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Blanch. The lady Constance speaks not from her

faith, But from her need.

Conft. Oh, if thou grant my need, Which only lives but by the death of faith, That need must needs infer this principleThat faith would live again by death of need : O then, tread down my need, and faith mounts up; Keep my need up, and faith is trodden down...

K. John. The king is moy'd, and answers not to this. Const. O, be remov'd from him, and answer well. Aujt. Do lo, king Philip; hang no more in doubt. Feulc. Hang nothing but a calve's-skin, most sweet

lout. K. Phil. I am perplex’d, and know not what to say. Pand. What can st thou say, but will perplex i hee

more, If thou stand excommunicate, and curst? K. Pbil. Good reverend father, make my person

And tell me how you would bestow yourself.
This royal hand and mine are newly knit;
And the conjunction of our inward souls
Marry'd in league, coupled and link'd together

but they are both too hasty. It squares very well with the sense, and fignifies unsteady. The term is taken from navigation. We {ay too, in a similar way of speaking, not well manned. WARB.

I think Mr. Theobald's correction more plausible than Dr. Warburton's explanation. A commentator Thould be grave, and therefore I can read these notes with proper severity of attention; but the idea of trimming a lady to keep her feudy, would be too rifible for any common power of face. JOHNSON.

Trim is dress. An untrimmed bride is a bride undreft. Could the tempter of mankind affume a semblance in which he was more likely to be successful? The devil (says Constance) raises to your imagination your bride stripped of the forbidding forms of dress, and in the anticipation of future enjoyment, the memory of my wrongs is loft. Ben Jonson, in his New Inn, says,

's Bur. Here's a lady gay.
" Tip. A well-trimm'd lady!” STEEVENS.




With all religious strength of sacred vows. The latest breath, that gave the found of words, Was deep-sworn faith, peace, amity, true love, Between our kingdoms, and our royal felves : And even before this truce, but new before, No longer than we well could waih our hands To clap this royal bargain up of peace, Heaven knows, they were besmcard and over-itain'd With laughter's pencil; where revenge did paint The fearful difference of incensed kings. And ihall these hands, fo lately purg'd of blood, So newly join’d in love, so strong in both 4, Unyoke this seizure, and this kind regreet ? Play fast and loose with faith? fo jest with heaven, Make such unconstant children of ourselves, As now again to snatch our palm from palm; Unswear faith sworn, and on the marriage-bed Of smiling peace to march a bloody hoft, And make a riot on the gentle brow Of true sincerity? O holy Sir, My reverend father, let it not be so: Out of your grace, devise, ordain, impose Some gentle crder; and then we shall be blest To do your pleasure, and continue friends.

Pand. All form is formless, order orderless, Save what is opposite to England's love. Therefore, to arms ! be champion of our church! Or let the church, our mother, breathe her curse, A mother's curse, on her revolting son. France, thou may'st hold a serpent by the tongue, A cased lion 5 by the mortal paw, A fafting tyger safer by the tooth, Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.

4 - so strong in both,] I believe the meaning is, love so strong in both parties. Johnson.

SA cafed lion- ] All the modern editors read, a chafed lion. If c little reason for change. A cosed lion, is a lion ir, ritated by confinement. The author might, however, have written, a chased lion, STEEVENS,

K. Philip. K. Phil. I may disjoin my hand, but not my faith.

Pand. So mak'it thou faith an enemy to faith; And, like a civil war, set'st oath to oath, Thy tongue against thy tongue. O, let thy vow First made to heaven, firit be to heaven perform’d; That is, to be the champion of our church! What since thou swor'ft, is sworn against thyself, And may not be performed by thyself. For that, which thou hast sworn to do amiss, * Is't not amiss, when it is truly done? And being not done, where doing tends to ill, The truth is then most done, not doing it. The better act of purposes mistook Is to mistake again, tho’indirect, Yet indirection thereby grows direct, And falfhood fallhood cures; as fire cools fire, Within the scorched veins of one new-burn'd. It is religion, that doth make vows kept; ? But thou hast sworn against religion : By what thou swear'st, against the thing thou swear'st:


Is not amiss, when it is truly done :] This is the conclusion de travers. We should read,

Is YET amifs, The Oxford editor, according to his usual custom, will im- . prove it further, and reads, most amiss. WARBURTON. . I rather read,

Is't net amiss, when it is truly done? as the alteration is less, and the sense which Dr. Warburton first discovered is preserved. Johnson.

? But thou haft worn againsi rcligion, &c.] In this long speech, the legate is made to fhew his kill in casuiftry; and the strange heap of quibble and nonsense of which it confifts, was intended to ridicule that of the schools. For when he assumes the politician, at the conclusion of the third act, the author makes him talk at another rate. I mean in that beautiful paffage where he speaks of the mischiefs following the king's loss of his subjects hearts. This conduct is remarkable, and was intended, I suppofe, to shew us how much better politicians the Roman courtiers arc, than divines. WARBURTON.

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And mak'st an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an oath. The truth thou art unsure
To swear, swear only not to be forsworn;
Else, what a mockery should it be to swear ?
But thou dost swear, only to be forsworn;
And most forsworn, to keep what thou dost swear.
Therefore, thy latter vows, against thy first,

I am not able to discover here any thing inconsequent or ridiculously subtle. The propositions, that the voice of the church is the sucice of heaven, and that the pope utters the voice of the church, neither of which Pandulph's auditors would deny, being once granted, the argument here used is irresiítible ; nor is it easy, notwithitanding the gingle, to enforce it with greater brevity or propriety:

But thou hast worn against religion :
By what thou swear), against the thing thou swear'ft:
And makji an oath the furety for the truth,
Against an cath the truth thou art unsure

To jwear, wear only not to be forfworn.] By what. Sir T. HANMER reads, by that. I think it thould be rather by which. That is, tkou swear it against the thing, by which thou fwear'A ; that is, against religion. The mos formidable difficulty is in these lines,

Ard makt an oath the furety for thy truth,
Agains an cath the truth thou art unjure

Tofwear, &c.
This Sir T. Hanmer reforms thus,

And mak's an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an cath; this truth thou art unsure

To/wear, &c.
Dr. WARBURTON writes it thus,

Againsi an oath the truth thou art unsure-
which leaves the passage to me as obscure as before,

I know not whether there is any corruption beyond the omis. sion of a point. The sense, after I had considered it, appeared to me only this : In swearing by religion against religion, to which thou haft already sworn, thou makejt an oath the security for thy faith againsi ar oath already taken. I will give, Jays be, a rule for conscience in these cases. Thou mayit be in doubt about the matter of an oath; when thou fwearest thou mayf not be always sure to frear rightly, but let this be tly settled principle, fwear only not to be for worn; let not the latter oaths be at variance with the former.

Truth, through this whole speech, means rettitude of conduct. JOHNSON,

Is in thyself rebellion to thyself.
And better conquest never canst thou make,
Than arm thy constant and thy nobler parts
Against these giddy, loose suggestions.
Upon which better part, our prayers come in,
If thou vouchsafe them. But, if not, then, known,
The peril of our curses light on thee;
So heavy, as thou shalt not shake them off;
But, in despair, die under their black weight.

Auft. Rebellion, flat rebellion !

Faulc. Will’t not be ?
Will not a calve's-skin stop that mouth of thine ?

Lewis. Father, to arms!

Blanch. Upon thy wedding-day?
Against the blood that thou hast married ?
What, shall our feast be kept with slaughter'd men?
Shall braying trumpets, and loud churlish drums,
Clamours of hell, be measures to our pomp?
O husband, hear me! (ah! alack, how new
Is husband in my mouth ?) even for that name,
Which till this time my tongue did ne'er pronounce,
Upon my knee I beg, go not to arms
Against mine uncle.

Conft. O, upon my knee,
Made hard with kneeling, I do pray to thee,
Thou virtuous dauphin, alter not the doom
Forethought by heaven.

Blanch. Now shall I see thy love.- What motive may Be stronger with thee than the name of wife? .

Const. That which upholdeth him, that thee upholds, His honour. Oh, thine honour, Lewis, thine ho

Lewis. I muse, your majesty doth seem so cold,
When such profound respects do pull you on?

Pand. I will denounce a curse upon his head.
K. Pbil. Thou shalt not need. -England, I'll fall

from thee.
Const. O fair return of banish'd majesty!
Eli. O foul revolt of French inconitancy!

K. John

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