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German (1842). This also found expression in the Psalms and Hymns, partly original, partly selected (Cambridge 1851) of Arthur T. Russell, in which the German hymns played a very large part, the Latin a very small one; even the arrangement of the hymns is based on an old Lutheran hymn book. In 1854 appeared Richard Massie's Martin Luther's Spiritual Songs, and the first four parts (1854–1862) of Hymns from the Land of Luther by Jane Borthwick and her sister Mrs. Findlater. In 1855 and 1858 Catherine Winkworth published the first and second series of her Lyra Germanica, following them in 1863 with the Chorale Book for England, and Christian Singers of Germany (1869). The work of this group of translators which has secured so firm a place in English hymnody for a number of German hymns and more particularly those of Paul Gerhardt will be discussed in the following chapter.

ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. Bachmann = Bachmann: Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder, 1866. C.B. = Chorale Book for England, by Catherine Winkworth, 1863. C.P.&H.Bk. Mercer's Church Psalter and Hymn Book, 1854 etc. Crü.Praxis = Crüger's Praxis pietatis melica, Berlin and Frankfurt a/M. 1648 etc. Crü.-Runge = Runge's edition of the above. Ebeling = P. Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten, 1667 etc. (The numbers following

the date refer to the “dozen” in which the poem appeared. Cf. p. 15 and

note 6.) G.B. = Gesangbuch. G.L.S. = Geistlicher Liederschatz, 1832. Goed. = Goedeke: Gedichte von Paulus Gerhardt, 1877. (In this thesis the

poems are numbered according to the page on which they begin in this

Goedeke text.) H.L.L. = Hymns from the Land of Luther, by Mrs. Findlater and Miss Jane

Borthwick, 1854 etc. H.Bk. Hymn Book. Kelly = J. Kelly: Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs, 1867. Lib.R.P. = Library of Religious Poetry, 1881. Lyra Ger. = Lyra Germanica, by Miss Winkworth, 1855 etc. Songs of G. and G. Songs of Grace and Glory, by Charles B. Snepp, 1872. st. = stanza. Unv.L.S. = Unverfälschter Liedersegen, Berlin, 1851. Wackernagel = Wackernagel: Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder, 1843.

When merely the translator's name is given, the complete title of the work is usually to be found in the respective biographical note in the Appendix, pp. 144 ff.

The citation of hymn books is by no means exhaustive. Selections from Gerhardt's hymns are to be found in nearly all modern hymnals. The aim has been to give mainly those which first included versions of his hymns.

As a rule, the German stanzas are indicated by the Roman numerals I, II, III, etc., the English stanzas by the Arabic 1, 2, 3, etc.

CHAPTER II.

ENGLISH VERSIONS OF GERHARDT'S HYMNS.

W

HILE the first influence of Gerhardt on English hymnody dates from

the earlier part of the XVIIIth century it was not until the middle of the following century that his influence was most fully felt. For it was then that the whole subject of church music and congregational singing in England received renewed and special attention. The English hymn writers and compilers of hymn books naturally appropriated all embodiment of Christian experience and devotion that Germany, a country so nearly akin to their own, could offer. The translators of all German hymns were subjected to certain limitations the observance of which affected the character of the rendering. The accompanying versions of Gerhardt's poems are illustrations of this statement.

A parallel arrangement of these various versions reveals the following interesting facts. First, that literalness has been rarely attained for the reason that a certain measure of freedom has to be used in any metrical rendering. Some, as for example, Dr. J. Kelly, have striven to maintain fidelity to the sense of the original and thereby have often sacrificed euphony to fidelity. Secondly, there has been made necessary the frequent use of the double rhymes which are as common in the German language, on account of its peculiar structure, as monosyllabic rhymes are in English. The limited number of double rhymes in English has presented a serious obstacle in the way of rendering German hymns with their native force and simplicity without which qualities the hymns cannot become truly naturalized many cases have the German hymns and tunes been considered as one and inseparable, that the translators have sought to preserve the original metres for the sake of the tunes which would not of course admit of any

deviation without harm to their characteristic beauty.

In the following pages we shall discuss those of Gerhardt's hymns (84 in number) which have been translated into English, and cite in most cases the hymn books which have been among the first to recognize the excellence of the English versions.

In so

1 Cf. p. 27 and note.

The hymns selected for discussion with their respective English versions are arranged according to the sequence in the Goedeke text (Gedichte von Paulus Gerhardt, Leipzig 1877). The ten most widely translated hymns (nos. 25, 49, 59, 60, 68,

Du liebe Unschuld du, wie schlecht wirst du geachtt!-(Goed. 3.)

Appeared in the Crü. Praxis, 1656, p. 650. English Version:

1. By J. Kelly, under the heading, “Under the vexations of the wicked prosperous world,” the first stanza as follows:

Ah! lovely innocence, how evil art thou deemed,
How lightly oft thy work by all the world's esteem'd!
Thou servest God, thy Lord, and to His word thou cleavest.
For this, from men thou nought but scorn and hate receivest.

This translation is somewhat labored as is especially evident in line 4 above for the German:

"Darüber höhnt man dich und drückt dich aller Orten."

Goedeke in his note to this hymn points out that from the use of the Alexandrine verse, the freedom from biblical phraseology and from the generality of the expressions it is probable that this is one of Gerhardt's earliest poems composed at a time when he patterned his writings after the model of Opitz.

Wie ist so grosz und schwer die Last.—(Goed. 7.)

Appeared in Crü.-Runge, 1653, no. 299. This fervent appeal for protection during the Thirty Years' War has been translated into English only by J. Kelly 1867, p. 246. In line 36 he renders (from the Wackernagel text which he used):

“Behold! my heart, on every hand.”

As mein Herr is very evidently the proper reading from the sense of the context and the character of the other stanzas, it is unfortunate that his otherwise excellent rendering should be made to suffer by this one weak stanza.

"Protection of God in hitherto dangerous times of war."

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122, 150, 185, 229, 239) and hymns showing adaptations are treated in a separate part of this chapter, pp. 82 ff. In some instances specimen stanzas selected from the English versions have been added for comparison or reference.

* On Gerhardt's use of the Alexandrine cf. p. 20 f, and on the influence of Opitz cf. p. 18.

O Herrscher in dem Himmelszelt.—(Goed. 15.)

Appeared in Crü.-Runge, 1653, no. 315. This poem and "Nun ist der Regen hin" (cf. Goed. 17, below) were both written during the Thirty Years' War and inspired by the same occasion. Gerhardt in two instances uses the same set of rhymes :

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The long metre lends itself well to English translation, and Kelly in his
English version has observed with precision the pleading and melancholy
tone of the original.
Stanza 1. O God! who dost Heav'n's sceptre wield,

What is it that now makes our field,
And everything that it doth bear,
Such sad and ruined aspect wear ?4

J. Kelly, 1867, p. 294. His last stanza forms by its fervor an even stronger conclusion than Gerhardt's. The alteration from "bis in unsern Tod” to “as long as we may live” is a decided improvement, and more consistent with the thought of the context:

Verleih uns bis in unsern Tod
Alltäglich unser liebes Brot
Und dermaleins nach diser Zeit
Das süsze Brot der Ewigkeit!

And, Lord, as long as we may live
Our daily bread in bounty give
And when the end of time we see
The bread give of eternity.

Nun ist der Regen hin.-(Goed. 17.)

First published in Crü.-Runge, 1653, no. 315. This simple nature poem expressing to the Almighty thanks for gracious sunshine after a storm has appeared but once in English verse, the version of J. Kelly, 1867, p. 298. The many poetic allusions and references to nature he has imitated very acceptably, at times even surpassing the thought of the original. In the first stanza the rhymes "gekehret” and “erhöret" have been especially aptly rendered by the accented ed in "turnéd” and "spurnéd." Stanza 1. Now gone is all the rain,

Rejoice my heart again,

* On the pessimistic tone in this stanza cf. p. 24.

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