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freshment from suffering and trouble. 4th, a rough wind is put for the severity of God's judgments, Isai. 27: 8.

"2d, From the subtilty and invisibility of the air; as in Greek and Latin, so in the Hebrew, the air, or spirit is used to signify that invisible substance in man, which is the seat of understanding, and of the passions and affections, Job 32: 8. Hence, 1st, spiritual substance as opposed to flesh, Isai. 31: 3. 2d, the mind, the principle of thought, 2 Chron. 36: 22. Ps. 77: 6. Isai. 26: 9. 3d, any temper, disposition, quality of the mind, good or bad; as the spirit of heaviness, jealousy, wisdom, prudence, skill; a sorrowful, lying, faithful, haughty humble, spirit, &c. Num. 14: 24. Judg. 9: 23. 1 Sam. 16: 14, 15. 2 Ks. 2:15. Ps. 32: 2. Zech. 12: 10. Mal. 2: 15. 4th, In particular, the spirit is put for vigor, liveliness, or courage of mind, Gen. 45: 27. Josh. 5: 1. 1 Kings 10: 5. Job 6: 4. 32: 18. The spirit within me, the ardor, earnestness, zeal of my mind, Ps. 142: 3. Prov. 18: 14. For anger, resentment, indignation, Judg. 8: 3. Prov. 14: 29. Hasty, short of spirit, quickly fired, Prov. 16: 32. Eccles. 10: 4.

"3d, The spirit, or principle of affections and passions in brutes, Eccles. 3: 21.

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4th, The spirit of God; which must signify some secret influences or impressions on the mind or body; either immediately by the power of God, or by the blessed agent, which Christians commonly understand by the spirit of God. Ps. 139: 7. 2 Kings 2: 16. Is. 40: 7, 13. The spirit of God is represented, 1st, as a creating, forming, animating, life-giving spirit in a natural sense, Gen. 1: 2. Ps. 104: 30. Mal. 2: 15. 2d, as influencing the minds of men; either in an ordinary way, by enabling them to attain, or to preserve the purity and holiness of their minds, Ps. 51: 11. 143: 10. Or in an extraordinary manner, by

communicating eminent gifts and abilities, Exod. 31: 3. Num. 27: 18. Judg. 3: 10. Especially by enabling the prophets to reveal the will of God and to instruct the people in it, 2 Sam. 23; 2. 1 Chr. 12: 18. Neh. 9: 20, 30. It may be either understood of ordinary influences, or of prophetic instruction by Noah in Gen. 6: 3.

"5th, Any spirit or ghost, Job 4: 15."

Such is Taylor's account. He does not say this word means an immortal spirit in man, which suffers or enjoys after death. See a series of Letters in the Universalist Magazine, on the phrase spirit of God. The following are the only texts, where ruah, spirit, might be supposed to refer to an immortal principle in man.

Eccles. 3: 19-21. “For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth the beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again. Who knoweth the spirit of a man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth?" The word ruah is here rendered both breath and spirit, but ought to be rendered uniformly either breath or spirit throughout the passage; spirit or breath of a man, spirit or breath of a beast, and they have all one spirit or breath. It is evidently applied without distinction to men and beasts. Words could hardly be selected, which would declare more explicitly that there is no difference between them. "They have all one breath or spirit, and, as the one dieth so dieth the other. All go unto one place." And where is this? It is answered, "All are of the dust, all turn to dust again." Yea, it is expressly affirmed, that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast."

What, say some, is there no difference between men and beasts? I answer yes; but man's pre-eminence above a beast, consists in his superior powers of mind, and in his being raised again from the dead, incorruptible and glorious. The beasts totally perish, and so would man, if Jesus Christ had not risen from the dead, 1 Cor. 15: 18. See Essay 2. If it is contended, that man exists after death, because he has a spirit, it ought also to be contended, that beasts live after death, for "they have all one breath or spirit." It will no doubt be objected-is it not said in this very passage," Who knoweth the spirit of a man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that gocth downward to the earth." Answer; some have thought that this is asked as a question, intimating, that no man can tell that the spirit of a man goeth upward, and the spirit of a beast goeth downward. Others have said, man is erect in his figure, hence his breath goeth upward, or, as in the margin, is ascending;" and the contrary being the figure of a beast, the breath descends. Whatever way we view this, one thing is certain, the passage does not intimate, what many people assume from it, that the spirit of man at death goes to God in heaven to live there in a state of happiness. If this was true it equally proves that the spirits of all men go there to be happy, for Solomon is here speaking universally of all mankind. It may further be objected, "Solomon is only speaking of men and beasts as they appear to our observation, and not respecting their actual state at death." Answer; why then quote this passage? If it does not teach the existence of a spirit in man, which lives after death, how can it ever prove its happiness or misery in a disembodied state? But this passage is supposed to derive force from

Eccles. 12: 7, "Then shall the dust return to the dust as it was; and the spirit shall return unte

God who gave it." The context shows, that Solomon is here speaking of men universally, when they die or go to their long home. If this text proves that any spirits go to God to be happy at death, it proves the same of all mankind. But, it will not be disputed, that Solomon here refers to Gen. 2: 7. where we are told that God formed man out of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and man became a living soul. Well, how does he say the whole man is to be disposed of at death? He says, "then shall the dust return to the dust as it was. This is agreeable to the fact, as to man's body; it was taken from the dust, and it returns to it. But how does Solomon say the spirit is to be disposed of when the body dies? He does not say as many now do, that "it returns to God to receive its sentence to endless happiness or misery. No, he simply says, it "returns unto God who gave it," but gives no intimation that it is to live either in happiness or misery in a disembodied state. We have no more reason to conclude from this text, that the spirit will exist distinct from God after death, than that the body will exist distinct from the ground after it returns to the dust. And we may with equal truth believe in pre-existent spirits, as in disembodied spirits. In short, we may as well assert the pre-existence of bodies and spirits before God created man, as assert the separate existence of either after death. Both return to their original condition. The dust shall return to the earth "as it was," and is not the same true of the spirit? For it returns unto God who gave it." It is hid, or laid up with Christ in God, to be restored to man at the resurrection, Col. 3: 3. 1 Cor. 15.

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But we have seen, that beasts have the same breath or spirit. Why not affirm also that their spirits shall be happy or miserable in a disembodied state? Mr.

Hudson, p. 77-79, gives a similar view of this passage. He considers spirit to mean breath. But where he finds his "immortal spirit" to punish after death, he does not inform us. He says, p. 201, "it is something which is capable of thought and perception: and what is this but the mind of man?" But David says, Ps. 146: 4, that man's "breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth, in that very day his thoughts perish." Is thought no part of the mind? Where then does he find his soul to punish in a disembodied state, unless he makes a soul to man distinct from his thoughts? If at death the thoughts of man perisheth, pray what more is said or can be said of his body than this?

Pneuma, this word occurs over three hundred times in the New Testament. It is applied over two hundred times to God; hence we have the phrases Holy Spirit and Holy Ghost. See the Letters referred to above on the phrase spirit of God, &c. Parkhurst says, "the leading sense of the old English word ghost is breath," and "that ghost is evidently of the same root with gust of wind.” He gives it eleven different senses. It is rendered wind, John 3: 8. comp. Heb. 1: 7, 14. It is rendered spirit, and is about forty times applied to an unclean fowl, or dumb spirit. Also spirit, and applied to the new dispensation, to teachers and their doctrines, 2 Cor. 3: 6, 7. 11: 4. Gal. 3: 2, 3, 5. Phil. 3: 3. Col. 1: 8. 1 Tim. 4: 1. 1 Cor. 14: 31. 1 John 4: 1. Phil. 1: 17. 2 Thes. 2: 2. 1 Cor. 12: 10. 14: 12.

Pneuma is rendered both spirit and life, and applied to men, in the following texts. It is rendered life, in the margin, breath, James 2: 26. Rev. 13: 15. Spirit, and refers to the mind of man, its powers, tempers, and dispositions, Matt. 5: 3. 26: 41. Mark 14: 38. Luke 1: 17. 9; 55. 10: 21. John 4: 23. 13: 21. Acts 6: 10, 17. 16: 18. 5: 25. 19:21. Rom. 7: 6.

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