go to the United States. Great Britain, it is added, renounces any claim to the Samoan Islands, and Germany, in turn, renounces any claim to the Tonga Islands and to Savage Island in favor of Great Britain, and also cedes Chousel and San Isibel, the two eastern islands of the Solomon group with their insular surroundings to Great Britain.
9th: Admiral Dewey and Mrs. Mildred Hazen are married in Washington.
The war department has definite information locating Aguinaldo at Bayombong, to which place it is expected the insurgent capital will be shifted and the efforts of the American military forces will be directed towards that place. It is felt that the war is nearing an end.
12th: The American forces under Colonel Bell entered Tarlac, the recent seat of the so-called Filipino government, without opposition. Aguinaldo with his army had fled.
13th: Aguinaldo and his army are now surrounded by the American forces and his capture seems certain.
15th: Secretary of the Treasury L. J. Gage publishes the announcement that the treasury department is ready to purchase any part or all the $25,000,000 in government bonds of the 4 per cent funded loan of 1907, or the 5 per cent loan of 1904.
16th: The vigorous prosecution of the Philippine campaign continues. General McArthur begins his northward advance from Tarlac and will press on to Bayombong.