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MR. THEOBAL D's
The attempt to write upon SHAKSPÉRE is like going into a large, a spacious, and a splendid dome, through the conveyance of a narrow and obscure entry. A glare of light suddenly breaks. upon you beyond what - the avenue at first promised; and a thousand beauties of genius and character, like so many gaudy apartments pouring at once upon the eye, diffuse and throw themselves out to the mind. The prospect is too wide to come within the compass of a single view : it is a gay confusion of pleasing objects, too various to be enjoyed but in a general admiration : and they must be separated, and eyed distinctly, in order to give the proper entertainment. . And as, in great piles of building, some parts are often finished up to hit the taste of the connoisseur;
* This is Mr. Theobald's preface to his second edition in 1740, and had been much curtailed by himself after its first appearance before the impression in 1733. STEEV E NŞ. Cij
others more negligently put together, to strike the fancy of a common and unlearned beholder ; some parts are made stupendously magnificent and grand, to surprise with the vast design and execution of the architect; others are contracted, to amuse you with his neatness and elegance in little : so, in Shakspere, we may find traits that will stand the test of the severest judgment; and strokes as carelessly hit off, to the level of the more ordinary capacities; some descriptions raised to that pitch of grandeur, as to astonish you with the compass and elevation of his thought; and others copying nature within so narrow, so confined a circle, as if the author's talent lay only at drawing in miniature.
In how many points of light must we be obliged to gaze at this great poet! In how many branches of excellence to consider and admire him! Whether we view him on the side of art or nature, he ought equally to engage our attention : whether we respect the force and greatness of his genius, the extent of his knowledge and reading, the power and address with which he throws out and applies either nature or learning, there is ample scope both for our wonder and pleasure. If his diction, and the clothing of his thoughts attract us, how much more must we be charmed with the richness and variety of his images and ideas! If his images and ideas steal into our souls, and strike upon our fancy, how much are they improved in price, when we come to reflect with what propriety and justice they are applied to character! If we look into his characters,
and and how they are furnished and proportioned to the employment he cuts out for them, how are we taken up with the mastery of his portraits ! What draughts of nature! What variety of originals, and how differing each from the other! How are they dressed from the stores of his own luxurious imagination ; without being the apes of mode, or borrowing from any foreign wardrobe! Each of them are the standards of fashion for themselves : like gentlemen that are above the direction of their tailors, and can adorn themselves witha out the aid of imitation. If other poets draw more than one fool or coxcomb, there is the same resem, blance in them, as in that painter's draughts who was happy only at forming a rose; you find them all younger brothers of the same family, and all of them have a pretence to give the same crest: but. Shakspere's clowns and fops come all of a different house; they are no farther allied to one another than as man to man, members of the same species; but as different in fea, tures and lineaments of character, as we are from one another in face or complexion. But I am unawares launching into his character as a writer, before I have said what I intended of him as a private member of the republick. : . . .
:: Mr. Rowe has very justly observed, that people are fond of discovering any little personal story of the great men of antiquity; and that the common accidents of their lives naturally become the subject of our critical inquiries : that however trilling such a curiosity at the first view may appear, yet; as for what relates to men Çiij
of of letters, the knowledge of an author may, perhaps, sometimes conduce to the better understanding his works; and, indeed, this author's works, from the bad treatment he has met with from copyists and edi. tors, have so long wanted a comment, that one would zealously embrace every method of information that could contribute to recover them from the injuries with which they have so long lain overwhelmed.
It is certain, that if we have first admired the man in his writings, his case is so circumstanced, that we must naturally admire the writings in the man: that if we go back to take a view of his education, and the employment in life which fortune had cut out for him, we shall retain the stronger ideas of his extensive genius.
His father, we are told, was a considerable dealer in wool; but having no fewer than ten children, of whom our Shakspere was the eldest, the best education he could afford him was no better than to qualify him for his own business and employment. I cannot affirm with any certainty how long his father lived; but I take him to be the same Mr. Jolin Shakspere who was living in the year 1599, and who then, in honour of his son, took out an extract of his family-arms from the herald's office ; by which it appears, that he had been officer and bailiff of Stratford upon Avon in Warwickshire; and that he enjoyed some hereditary lands and tenements, the reward of his great grandfather's faithful and approved service to king Henry
Ве Be this as it will, our Shakspere, it seems, was bred for some time at a free-school; the very free-school, I presume, founded at Stratford : where, we are told; he acquired what Latin he was master of: but that his father being obliged, through narrowness of circumstance, to withdraw him too soon from thence, he was thereby unhappily prevented from making any proficiency in the dead languages; a point that will deserve some little discussion in the sequel of this dissertation.
How long he continued in his father's way of business, either as an assistant to him, or on his own proper account, no notices are left to inform us: nor have I been able to learn precisely at what period of life he quitted his native Stratford, and began his acquaintance with London and the stage.
In order to settle in the world after a family-manner, he thought fit, Mr. Rowe acquaints us, to marry while he was yet very young. It is certain, he did so: for by the monument in Stratford-church, erected to the memory of his daughter Susanna, the wife of John Hall, gentleman, it appears, that she died on the ed of July, in the year 1649, aged 66. So that she was born in 1583, when her father could not be full 19
years old; who was himself born in the year 1564. · Nor was she his eldest child, for he had another daugh
ter, Judith, who was born before her *, and who was
* This is a mistake. Susanna was the poet's eldest daugh: ter. See the extracts from the register-book of the parish of Stratford, in one of the following pages... STEEVENS.