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· Charman-The Right Hon. the LORD CHANCELLOR, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France.

Vice-Chairman-The Right Hon. SIR HENRY PARNELL, Bart., M.P.

Treasurer-WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., M.P., F.R.S.
W. Allen, Esq., F.R, and R.A.S.
Thomas Falconer, Esq.

James Manning, Esy.
Rt. Hon. Visc. Althorp, M.P., Chancellor of 1. L. Goldsmid, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

J. Herman Merivale, Esq., P.A.S.
the Exchequer.
B. Gompertz, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

James Mill, Esq.
W. B. Baring, Esq.M.P.
G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. and L.S.

W. H. Ord, Esq. M.P.
Capt. F. Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S., H. Hallam, Esq. F.R.S., M.A.

Dr. Roget, Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S.
Hydrographer to the Admiralty,
M. D. Hill, Esq. M.P.

Rt. Hon. Lord John Russell, M.P., Pay.
Sir C. Bell, F.R.S.L. and E.
Rowland Hill, Esq., F.R.A.S.

master to the Forces.
G. Burrows, M.D.
Edwin Hill, Esq.

Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S.
C. Hay Cameron, Esq..
David Jardine, Esq., M.A.

Rev. Richard Sheepshanks, M.A.
The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Chichester, D.D. Henry B. Ker, Esq.

J. Smith, Esq., M.P.
William Coulson, Esq.
Th. Hewitt Key, Esq., M.A.

John Taylor, Esq. F.R.S.
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Dr. A. T. Thomson, F.L.S.
Wm. Crawford, Esq.
George C. Lewis, Esq., M.A.

N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.P. F.R.S.
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James Loch, Esq., M.P., F.G.S.

John Ward, Esq.
Rt. Hon. Lord Chief Justice Denman.
George Long, Esq., M.A.

H. Waymouth, Esq.
Lieut. Drummond, R.E., F.R.A.8.

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H. Malden, Esq. M.A.

John Wood, Esq.
T. F. Ellis, Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S.
A. T. Malkin, Esq., M.A.

Joho Wrottesley, Esq., M.A. F.R.A.S. John Elliotson, M.D., F.R.S.


Anglesea—Rev. E. Williams.

Rev. W. Johnson.

Mr. Miller.
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William Gribble, Esq.
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Birmingham-Rev.J.Corrie,F.R.S. Chairman,

Paul Moon James, Esq., Treasurer.
Jos. Parkes, Esq. Honorary Secs.

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Bonn-Leonard Horner, Esq., F.R.S.L. & E.
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James Williams, Esq.
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J. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer.

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Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S.
Rev. John Lodge, M.A.
Rev. Geo. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S. & G.S.
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A.F.R.S. & G.8.
Professor Smyth, M.A.
Rev. C. Thirlwall, M.A.
R.W.Rothman, Esq.,M.A.P.R.A.S.&G.S.

Rev. George Waddington, M.A.
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John Brent, Esq.
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Carnarvon-R. A. Poole, Esq.

William Roberts, Esq.
Chester-Hayes Lyon, Esq.

Dr. Cumming.
Dr. Jones.
Henry Potts, Esq.
Dr. Thackery.
Rev. Mr. Thorp.

Wardell, Esq.

Wedge, E.q.
Chichester-John Forbes, M.D. F.R.S

Thomas Sanden, M.D.

C.C. Dendy, Esq.
Corfu-John Crawford, Esq

Mr. Plato Petrides.

Coventry-Arthur Gregory, Esq.
Denbigh-John Madocks, Esq.

Thomas Evans, Esq.
Derby-Joseph Strutt, Esq.
Devonport and Stonehouse--John Cole, Esq.

Norman, Esq.

Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S.
Etruria-Jos. Wedgwood, Esq.
Exeter-Rev. J. P. Jones.

J. Tyrrell, Esq.

John Milford, Esq. (Coaver.)
Glasgow-K. Finlay, Esq.

Professor Mylne.
Alexander McGrigor, Esq.
Charles Tennant, Esq.
James Cowper, Esq.

Mr.T.Atkinson, Honorary Secretary.
Glamorganshire- Dr. Malkin, Cowbridge.

Rev. B R. Paul, Lantwit.

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm.
Gloucester Samuel Bowley, Esq.
Guernsey-F. C. Lukis, Esq.
Holywell-Rev. J. Blackwall.
Hull-J. C. Parker, Esq.
Keighley, Yorkshire-Rev. T. Dury, M.A.
Launceston-Rev. J. Barfitt.
Leamington Spa-Dr. Loudon, M.D.
Leeds-J. Marshall, Esq.

Benjamin Gott, Esq.

J. Marshall, Jun., Esq.
Lewes--J. W. Wooligar, Esq.
Liverpool Loc. As.-W. W. Currie, Esq. Ch.

J. Mulleneux, Esq., Treasurer.
Rev. W. Shepherd.

J. Ashton Yates, Esq.
Ludlow---T. A. Knight, Esq., P.A.S.
Maidenhead-R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S.
Maidstone-Clement T. Smyth, Esq.

John Case, Esq.
Malm«sbury-3. C. Thomas, Esq.
Manchester Loc. 18-G.W.Wood, Esq., Ch.

Benjamin 9e; wood, Esq., Treasurer.
T. W. Winstanley, Esq., Hon. Sec.
Sir G, Philips, Bart., M.P.

Benjamin Gott, Esq.
Merthyr Tydvil-J. J. Guest, Esq. M.P.
Minchinhampton- John G. Ball, Esq.
Monmouth-J. H. Moggridge, Esg.
Neath--Jolin Rowland, Esq.
Newcastle-James Losh, Esq.

Rev. W. Turner.

Newport, Isle of Wight-Ab. Clarke, Esq.

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq.

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.
Newport Pagnell-- J. Millar, Esq.
Newtown, Dlontgomeryshire-W. Pugh, Esq.
Norwich-Rt. Hon. Lord Suffield.

Richard Bacon, Esq.
Oxford-Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. Prof. of Chem.

Rev. Prof. Powell
Rev. John Jordan, B.A.
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S.
E. W. Head, Esq., M.A.

W. R. Browne, Esq., B.A.
Penang-Sir B. H. Malkin.
Plymouth-H. Woollcombe, Esq., F. A. S.

Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S.
E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary.

G, Wightwick, Esq.
Presteign-Dr. A. W. Davis, M.D.
Rippon-Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S.
and G.S.

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A.
Ruthen-Rev. the Warden of.

Humphreys Jones, Esq.
Ryde, Isle of Wight-Sir Rd. Simeon, Bart,

Sheffield-J. H. Abraham, Esq.
Shepton Mallet-G. F. Burroughs, Esq.
Shrewsbury-R. A. Slaney, Esq., M.P.
South Petherton-John Nicholetts, Esq.
St. Asaph-Rev. George Strong.
Stockport-H. Marsland, Esq., Treasurer.

Henry Coppock, Esq. Secretary.
Tavistock -- Rev. W. Evans.

John Rundle, Esq.
Tunbridge Wells-Dr. Yeats, M.D.
Warwick-Dr. Conolly.

The Rev. William Field, (Leamington.)
Waterford-Sir John Newport, Bt.M.P.
Wolverhampton-J. Pearson, Esq.
Worcester-Dr. Corbett, M.D.

Dr. Hastings, M.D.

C. H. Hebb, Esq.
Wrerham--Thomas Edgworth, Esq.

J. E. Bowman, Esq. F.L.S., Treasurer.

Major William Lloyd.
Yarmouth-C. E. Rumbold, Esq., M.P

Dawson Turner, Esq.
York-Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A.

John Wood, Esg., M.P.

THOMAS COATES, Seoretury, No. 59, Lincoln's Inr Pielas,

AUF 10 1921
MESA E. Proudfit



In the course of the regular publication of the Numbers and Parts of the Penny Cyclopædia, the purchasers of the work will have been enabled to compare its general execution with the announcements of the original Prospectus. The completion of a volume appears to call upon the Conductors for a few explanatory observations.


The plan of this work differs in a considerable degree from most other Cyclopædias. These have generally given elaborate treatises on each branch of knowledge, often referring for the explanation of each term, as it occurs in the alphabetical order, to the general treatise. The plan of the Penny Cyclopædia, as it is specially intended as a book of reference, is not to attempt to form systems of knowledge, bụt to give pretty fully, under each separate head, as much information as can be conveyed within reasonable limits. But whilst it endeavours to present in detail the explanation of those terms of Art and Science, the right understanding of which is independent of any system, it also attempts to give such general views of all great branches of knowledge, as may help to the formation of just ideas on their extent and relative importance, and to point out the best sources of complete information.

As this plan excludes all long essays and treatises, it necessarily leads to giving more ample space to the separate heads than is done in most Cyclopædias; and in doing this, it is often found difficult to determine the point where the selection of terms must end. This is particularly the case as to names of Persons and Places, which unavoidably form a large part of every book of general reference. It is hardly possible to fix any rule which will not either exclude something that ought to be admitted, or include names of very little importance. Something, therefore, must be left to the judgment of those who contribute to, and superintend, such a publication. It will be observed that the plan of the Cyclopædia has rather been enlarged, since the earlier Numbers, as to the names admitted, and somewhat also, perhaps, in the length of the more important articles. It would appear that, in the proper conduct of such a work, some practice and experience are peculiarly necessary. The difficulty of forming a complete and satisfactory list of words can only be estimated by those who have made the experiment. On looking into the best works of this class already published, it will be found that, while they all differ very considerably as to the words inserted, none are without some omission that would be better supplied. Nor can the Editors of the Penny Cyclopædia congratulate themselves on having inserted every term or name that ought to have found a place, though they hope that in the progress of the Work they will be better able to guard against any omission.

As to errors in the articles themselves, either of incorrect statements of facts, or of false deductions from premises, some such are unavoidable in every large work, however carefully the subjectmatter has been weighed, or however scrupulously the writer may have discharged his duty. In a periodical publication, in which a number of writers are necessarily combined, and where the matter is almost infinitely varied, the causes of error are still more numerous. The experience of one year, however, enables the Conductors of this Cyclopædia to state with confidence, that whatever errors there may be in the first volume, (and they trust they are neither very numerous nor very important,) they feel no doubt that the work in its progress will continue to improve. At least, no exertions will be spared to procure sound information on all subjects and to convey it in clear and perspicuous language. The Conductors have to express their thanks to numerous correspondents, both for valuable suggestions and criticisms, of which, in many cases, they have been enabled to avail themselves. In some instances, where the accuracy of statements has been called in question, they believe that the Cyclopædia is correct; and in other instances, the difference is no more than may be expected where authorities are at variance, and opinions may naturally be expected to differ somewhat as to their precise value. As most of the communications referred to were anonymous, the Editors have no other means of thanking the writers than by this general acknowledgment.

It may be necessary to mention that a few of the more trifling errors that are most obvious— such as the breaking off of a letter, or a stop at the end of a lineare the unavoidable conse quence of the process of stereotyping. Before this process commences, the usual labour of revision is complete; but in producing the stereotype plate new errors are sometimes created. It is the intention of the Conductors of this work to subject even the stereotype plates to a careful examination, so that injuries of this mechanical nature may be repaired.


In the commencement of their undertaking, the Editors, bearing in mind the difficulty of securing at once an efficient body of contributors, secommended to the Committee only to attempt the publication of Six Numbers in each month. Their present stock of materials, and their reliance upon their numerous coadjutors, founded upon ample experience, have induced them to desire that the work should proceed at a quicker rate. In this they feel satisfied that they only second the wishes of the great body of its purchasers. The work will therefore continue upon the following arrangements :

1. The First Volume of the Penny Cyclopædia--containing Eleven Parts—is now concluded; and will be sold, handsomely bound in cloth, lettered, at Seven Shillings and Sixpence.

2. Commencing with December, 1833, Two Numbers of the work will be published regularly every Week, without Supplements, so that sometimes Eight, and sometimes Ten Numbers will appear in each calendar month.

3. On the 1st of January, 1834, Part XII. will be published, price Ninepence, and the Monthly Parts regularly continued at that price.

4. On the 1st of September, 1834, the Second Volume, containing Eight Ninepenny Parts, will be published, bound uniformly with Vol. I., at Seven Shillings and Sixpence ;-and the future volumes will be completed every Eight Montbs.

November 13, 1833

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A. the first letter of the alphabet in the English, and many The a, formerly often prefixed to our participles in ing, other languages. As a sound, its power in the English both in the active and passive sense, as the house is a-prelanguage is at least fourfold, as in the words father, call, paring, he is gone a-walking, has the same origin. time, and hat. The first of these sounds is that which AA, a small river which flows into the Ems, on the east generally prevails in other languages. The modified pro- bank, in the district of Lingen, which is in the kingdom nunciation of the vowel in tame is partly due to the vowel e of Hanover. The little, town of Freeren stands on the at the end of the word ; in call and similar forms, the pecu- Aa. The singularity of the name, rather than the importliarity arises from the letter l; so that the only true sounds ance of the river itself

, deserves a short notice. Aa is posof the vowel are perhaps the long sound in father, and the sibly a corruption of the word aue, which means green passhort one in hat. The printed forms of this letter, viz., the tures or meadows, and may also have been used to denote capital A, the small character a, and the italic Q, are all the low flat lands along the banks of the river. Aue is the derived from a common form, differing but slightly from the name of a small tributary of the Elbe, and also of a brook first of the three. In the old Greek and Latin alphabets, in the principality of Schaumbourg-Lippe. Aue is also the from which our own has descended, the following were the name of a mountain village, situated in a romantic valley of ordinary figures of this letter :-

the Erzgebirg circle of the kingdom of Saxony.

AA, a branch of the Aar, in the canton Aargau; a small

river of Jutland; also the name of one of the streams at A

the contluence of which Breda stands, and the name of a

tributary to the Dommel in N. Brabant. The wide diffuamong which, the fourth and fifth only differ from the rest sion of such a name shows it must have some general sigI the rounding of the angle: the form consisting of straightnification, applicable to all the rivers to which it belongs. lines being well adapted for writing on stone, metal, &c.; The word Aa is a contraction of the old German aha, the rounded letter, on the other hand, being better suited Gothic ahva, water, evidently allied to the Lat. aqua, and Er expeditious writing, with softer or more flexible materials. probably to the Celtic Ac or Ack, water. Aach, the name of From this last our two small characters are easily deduced. several German rivers, is another form of the same word. A in music), the sixth note in the diatonic scale, answer

AALBORG, one of the four divisions, and the most ing to the la of the Italians and French. It also stands for northern part, of the peninsula of Jutland, properly so called. de alto parts.

It contains about 2820 English square miles, and perhaps A or ÀN, the indefinite article. Of the two, an is used about 162,000 inhabitants. The principal town, which is before a vowel. Where the following word begins with a also called Aalborg, stands on the south side of the nartrasonant, it being more troublesome to express the final n,

row channel which joins the Liimfiord with the sea, and this letter, from not being pronounced, ceased to be written. is a sea-port, with a considerable trade in grain and herThus we say an emperor, but instead of an king, we find it rings. From 400 to 500 vessels enter the port annually. more convenient to say a king. Sometimes a virtual con- The number of inhabitants is about 8000. Aalborg is a smant exists at the beginning of a word without being bishopric, and has a good academy or cathedral school written, as in union and once, where the ear catches the founded in 1553, with some manufactures of leather, sugar, mitial sounds of y and w, younion and wunce. Before such and tobacco. The name Aalborg means Eel-town, a great Fords it is customary to drop the final letter of the article, number of eels being caught in the neighbourhood : it is at least in pronunciation, and there can be no good reason in N. lat. 57° 3', E. long. 9° 55'. All the other towns of for not writing a union, a once beloved monarch. On the the district are small. Thistedt, the next in size, contains other hand, whenever h is mute, we should retain the n about 2200 inhabitants. both in writing and speaking, thus, a history, but an his- AAR, the principal branch of the Rhine in Switzertorical work. That an and not a is the primitive form land. (See AARGAU.] of the article, is proved by the Anglo-Saxon an, and the Another small stream of the same name falls into the German ein; indeed, our own numeral one is only another Lahn, in the duchy of Nassau ; and a third Aar joins the and fuller form of the same word. In such phrases as three Rhine in the Prussian province of the Lower Rhine, on the ahallings a pound, the article evidently has this meaning. west side, about twelve miles above Bonn. The double shape of our article has led to a corrupt mode AARD-VARK (Orycteropus, Geoffroy*), in Zoology, a of writing certain words, thus from an eft was deduced genus of animals belonging to the class Mammalia, and i neft, a newt; and the reverse seems to have taken order Edentata. plare in the change of a nadder to an adder. The letter In a work, like the PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA, where know& often appears prefixed to nouns so as to constitute a ledge is communicated under separate heads arranged in kind of adverb, as afoot, aside, aboard, now-ardays, &c. alphabetical order, it is an unavoidable consequence of the These, as Horne Tooke observes, are all abbreviations of on fate, on syde, on borde, now-on-daies, &c., which thus occur

* It is usual, in works of Natural History, to place the scientific name of a

species after the popular or local name. By the scientific name the species is in our old English poets. This on is an Anglo-Saxon pre-recognized in every country, while the popular or local name is limited in its position with the meaning of in. In many words now in use. But as the same species is often called by several scientific names, each use the a in the beginning takes the place of on. Alive, the name of the naturalist after the word which he has invented or adopted.

of which has been given to it by a different naturalist, it is also usual to place for instance, means on life, i.e., in life. So he fell asleep,' Thus, Aurd-vark is the Dutch name of the animal in question ; Orycteropus in the old translation of the New Testament is, he fell on

the scientific name, from the Greek words opvoow, I dig, and rous, a foot;

and Geoffroy St. Hilaire (generally abridged Geof.), the name of the naturalisé sleep.

who gave it that scientific denomination.


VOL. 1.


general plan that terms must be occasionally employed | lion, the tiger, the panther, the iynx, and the common cat, which have not been previously defined, and of which, in a species of another genus. These are respectively called the regular treatise, the explanation would necessarily precede genus Canis, or the dog kind, and the genus Felis, or the the use. To obviate this inconvenience as much as possible, cat kind; and compose, together with the hyænas, civets, it is proposed, without entering into the minute details of the weasels, bears, badgers, &c. the natural Order of Carnivora, subject, or anticipating information which properly belongs or flesh-eaters, which have six incisor or front teeth in each to a different part of the work, to give a brief explanation jaw, and live upon the_flesh of other animals. There is of such terms as they occur; so that the general reader may another term-namely, Individualof frequent occurrence be enabled to comprehend their meaning and import without in natural history descriptions, the precise meaning of which the trouble of referring to other sources.

it is very necessary to understand. Used in a zoological Before commencing the history and description of the sense, the word individual signifies any organised being genus which more properly constitutes the subject of the possessed of certain constant characters at a given period of present article, we shall, therefore, give a short explanation its development. Many animals pass through several wellof the terms Mammalia and Edentata, as well as of the marked individual forms, by a process of what is termed technical import of the words Class, Order, Genus, and metamorphosis; and it is the sum-total of all these phases Species, which are of constant occurrence in Zoology : these of growth which constitutes the species. The distinction terms would otherwise be obscure or unintelligible to an between individual and species is well illustrated; for ordinary reader.

example, when we speak of a caterpillar or larva, of a chryThe word Mammal (Mammalia is the Latin form of the salis or pupa, and of a butterfly or imago, separately and plural) was formed by Linnæus from the Latin mamma, collectively. We have here three animal forms, of very signifying a breast or udder, in the same manner as our different external configuration and internal structure, reprecommon word animal is formed from anima, life or soul; senting so many individuals or stages in the evolution of and was intended to denote those animals which suckle their those products which together constitute a species. young, and for which there is no generic name in any known Having thus briefly explained the signification of those language sufficiently definite and comprehensive. The technical terms which will occur most frequently in the subsecommon word Quadruped, which more nearly expresses the quent Zoological articles, we shall return from this digression exact idea than any other, has no relation to the natural to the more immediate object of our present consideration. affinities which we observe among animals, since it excludes The Orycteropus is now separated from the Myrmecophaga, man and the cetaceous tribes (such as whales), at the same or Ant-eaters of Linnæus, with which it had been formerly time that it comprehends the lizards, tortoises, and other associated. In its anatomical structure, it bears a much closer reptiles, which have but a very remote analogy to the true relation to the armadillos than to any other quadrupeds, not Mammalia.

even excepting the ant-eaters, with which it was previously The vernacular term Beast, which we often use in oppo- grouped. * Like these animals, the orycteropus has neither sition to Birds and Fishes, is still more vague and indeter- incisors nor canine teeth; and its feet are equally provided minate. The word Mammal, however, so happily imagined with large and powerful claws, for digging up roots and by the great Swedish naturalist, is liable to none of these insects, and for forming subterraneous burrows. Its molar objections, but expresses, in a distinct and definite manner, teeth, however, are altogether peculiar both in form and the most prominent functions and natural limits of this class structure, and have no resemblance to the teeth of any other of animals. In the constant use which we shall be obliged known animal. Of these there are five large ones on each to make of this term, we shall adopt the common English side (both in the upper and under jaws), which are always form of the plural, Mammals, instead of the Latin form, permanent; and a variable number of from one to three Mammalia, though the latter is most generally used by smaller ones, placed in front of the others, and apparently British zoologists. The word Mammals is as regularly representing the false molars of ordinary quadrupeds. The formed, and therefore as admissible into the English lan- first of the large molars is smaller than any of the other guage, as animal and animals.

four, and of a cylindrical form, somewhat compressed or Mammals, therefore, in the technical language of zoolo- flattened on the sides ; the second is rounder ; the third and gists, constitute a class, or primary division of the animal kingdom ; and are, in this respect, co-ordinate with Birds,

d Fishes, Reptiles, and Insects; all of which are so many Classes. The term Order denotes a subordinate division, and bears the same relation to a class which this latter does to a kingdom ; so that a class is made up of orders, in the same manner as a kingdom is made up of classes. The next inferior sub-division to an order is a Genus; and this is itself composed of Species, the lowest link in the chain of scientific classification, and that which admits of no further division. A species, then, comprehends all those animals which may reasonably be supposed to be descended from one common, original stock; and in this sense all men compose but a single species, all horses compose but a single species; and in the same manner all oxen, sheep, goats, dogs, &c. compose respective and appropriate species. Difference of climate, variety of food, and other local and extraneous circumstances, undoubtedly produce striking changes in the form, size, and colour of different individuals, even of the same species; examples of which are sufficiently abundant among all domestic animals, and that, too, in exact proportion to the degree of their domestication, and to the care and attention which have been bestowed upon them by man. But these variations are confined within certain prescribed limits, and the utmost power and ingenuity of man have been exerted in vain to produce and perpetuate a new race or species of animals. He has succeeded, to be sure, in procuring the Mule from the intercourse of the Horse and the Ass, two very distinct species, though in some respects closely allied to one another; but this mule is itself a barren, unproductive being, which Nature regards as a monster, and to which she has denied the power of continuing its race, An example will best illustrate the true import of the

Teeth of the Aard-vark (Orycteropus Capensis). terms which we have been here endeavouring to explain.

A Two views of the upper jaws, showing, a the surface a Thus the dog, the fox, the wolf, and the jackal, are all so

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B, C. d, Ditto of the lower jaw. many species of one common genus; as are likewise the

C The teeth in their natural osition.

the teeth, b the sides

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