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ster whom he styles Antichrist might be known, should be an open denial of the Father and the Son.*
At the commencement of the time of the end which syn. chronizes with the termination of the 1260 years, when the judgments of God begin to go forth against these three enemies of the Messiah, the restoration of the Jews will commence; and, when God's great controversy with the nations is fully decided, and when not only Judah but likewise the whole house of Israel has been brought back into the land of their fathers, then will begin the long-expected period of millennian happiness. This period, which is styled the reign of Christ and his saints upon earth or the reign of the symbolical mountain, will comprize the space either of 1000 years or of 360,000 years, according as the number predicted be composed of natural or prophetic years. Which of the two be intended by St. John, the event must determine.
These are the principal matters, of which the prophecies relative to the 1260 ycars will be found to treat. Previous to my discussing them at large, I shall bring together in one point of view the four predictions of Daniel which relate to them, and afterwards briefly state the manner in which I conceive the Apocalypse ought to be arranged.
1. The first of these four predictions is the dream of Nebuchadnezzar with Daniel's interpretation of it.
“ Thou, O king, sawest ; and, behold, a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee ; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. Thou sawest, till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, and the brass, the silver and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors ; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them : and the stone, that smote the image, became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth. This is the dream, and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king-Thou art this head of gold. But after thee shall arise another king. dom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall rule over all the earth. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron : forasmuch as iron breaketh. in pieces and subdueth all things : and, as iron that breaketh, all these shall it break in pieces and bruise. And, whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potter's clay, and part of iron ; the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And, as the toes of the feet were part of iron and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong and partly broken. And, whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed : and the kingdom shall not be to other people ; but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever."*
* 1 John č. 22.
2. The second is Daniel's vision of the four beasts, and the little horn of the fourth beast.
" I saw in my vision by night; and, behold, the four winds of heaven strove upon the great sea. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse from one another. The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings : I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man; and a man's heart was given to it. And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear; and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth : it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it ; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns; and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots : and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things. I beheld, till the thrones were set, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool : his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery streain issued and caine forth from before him : thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake : I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their doininion taken away : yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time. I saw in the night visions ; and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him : his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. 1, Daniel, was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me. I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things. These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth. But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever. Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass ; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet; and of the ten horns that were in his head; and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of the horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them ; until the Ancient of days came, and judge ment was given to the saints of the Most High ; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom. Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And the ten horns are ten kings that shall arise out of this kingdom : and another shall rise behind them ;* and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words by the side of the Most Hight, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws : and they shall be given into his hand until a time, and times, and the dividing of a time. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. And the kingdom, and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.”
* Dan, ü. 31.
* I have adopted this translation of the passage from Mr. Mede ; who, instead of after the kingdoms, would render the original expression bebind them, following therein the Greek version 07100 autov: and he takes the meaning to be, that tbe ten borns were not aware of the growing up of the little born, till it overtopped them. (Works Book iv. Epist. 24.) In reality the little born, as we shall hereafter see, did not spring up posterior in point of time to the other horns, but gradually arose among them during the turbulent period in which the Roman empire was broken into ten kingdoms by the northern nations.
+ This is the literal translation of the original passage : and its import I apprehend to be, not that the little born should speak great words against the Most High, but that he should arrogantly place himself upon an equality with God; or, as St. Paul expresses it, that he should sit as God in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Symmachus appears to me to come much nearer the real meaning of the expression than our present English version : “ Ut interpretatus est Symmachus, sermones quasi Deus loquetur.” Hieron. Comment. Vol. üi. p. 1103. cited by Bishop Newton,
Dan. vii, 2.
3. The third is the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and the little horn which was to spring out of one of the four horns of the he-goat.
" I lifted up mine eyes, and saw ; and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high ; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward ; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will and became great. And, as I was considering, behold, an he-goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the he-goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns : and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him ; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. Therefore the he-goat waxed very great : and, when he was strong, the great horn was broken ; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great even against the host of heaven ; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified himself even against the Prince of the host; and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And the host was given over to him by reason of their transgression against the daily sacrifice; and it cast down the truth to the ground, and it practised, and prospered. Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, For how long a time shall the vision last, the daily sacrifice be taken away, and the transgression of desolation continue, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be