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olation continue, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot ?”
1. We have seen, that the power symbolized by the little horn of the he-goat, whatever power it may be, is to flourish 1260 years, computing from its rise in the character of a desolating frunsgression; and therefore that the prosperous duration of this power is to be exactly contemporary with the tyrannical reign of the papal lit. tle horn. We have likewise seen reason to believe, that that tyrannical reign commenced in the year 606, when the saints were delivered into the hand of the Bishop of Rome ; and consequently that we must look for the rise of the power symbolized by the he-goat's little horn in that same year. Accordingly, upon turning our eyes to the East, we found that Mohammedism arose in that very year ; and we know, that no other power did then arise, which either afterwards became a little horn of the he-goat, or which at all corresponds with its prophetic character : whence we concluded from this chronologi. cal coincidence, that that horn was designed to symbolize Mohammedism. Such being the case, our first inquiry must be, in what sense Mohammedism can be symbolized by a horn.
I have already shewn, that the language of symbols allows the same hieroglyphic to bear both a temporal and a spiritual signification. Thus we find, that a mountain is used to typify both the temporal kingdom of Babylon, and the spiritual kingdom of Christ :* thus likewise a beast indifferently represents a secular and an ccclesiastical cmpire : and thus, arguing from analogy, a horn denotes either a temporal or a spiritual kingdom.
Now we have seen, that the little horn of the Roman beast typifies the spiritual kingdom of the Papacy, which, small as it was at first, in process of time became a great empire symbolized in the Apocalypse by a two-horned beast. Such being the case, even if we had not been assisted by chronological computation in our inquiries, we should naturally have been led, merely by the analogy of symbolical language, to conclude, that the little
* Jerem. li. 25. Dan. ï. 35.
horn of the Macedonian beast typified a spiritual kingdom likewise : for it seems by no means agreeable to the strict accuracy of that language to suppose, that the Roman little horn means a kingdom of one kind, and that the Macedonian little horn means a kingdom quite of another kind.*
So again, with regard to local situation : since the little horn of the Roman beast is to be sought for in the West, we may naturally, not to say necessarily, conclude, that the little horn of the Macedonian beast is to be sought for in the East.
Thus we find, that chronological computation, symbolical analogy, and local situation, all lead us to suppose that the religion of Mohammed is typified by the little horn of the Macedonian beast. We must next consult history.
Accordingly, as history, when viewed in connection with prophecy, has shewn us, that the little horn of the Roman beast means the spiritual, not the temporal, kingdom of the Pope; so history will likewise shew us, when viewed in connection with prophecy, that the little horn of the Macedonian beast means the spiritual, not the temporal, kingdom of Mohammed.
The desolating trangression, which Daniel identifies with the he-goat's little horn, was to arise in the year 606, at the commencement of the 1260 years, during which it was to flourish, and during which the Roman little horn was to reign over the suints. No power did then arise in the East except the religion of Mohammed ; and the religion of Mohammed arose in that very year. As for the secular authority of that impostor either without or within the limits of the he-goat's late empire, it did not commence till several years afterwards. Hence we may conclude, agreeably to the analogy of symbolical language, that the horn denotes not the temporal dominion, but the religion of Mohammed. This conclusion, I allow, does not quite necessarilyt follow from the premises: but mark the sequel. The power symbolized by the horn, after it had arisen in the year 606, was to continue 1260 years. Consequently, as this date, and this period of years, exclude Antiochus Epiphanes and the Romans from having any connection with the horn, so do they equally exclude the temporal kingdom erected by Mohamned. That kingdom, instead of being set up in the year 606 which the prophecy requires, did not commence, according to Sir Isaac Newton, till the year 637 : and, after it had commenced, it lasted no more than 300 years : or, if we date its rise somewhat earlier in the life-time of Mohammed when he became prince of Medina in the year 622, still it will not have commenced in the year 606, and still its duration will scarcely amount even to one quarter of 1260 years. On the other hand, the religion or spiritual kingdom, of Mohammed arose precisely in the the year 606 ; has already continued nearly 12 centuries, and has every appearance of contipuing, in some one of the countries where it is profess. ed, to the very end of the 1260 yeurs. At its first rise it was to be little, comprehending two or at the most only three persons, namely Mohammed and his two apostate associates :* but it was not long to remain so. The prophet informs us, that, small as it originally was, it soon“ waxed exceeding great toward the South, and toward the East, and toward the pleasant land.” Mohammedism accordingly, though it made its first appearance at Mecca, soon invaded the territories of the Syrian horn of the he-goat, thus becoming (agreeably to the prediction) a horn of the he-goat ; and afterwards, exclusive of its propagation in other regions, spread itself over the whole Macedonian empire, in the same manner as the little horn of the Roman beast extended its influence over the whole Western empire. Thus did the great
* This affords another argument to shew, that the little born of the be-goat cannot be the Roman empire or tbe fourth great beast, as Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton suppose.
+ Because my first argument only proves, that the desolating transgression must be a spiritual power, not that the little born must, with which it was afterwards indentis fied. It is almost superfluous to observe, that a power may be at once both spiritual and temporal. My second argument therefore goes on to prove, that tbe desolating little borsi must itself be a spiritual power.
* The Rabbinical tales, with which the Koran is so largely embellished, Moham. med is supposed to have learned from a Persian Jew : and for those parts of his multifarious work, which touch upon Christianity, he is thought to have been indebted to the Nestorian monk Sergius or Babeira. All the rest he himself was amply qualified to supply. See Prideaux's Life of Mohammed, p. 43-49.
double Apostacy set its two feet upon the East and the West in the self-same year; and thus hath it ever since continued to trample upon all true religion. At the end however of the 1260 years, the judgments of God shall surely go forth against it, and the long polluted spiritual sanctuary shall begin to be thoroughly cleansed.
2. The false religion of Mohammed, symbolized by the little horn of the he-goat, and stigmatized by Daniel as being a desolating transgression, was a medley of corrupted Christianity furnished by an apostate monk, of Talmudical Judaism contributed by a renegado Jew, and of Arabian superstition purified of its idolatry by Mohammed himself: whence it may justly be termed, as it is represented by St. John, * an apostacy from the pure faith of revelation. Mohammed taught, that the several prophets, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Christ, and himself, rose in just gradation above “ each other; and that whosoever hates or rejects any one of them is to be numbered with the infidels.” For the great author of our faith especially the Mussulmans were required to entertain a high and mysterious veneration. “Verily," says he, “ Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, is the apostle of God, and his Word which he conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit proceeding from him : honourable in this world, and in the world to come ; and one of those who approach near to the presence of God.”+ Agreeably to these declarations, Mohammed acknowledged the divine authority of the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the Gospel ; but required that the Koran should be received along with them, or rather should supersede them. Such was the nature of that desolating transgression, which set itself in direct opposition to the prince of the host, and which stood up against the prince of princes.
3. When the Arabian pseudo prophet first retired to the cave of Hera to fabricate the Koran, this being the first overt act of his imposture, we may consider that transgression of desolation, which afterwards caused the daily sacrifice to cease, and which gave both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot, as being then first set up. This sanctuary is the spiritual sanctuary of the Christian church, not the literal sanctuary of the Jewish temple, as will sufficiently appear from the following con. siderations. · According as the temple and the sanctuary are to be taken in a literal or a figurative sense when mentioned in the prophecies of Daniel and St. John, all other things connected with them must be taken in a literal or figurative sense likewise. Thus, when it is said, that the Roman arms should stand up after Antiochus, that they should pollute the sanctuary of strength, that they should take away the duily sacrifice, and that they should set up the abomination of desolation : the temple, which they polluted, being the literal temple of Jerusalem, the daily sacrifice taken away by them will of course mean the literal daily sacrifice, and the abomination of desolation set up by them will signify the literal abomination of desolation which they set up when they worshipped their standards within the precincts of the sanctuary. On the other hand, when St. John is directed by an angel to “ measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that wor. ship therein; but to leave out, and not to measure the court without the temple, inasmuch as it is given to the gentiles, who are to tread the holy city under foot forty and two months," or 1260 natural years : the temple, here mentioned, being the spiritual temple of God, or the Church ; its altar, its daily sacrifice, its outer court, the holy city in which it stands, the gentiles who are to tread it under foot 1260 years, and the witnesses who are to prophesy in sackcloth during precisely the same period of time, must all be taken in a figurative sense ; that is to say, they must all be referred not to the temple of Jerusalem, but to the Church of Christ. Now we have seen, that Mohammedism, or that desolating transgression connected with the he-goat's little horn which was to take away the daily sacrifice and to pollute the sanctuary, was to flourish during the very same period as the treading under foot of the apocalyptic holy city by the gentiles ;
* A fallen star, when taken in a spiritual sense, is the symbol of an apostate Cbristian pastor. Such a star was Sergius, who opened the bottomless pit, and let out the false religion of Mohammed. Rev. ix. 1. | Koran. C. 9 and C. 4.
Sale's Prelim. Discourse, p. 100-Decline and Fall, Vol. ix. p. 264-266.