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long acquaintance with the Indian seas, and the character and manners of the people, the drawback occasioned by the exclusive system has been so great, that the Americans, whose flag first appeared at Canton so late as 1784, have already completely stript us of all share in the foreign tea trade; and, but for the monopoly which the Company have acquired of the home market, they would not be able to send out a single ship. It is not, therefore, a partial opening to the trade with China which can be of any service. All the skill and capital of our merchants would, under a system of perfectly free intercourse; be barely sufficient to enable them to enter into a successful competition with the Americans. It is quite visionary to suppose that we shall be able to regain the ground we have lost, if we continue to fetter and shackle the spirit of private adventure. As a proof of the advantages resulting from the freedom of industry, it is enough to mention, that, under all the absurd and teasing regulations about size of ships, places of sale, &c. imposed by the late act for partially opening the trade to Hindostan and the Eastern Archipelagn, the private traders have already fairly beat the Company out of the market, and have prodigiously extended our intercourse with these rich and populous regions. Nor is it possible to estimate the addition that would be made to this traffic, were the nuisance of monopoly completely put down-restraints and shackles of every kind thrown aside--and the vast continent of Asia opened as a field for the unrestricted competition of our merchants.

There are a number of other regulations in our exclusive system equally pernicious and absurd with those to which we have thus directed the attention of our readers; but we cannot spare time at present to specify them. We have already stated enough to show the absolute necessity of abandoning it altogether. When the former sources of our wealth and channels of our commerce have been either dried up or shut against us, and, in consequence, a seventh part of the entire population of the Empire plunged in the abyss of poverty, and reduced to the condition of paupers-it becomes the imperative duty of Ministers to endeavour to open. new markets for our manufactures, and to stimulate the natural demand for labour. It has been onr object to endeavour to point out how this may be effected; and to show that, by giving freedom to commerce, those commodities which are now pent up in our warehouses, would meet with an advantageous and ready market. Instead of having too larye a supply of manufactured produce, it would he found, were we to consent to relinquish our restrictions and prohibions, and gradually to recur to the only sound principle on

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which commercial prosperity can ever be bottomed that of a perfect freedom of trade-that we might add indefinitely to its amount. The market of the world never has been, and never can be, glutted. The distresses of the manufacturers, as far as they originate in the want of a market, and this is undoubtedly their principal source), are entirely a consequence of our own perverse policy-of our refusing to admit the cheap corn of Poland and America—the timber and iron of the Baltic-tho wines, brandies, and cambrics of France--the silks of Spain-the sugars of Brazil, and so forth. Let our rulers renounce this selfish monopolizing system; let them cease to counteract the benevolent wisdom of Providence, which, by giving a diversity of soils, climates and products to different nations, has provided for their mutual intercourse and commerce; and it may

be boldly affirmed, that whatever evils we may in future suffer from our oppressive taxation, and these will be neither few nor small, we shall at least be relieved from those which arise from a deficiency of demand for our commodities.

We have not chosen to incumber this discussion with any inquiry as to the probable effects which a reduction of the present exorbitant duties on French wines, brandies, &c. might have on the Revenue: And this because, in the first place, it is proved, by universal experience, that a low duty levied from a large quantity, is always more productive than a high duty levied from a comparatively small quantity; and, in the second place, because, although it were otherwise, the loss of two or three hundred thousand pounds, or even of one million, the whole of the present duty on wine, could not be considered as forming any valid objection to a measure, which would infallibly be productive of such very great advantages, and which is indeed absolutely necessary to save the commerce of the country from ruin.

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Art. IV. 1. A General History of Music, from the Earliest

Times to the Present : Comprising the Lives of Eminent Com-
posers and Musical Writers. The whole accompanied with
Notes and Observations, Critical and Illustrative. By Tho-
MAS BUSBY, Mus. Doc. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 1075. Published

by Sir R. Phillips. London, 1819. 2. The Lives of Haydn and Mozart. In a Series of Letters.

Translated from the French of L. H. C. BOMBERT. 8vo, pp. 493. Murray, London, 1817.


9. Remarks on the Present State ofMusical Instruction. By · J. RELFE. Hatchard, London, 1819. pp. 84.

. 4. The Thorough Bass Primer. By J. F. BURROWES. 20 Edit.

London, 1820.
A mong all the tribes of inventors, Painters and Musicians are

certainly the least scrupulous in breaking the Eighth Commandment; and it must be admitted, that they are less culpable than poets or historians. The painter whý steals an idea from another man's picture, is, nevertheless, constrained to render it by the powers of his own pencil; and as ideas in music must necessarily be expressed by the same series of sounds, the musician also has his apology, when he pilfers from (or, as he would call it, 'imitates the style of ') another composer. But he need never imitate at the expense of candour; and should always satisfy his conscience by a reference to his original. Poets, too, in all ages, have been very much addicted to these petty larcenies. It is said, that Homer is the only poet who stole nothing---which probably only means, that we cannot not now detect his offences. Chaucer is very ready, on most occasions, to refer to his original; and yet he makes no acknowledgment of his Knight's Tale being a mere abridgment of the Theseida of Boccace; a poem very little known * even in Italy. And Dr Percy, , in his Reliques of Ancient Poetry (Vol. III. p. 50.), thinks, that the old ballad of the “ Marriage of Sir Gawaine, suggested the idea ,of his Wife of Bath's Tale. But Mr Tyrwbitt + has shown very clearly, that he founded it on a story of a much older date : indeed, we should rather suspect that Sir Gawaine is a pillage from Chaucer. Spencer, Milton, Shakespeare, and all who come after them, have borrowed without scruple-and, for the most part, without saying any thing about the matter. There is no denying that they have generally improved upon their originals; and their works have thriven wonderfully well under such a practice-which is more than can be always said in the case of stolen goods ;--but still the system is not to be defended; and we should hold ourselves very negligent of our duty, were we to pass over a flagrant case of this description, without severe castigation.

It should seem, however, from the principal work before us, that the Historians of the Arts are sometimes disposed to use the same license with those whose deeds they relate.

*. The only copy of the original edition ever known in England, was in the possession of Dr Askew.' . t Pages 93. and 107.

- When we had opened Dr Busby's History of Music, and read as far as the fifth page of the Preface, we came to the following words.- Though with two authors before me, respectable as those just mentioned (viz. Sir John Hawkins and Dr Burney), it was natural, if not indispensable, to make some use of the materials afforded by the ample latitude of their matter, and the general justness of their criticism, I have, I hope, been sparing in the appropriation of their ideas, scrupulous in the adoption of their language, and duly careful not to descend to servile imitation. But while every invasion of the property of Hawkins and of Burney, whether in their conceptions, or their expressions, is denied, it will not perhaps be improper or unnecessary to conciliate the reader's candour towards my occasional dissentions from their sentiments. The best apology, however, for differing from such precursors, will be deduced from the meditation which dictated, and the independence which emboldened, criticisms equally free and well considered.' Pref. pp. v, vi. Now, we had not proceeded further than the third or fourth chapter in the work, when an indistinct recollection came over us, that we had seen ideas very much the same, expressed in language very much the same, in a work not more rare or recondite, than a certain History of Music written by Dr Burney. Accordingly, we searched-and Lo! 'twas there! - As Dr Burney's work extends to four thick quarto volumes, and, as we trust, Dr Busby's is not in very extensive circulation, we shall, for the accommodation of our readers, present them with a sample, or rather key to his plagiarisms; while the extract we have already given from the preface is yet warm in their remembrance. Our limits will not allow us to give any thing like an account of the whole borrowings; for this would constrain us to transcribe nearly the whole of the Doctor's two volumes, with a corresponding quantity from Burney, and the other authors with whom he has made free ;-But we shall bring sufficient evidence to prove, that, of all poachers upon other men's books, this is the most shameless. Chapters 1st, 2d, and 3d, of Busby, are taken from sections 2d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th of Burney, the arrangement being varied. Compare Busby I, 44, 51, and Burney I. 109, 113, 122. Nearly the whole of page 49th is in pp. 117 & 118 of Burney; and page 50th is gleaned from 119, 120, and 121. The 52d page, with a very long note, are taken verbatim from pp. 124 & 125 of Burney, and so on to the end of the chapter. Occasionally we come to a passage which, at first sight, does not appear in Burney; but a little patient research soon discovers it. Thus, for example, the long note in page 59 had no corresponding part at page 143, from which the whole of the passage preceding the note is taken; but upon trying back, we found it in page 121-and had the


satisfaction to observe, that it had lost nothing by being transplanted.

Of Chap. IV., from page 62 to 67 inclusive, is literally taken, word for word, from Burney, p. 166 to 169, and then from detached passages on to page 175 ;-both beginning with · The Golden Legend,' and ending with · baffled all their endeatours to stir it.' The next ten pages are to be found in the remainder of this section in Buriiey, ending at the 186th page. At page 76, Dr Busby favours us with nearly four pages of commentary from his translation of Lucretius, which he says is his own. We have not had an opportunity of ascertaining the precise part of the book from which it is taken; but, as far as our memory serves us, we think we have seen the same ideas in Dr Beattie's excellent Essay on Poetry and Music. There are certain passages, however, which convince us that on this occasion the Doctor has not copied verbatim ; as no one will suspect Beattie of such trash as the voluminous, pealing masses of plain harmony,' and the puissant majesty of the high wrought figure,' _sounds modulated into appreciable intervals,'—and science modulating her diagram of harmony,' p. 78. In fact, it is impossible not to detect Dr Busby's pilferings: he tacks them together in such a clumsy and unworkmanlike style, that his composition generally reminds us of a patchwork of gaudy-coloured shreds, sewed together with grey worsted thread. The remainder of Chap. IV., ending p. 83, is taken from p. 148 to 152---thus going backwards in Burney's work. Chap. V., p. 84 to 87, will be found at p. 191 to 194; from 87 to 101, is verbatim from p. 205 to 215, and again from 216 to 218. The rest of the chapter, which ends at p. 108, is composed of gleanings from pp. 225, 226, 228, 231, and 233. Chap. VI., as far as page 113, will be found in Burney, p. 273 et seq. At page 113, we are favoured with a translation of an epigram of Callimachus, enumerating the names and attributes of the Nine Muses in so many lines. This is taken from Burney, p. 293. But had Dr Busby ever seen the original, which is in the Anthologia, he would have discovered that the Greek epigram is in ten lines.

Pages 120, 121, and so on in regular order to 131, are in Burney at pages 318 to 320; 324 to 329; 332; 336 to 338 ; 346; 348; 352 and 353. Chapters VII. & VIII. are to be seen in Burney from p. 354 to 365; from p. 384 to 401; from p. 409 to 420. The major part of Chapter IX. viz. from page 169 to 186, is in Burney from p. 430 10 452. The remainder of the chapter we cannot find in Burney; but we will lay a Wager with any Busby champion, that it will be found in Sir

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