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The Trial of Christian and Faithful

(From The Pilgrim's Progress) Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth to their trial in order to their condemnation. When the time was come, they were brought before their enemies, and arraigned. The judge's name was Lord Hate5 good. Their indictment was one and the same in substance, though somewhat varying in form, the contents whereof were this:

“That they were enemies to and disturbers of their trade; that they had made commotions and divisions in the town, 10 and had won a party to their own most dangerous opinions in contempt of the law of their prince.”

Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself against that which had set itself against Him that is

higher than the highest. And said he, "As for disturbance, 15 I make none, being myself a man of peace; the parties that

were won to us, were won by beholding our truth and innocence, and they are only turned from the worse to the better. And as to the king you talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of our Lord, I defy him and all his angels."

Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught 20 to say for their lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, should forthwith appear and give in their evidence. So there came in three witnesses, to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then asked if they knew the prisoner at the bar; and what they had to say for their lord 25 the king against him.

Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect : “My Lord, I have known this man a long time, and will attest upon my oath before this honourable bench, that he is”

JUDGE. Hold! Give him his oath.

So they sware him. Then he said: "My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausible name, is one of the vilest men in our country. He neither regardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can to possess all men with certain of his disloyal notions, which he in the general 35 calls principles of faith and holiness. And in particular, I heard him once myself affirm that Christianity and the customs of our town of Vanity were diametrically opposite, and could not be reconciled. By which saying, my Lord, he doth at once not only condemn all our laudable doings, 40 but us in the doing of them.”

Then did the Judge say to him, “Hast thou any more to



Envy. My Lord, I could say much more, only I would not be tedious to the court. Yet if need be, when the other 45 gentlemen have given in their evidence, rather than anything shall be wanting that will despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony against him.

So he was bid stand by.

[The substance of Superstition's and Pickthank's testi- 50 mony is sufficiently indicated by Faithful's answer later,

and their manner of testifying is much the same as Envy's.]

When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying, “Thou runagate, 55 heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee?"

FAITHFUL. May I speak a few words in my own defence ?

JUDGE. Sirrah, sirrah, thou deservest to live no longer, but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet that all 60 men may see our gentleness towards thee, let us see what thou

hast to say

FAITHFUL. 1. I say then in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken, I never said aught but this, That what rule, or

laws, or custom, or people, were flat against the word of 65 God, are diametrically opposite to Christianity. If I have

said amiss in this, convince me of mine error, and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.

2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge against me, I said only this, That in the worship of 70 God there is required a divine faith; but there can be no

divine faith without a divine revelation of the will of God: therefore whatever is thrust into the worship of God that is not agreeable to divine revelation, cannot be done but by an

human faith, which faith will not be profit to eternal life. 75 3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say, (avoiding

terms, as that I am said to rail, and the like) that the prince of this town, with all the rabblement his attendants, by this gentleman named, are more fit for a being in hell, than in this

town and country: and so, the Lord have mercy upon me! 80 Then the Judge called to the jury (who all this while stood

by, to hear and observe): “Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this town: you have also heard what these worthy gentle

men have witnessed against him: also you have heard his 85 reply and confession: it lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life; but yet I think meet to instruct you into our law.

“There was an act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, servant to our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should multiply and grow too strong for him, their males 90 should be thrown into the river. There was also an act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzear the Great, another of his servants, that whoever would not fall down and worship his golden image, should be thrown into a fiery furnace. There was also an act made in the days of Darius, that whoso, 95 for some time, called upon any God but him, should be cast into the lions' den. Now the substance of these laws this rebel has broken, not only in thought (which is not to be borne) but also in word and deed; which must therefore needs be intolerable.

100 “For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime apparent. For the second and third, you see he disputeth against our religion; and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death.”

105 Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blindman, Mr. No-good, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Liveloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hatelight, and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in his private verdict against him among them-110 selves, and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the Judge. And first among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, the foreman, said, “I see clearly that this man is an heretic.” Then said Mr. No-good, "Away with such a fellow from the earth.” “Ay," said Mr. Malice, “for 115 I hate the very looks of him." Then said Mr. Love-lust, “I could never endure him.” “Nor 1,” said Mr. Liveloose, "for he would always be condemning my way.” “Hang him, hang him," said Mr. Heady. “A sorry scrub,”


120 said Mr. High-mind. "My heart riseth against him," said

Mr. Enmity. “He is a rogue,” said Mr. Liar. “Hanging is too good for him," said Mr. Cruelty. “Let us dispatch him out of the way," said Mr. Hatelight. Then said Mr.

Implacable, “Might I have all the world given me, I could 125 not be reconciled to him; therefore let us forthwith bring

him in guilty of death.” And so they did; therefore he was presently condemned to be had from the place where he was, to the place from whence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented.

They therefore brought him out, to do with him according to their law; and first they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they lanced his flesh with knives; after that they stoned him with stones, then pricked him with their swords;

and last of all they burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus 135 came Faithful to his end.

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and a couple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had dispatched him) was taken up into it,

and straightway was carried up through the clouds, with 140 sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the Celestial Gate.

But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to prison; so he there remained for a space : but he that overrules all things, having the power of their rage in his

own hand, so wrought it about, that Christian for that time 145 escaped them, and went his way.


The Spider and the Bee

(From The Battle of the Books) Upon the highest corner of a large window, there dwelt a certain spider, swollen up to the first magnitude by the destruction of infinite numbers of flies, whose spoils lay

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