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BOOK IV.

THE ARGUMENT.

8at A 5, now in prospeet of Eden, and nigh the plaee where be mtut now attempt the bold enterprise, whieh he undertook alone against Uj\1 and man, falls into many donbts with himself, and many passions, fear, envy, and despair; bnt at length eonfirms himself in evil, journeys on to Paradise, whose ontward prospeet and sitnation is deseribed, overleaps the bonnds, sits in the shape of a eormorant on the Tree of Life, as the highest in the garden, to look about him. The garden deseribed: 8atan's first sight of Adam and Eve: his wonder at their exeellent form and happy state, bnt with resolntion to work their fall: overhears their diseonrse; thenee gathers that the Tree of Knowledge was forbidden them to eat of, under the penalty of death; and thereon intends to found his temptation, by sedueing them to transgress: then leaves them awhile to know further of their state by some other means. Meanwhiie, Uriel, deseending on a sunbeam, warns Gabriel, who had in eharge the gate of Paradise, that some evii spirit had eseaped the deep, and passed at noon by his sphere in the shape of a good angel down to Paradise, diseovered afterwards by his furious gestures in the monnt . Gabriel promises to find him ere morning, Night eoining on, Adam and Eve diseonrse of going to their rest: their bower deseribed; their evening worship. Gabriel, drawing forth his hands of night-wateh to walk the rounds of Paradise, appoints two strong angels to Adam's bower, lest the evii spirit should be there doing some harm to Adam or Eve sleeping; there they find him at the ear of Eve, tempting her in a dream, and bring him, though unwilling, to Gabriel; by whom qnestioned, he seornfully answers, prepares resistanee, bnt, hindered by a sign from heaven, flies ont of Paradise.

0, For that warning voiee, whieh he, who saw
The Apoealypse, heard ery in heaven aloud,
Then when the dragon, put to seeond rout,
Came furious down to be revenged on men,
"Woe to the inhabitants on earth!" that now, 0
While time was, our first parents had been warn'd
The eoming of their seeret foe, and 'seaped,
Haply so 'seaped his mortal snare; for now
Satan, now first inflamed with rage, eame down,

To wreak on iunoeent frail man his loss
Of that first battel, and his flight to hell:
Yet not rejoieing in his speed, though bold
Far off and fearless, nor with eause to boast,

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10 Begins his dire attempt; whieh, nigh the birth, Divided empire with heaven's King I hold,

Now rolling, boils in his tumultnous breast, •

And like a devilish engine baek reeoils

Upon himself: horrour and doubt distraet

His troubled thoughts, and from the bottom stir

The hell within him; for within him hell

He brings, and round about him, nor from hell

One step, no more than from himself, ean fly

By ehange of plaee: now eonseienee wakes despair

That slumber'd; wakes the bitter memory

Of what he was, what is, and what must be

Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue.

Sometimes towards Eden, whieh now in his view

Lay pleasant, his grieved look he fixes sad;

Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing sun,

Whieh now sat high in his meridian tower:

Then, mueh revolving, thus in sighs began.

O thou, that, with surpassing glory erown'd,
Look'st from thy sole dominion like the God
Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars
Hide their diminish'd heads; to thee I eall,
But with no friendly voiee; and add thy name,

0 sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams,
That bring to my remembranee from what state

1 fell, how glorious onee above thy sphere;
Till pride and worse ambition throw me down,
Warring in heaven against heaven's matehless King.
Ah, wherefore! he deserved no sueh return

From me, whom he ereated what I was

In that bright eminenee, and with his good

Upbraided none; nor was his serviee hard.

What eould be loss than to afford him praise,

The easiest reeompense, and pay him thanks,

How due! yet all his good proved ill in me,

And wrought but malwe; lifted up so high,

I 'sdein'd subjeetion, and thought one step higher

Would set me highest, and in a moment quit

The debt immense of endless gratitude,

So burdensome; still paying, still to owe:

Forgetful what from him I still reeeived;

And understood not that a grateful mind

By owing owes not, but still pays, at onee

Indebted and diseharged: what burden then?

0, had his powerful destiny ordain'd

Me some inferiour angel, I had stood

Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised

82 O them, Ae. One of those magnifieent speeehes to whieh no other name ean be be given, than that it is superendnently Miitonie. This is mainly artrumentutive subiindty; in whieh, 1 think. Ihat l,e is even stiil greater than in his splendid and majestie imagery. The alternations

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Ambition! Yet why not? some other power

Ag great might have aspired, and me, though mean,

Drawn to his part; but other powers as great

Fell not, but stand unshaken, from within

Or from without, to all temptations arm'd. 05

Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand?

Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to aeeuse,

But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all?

Be then his love aeeursed; sinee love or hate,

To me alike, it deals eternal woe: ;o

Nay, eursed be thou; sinee against his thy will

Chose freely what it now so justly rues.

Me miserable! whieh way shall 1 fly

Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?

Whieh way I fly is hell; myself am hell; 70

And in the lowest deep a lower deep

Still threatening to devour me opens wide,

To whieh the hell I suffer seems a heaven.

O, then at last relent: is there no plaee

Left for repentanee, none for pardon left? 80

None left but by submission; and that word

Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame

Among the spirits beneath; whom I sedueed

With other promises and other vaunts

Than to submit; boasting I eould subdue 80

The Omnipotent. Ay me! they little know

How dearly I abide that boast so vain;

Under what torments inwardly I groan;

While they adore me on the throne of hell,

With diadem and seeptre high advaneed, w

The lower still I fall; only supreme

In misery: sueh joy ambition finds.

But say I eould repent, and eould obtain

By aet of graee my former state; how soon

"VY ould highth reeall high thoughts, how soon unsay 05

What feign'd submission swore! Ease would reeant

Vows made in pain, as violent and void.

For never ean true reeoneilement grow

Where wounds of deadly hate have piereed so deep;

Whieh would but lead me to a worse relapse loo

And heavier fall: so should I purehase dear

Short intermission bought with double smart.

This knows my Punisher; therefore as far

From granting he, as I from begging peaee:

All hope exeluded thus; behold, instead 100

Of us outeast, exiled, his new delight,

Mankind ereated, and for him this world.

So farewell, hope; and with hope, farewell, fear;

Farewell, remorse: all good to me is lost;

Evil, be thou my good; by thee at least lio

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By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign;

As man ere long and this new world shall know.

Thus while he spake, eaeh passion dimm'd his faee
Thriee ehanged with pale, ire, envy, and despair; 114
Whieh marr'd his borrow'd visage, and betray'd
Him eounterfeit, if any eye beheld:
For heavenly minds from sueh distempers foul
Are ever elear, Whereof he soon aware,
Eaeh perturbation smooth'd with outward ealm, 1»
Artifieer of fraud; and was the first
That praetised falsehood under saintly show,
Deep maliee to eoneeal, eoueh'd with revenge:
Yet not enough had praetised to deeeive
Uriel onee warn'd; whose eye pursued him down 125
The way he went, and on the Assyrian mount
Saw him disfigured, more than eould befall
Spirit of happy sort: his gestures fieree
lie mark'd and mad demeanour, then alone,
As he supposed, all unobserved, unseen. 130
So on ho fares, and to the border eomes
Of Eden, where delieious Paradise,
Now nearer, erowns with her enelosure green,
As with a rural mound, the ehampain head
Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides 130
With thieket overgrown, grotesque and wild,
Aeeess denied; and overhead up grew
Insuperable highth of loftiest shade,
Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branehing palm,
A sylvan seeno; and, as the ranks aseend 140
Shade above shade, a woody theatre
Of stateliest view. Yet higher than their tops
The verdurous wall of Paradise up sprung;
Whieh to our general sire gave prospeet large
Into his nether empire neighbouring round. 145
And higher than that wall a eireling row
Of goodliest trees loaden with fairest fruit,
Blossoms and fruits at onee of golden hue,
Appear'd, with gay enamel'd eolours mix'd:
On whieh the sun more glad impress'd his beams, l&o
Than in fair evening eloud, or humid bow,
When God hath shower'd the earth; so lovely seem'd
That landskip: and of pure now purer air
Meets his approaeh, and to the heart inspires
Vernal delight and joy, able to drive 155
All sadness but despair: now gentle gales,

thee, I repeat, 1 wiil in a short time rehfn l
over more tt,an half, as l intend to add
earth lman's domainl to my empire.
Addison deems this speeeh of 8atan the
Inest that is aseribed to him in the
M t,ole poem.
115. Tbrioe rhange,i with pal*. That

is, eneh passion, ire, enry. and detpair, dimmed his faee, whieh wastbrieeehanged with pals, tbrongh the sueeessive agitations of these pa,-sions.

151. Some would read, "on fair evening elond."

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense

Native perfumes, and whisper whenee they stole

Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail

Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are pass'd l0o

Mozambie, off at sea north-east winds blow

Sabaean odours from the spiey shore

Of Araby the bless'd; with sueh delay

Well pleased they slaek their eourse, and many a leaguo

Cheer'd with the grateful smell old Oeean smiles: lfls

So entertain'd those odorous sweets the fiend

Who eame their bane; though with them better pleased

Than Asmodens with the fishy fume,

That drove him, though enamour'd, from the spouse

Of Tobit's son, and with a vengeanee sent no

From Media post to iEgypt, there fast bound.

Now to the aseent of that steep savage hill
Satan had journey'd on, pensive and slow;
But further way found none; so thiek entwined,
As one eontinued brake, the undergrowth 175
Of shrubs and tangling bushes had porplex'd
Al l path of man or beast that pass'd that way.
One gate there only was, and that look'd east
On the other side: whieh when the areh-felon saw,
Due entranee he disdain'd; and in eontempt, iso
At one slight bound high overleap'd all bound
Of hill or nighest wall, and sheer within
Lights on his feet. As when a prowling wolf,
Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey,
Watehing where shepherds pen their floeks at eve 18s
In hurdled eotes amid the field seeure,
Leaps o'er the fenee with ease into the fold:
Or as a thief, bent to unhoard the eash
Of some rieh burgher, whose substantial doors,
Cross-barr'd and bolted fast, fear no assault, lw
In at the window elimbs, or o'er the tiles:
So elomb this first grand thief into God's fold;
So sinee into his ehureh lewd hirelings elimb.
Thenee up he flew; and on the Tree of Life,
The middle tree and highest there that grew, l05
Sat like a eormorant; yet not true life
Thereby regain'd, but sat devising death
To them who lived; nor on the virtue thought
Of that life-giving plant, but only used
For prospeet, what well used had been the pledge 200
Of immortality. So little knows

108. Amted/us was the evii 8pirit, enamonred of 8arah, the danghter of Raguel, Those seren hushands he destroyed, iiut when she was married to the son of Tobit, he was driven away by the fumes of the heart and llver nf n fish; "the whieh smell when the evii 8pirit had smelled, he fled into the utmost parts of Rgypt.

and the angel bound him." 8ee the Book of Tobit, ehap. viii.

177. That pass'd, Tot that tvould have pass'd.

103. Lewd. ln Miiton's time this word was used in a wider eense than now. and signified profane, ,mpious, wit-h eti. as well ns laeeieious. 8t-e i. 40U; and vi. 182.

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