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adverb there to introduce ten of the thirteen sentences keeps the reader's mind fixed on the place. The second sentence contains a general statement, with some striking figures of speech; and a number of specific statements follow. 58. Siddons. See note on De Quincey, On Reading Aloud, line 14. 60. historian, etc., Edward Gibbon. 65. The painter is Reynolds (line 66); the scholar is Parr (line 69). For Reynolds, see note on Boswell, First Meeting, line 11. Samuel Parr was noted for the breadth as well as the extent of his learning. 74. her to whom, etc., Mrs. Fitzherbert, a Roman Catholic lady, whom the Prince of Wales could not legally marry. 76. the beautiful mother, Mrs. Sheridan, whose three daughters were noted for their beauty. She was a famous singer, and was painted as Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music, by Reynolds. 79. brilliant society, etc. A number of the leading spirits in all walks of life, who frequented the “assemblies” of Elizabeth, wife of Edward, Montague, grandson of the Earl of Sandwich. 81. whose lips, etc. It was said that a kiss from the Duchess of Devonshire persuaded a voter to vote for Charles James Fox in the election of 1780. Fox was one of the managers of the impeachment proceedings.

London Coffee-Houses. Compare with this selection Steele's Prospectus (page 160) and Addison's Mr. Spectator (page 176). Macaulay's chapter deals with the year 1685 (see line 85); but the coffee-houses remained an important “institution" until well into the eighteenth century. 12. Commonwealth, the government of England between the execution of Charles I and the establishment of Cromwell's Protectorate — 1649–1653. The first coffee-house was opened in 1652. 22. fourth Estate. See note on Malory, line 3 (page 451). 25. Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby, was Lord Treasurer and first minister of the Crown, from 1673 to 1678. 47. from Paris. During the rule of Cromwell, Charles II and many of the nobility had lived in Paris; and at the Restoration of Charles (1660) they brought back French fashions. 52. Lord Foppington, character in Vanbrugh's comedy, The Relapse. His dialect consisted chiefly of some affected pronunciations. 55. clown, rustic. 68. Perrault, champion of modern writers as opposed to ancient. Boileau, champion of the ancients. See introductory note to Swift, Spider and the Bee, page 465. 71. Venice Preserved was a popular tragedy by Thomas Otway in 1682. 79. Dryden was Poet Laureate until the Revolution of 1688. 80. Racine and Bossu were famous French writers of the day.

Battle of Ivry celebrates the victory of Henry IV, king of Navarre and leader of the Huguenots after Coligni’s death, over the Holy League in 1590. 6. Rochelle, headquarters of the Huguenots. 14. Appenzell, a district of Switzerland. spears, troops. 15. Henry I of Lorraine, third Duke of Guise, was killed two years before Ivry. His brood means all such opponents of the rightful monarch. 16. Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, brother of Henry I, commanded the League's forces. truncheon, staff of authority. 17. Seine, river running through Paris. It was empurpled by the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day. 18. Coligni, leader of the Huguenots, slain in the Massacre. 30. oriflamme, standard, ensign; originally the particular ensign of the king of France. 34. Guelders, Gelderland, a province of Holland. Almayne, Germany. 36. Lilies were the royal device of France from the sixth century. They were called golden lilies by the Italian poet Tasso in his Jerusalem Delivered. 38. the snow-white crest, the white plume (29) on Navarre's helmet. 42. Charles of Lorraine, Duke d’Aumale, one of the leaders of the Holy League. Flemish count, Philip of Egmont (14). 47–48. The League included Catholics from other countries as well as France. Henry's command was intended to propitiate the French Catholics, with a view to a united country when he should be secure on the throne. 54. Maxilian, Lord of Rosny and Duke of Sully, was one of Henry's most capable and loyal supporters. 61. Soldiers from both Austria and Switzerland were engaged in the battle. 63. Philip II, King of Spain, who was aiding the Roman Catholics against Navarre. pistoles, money. The pistole was a gold coin of varying value. 66. St. Genevieve was the patron saint of Paris. Her burghers, then, were the citizens of the city.

CARLYLE. This passage on Boswell is from a review of Croker's edition of the Life of Johnson, previously reviewed by Macaulay. (See page 323, and note.) Carlyle's essay is in reality an answer to Macaulay, and gives a much fairer picture of both Johnson and Boswell.

16. solid pudding, income from his book. 23. Time. Carlyle, doubtless under the influence of his German studies, used capital letters much more freely than is (or was) common among English writers. 35. Shakespeare Jubilee, held at Stratford in 1769. Boswell appeared at a masquerade dressed as a Corsican warrior, in compliment to Paoli, the hero of Corsica, whom Boswell admired greatly.

The ribbon on his cap on this occasion was not Corsica Boswell, but "Viva la Liberta.” Macaulay got the story wrong, and Carlyle followed him in the error. 49. flunky, a footman.

56. Boswell's father was Laird of Auchinleck. Touchwood is Carlyle's nickname; cf. sulphur-brand, line 64. 58. schoolmaster, Dr. Johnson, who attempted to conduct a private school before coming to London. 69. Boswell's social position is set forth in detail in the following sentences. 75. Dominie, schoolmaster. 78. pragmatical, self-important. 79. atmosphere of Heraldry, where blood and ancestry were of much importance. 80. Gamaliel. See Acts V, 34. 87. Advocates, lawyers. 100. gulosity, gluttony, greediness. gigmanity. From the time of Thurtell's trial (Carlyle's note) “gig' became Carlyle's pet symbol for respectability.”

129. Carlyle errs here. Johnson, when Boswell became acquainted with him, was the foremost man of letters in England, and was receiving large returns for his labor. 132. glass of fashion. An allusion to Ophelia's speech, Hamlet, act 3, scene 1, line 161 ff.; as is also the observed of innumerable observers (142). 139. lickspittles, flatterers. Cf. plate-licker, line 151. 150. The Feast of Tabernacles took place at the end of the harvest of fruit, oil, and wine, and was the most joyful of all feasts. See Numbers XXIX, 12-40. 153. The blind old woman was Miss Williams, a dependent of Johnson's. 167. The meaning of Spanielship, a word of Carlyle's. coining, can be easily understood. 173. The Outer-House is the great hall in the Parliament House at Edinburgh where the Court of Sessions sits. The domestic Outer-House would be the entrance hall to Johnson's residence, where Boswell might be thought of as sitting and deciding who should enter. Johnson was called “Ursa Major," the Great_Bear, by Boswell's father. Henry Erskine was a prominent Scotch statesman and wit.

Burns. This passage is from the fifth of a series of six lectures. In the others Carlyle treated the hero as Divinity, Prophet, Poet, Priest (preacher), and King. In this lecture he spoke of Samuel Johnson (line 15) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (16), in addition to Burns. He introduced his first lecture with this sentence: “We have undertaken to discourse here for a little on Great Men, their manner of appearance in our world's business, how they shaped themselves in the world's history, what ideas men formed of them, what work they did ; on Heroes, namely, and on their reception and performance; what I call Hero-worship and the Heroic in human affairs."


2. sincerity. Cf. The Hero as Prophet: “I should say sincerity, a deep, great, genuine sincerity, is the first characteristic of all men in any way heroic.” In an essay on Burns written twelve years before the lecture Carlyle had said: “The excellence of Burns is, indeed, among the rarest, whether in poetry or prose: his Sincerity, his indisputable air of Truth.” 10. Odin, the chief god of the Scandinavian mythology, is the central figure in The Hero as Divinity. 12 ff. To appreciate this essay fully, the student should read some good sketch of Burns's life. 30. The world, etc. One of Carlyle's striking aphorisms. 46. phasis; same as "phase.” 54. Napoleon obtained his first commission, the Artillery Lieutenancy, at the age of seventeen. 60. cynosure. See note on L'Allegro, 80. Adversity, etc. Another sentence of Carlyle's that has come to be almost a proverb. 69. "rank is but,” etc. From A Man's a Man, page 232, line 7. 80. After the Edinburgh visit, Burns took up farming near Dumfries, where he died eight years later, unquestionably as a result of too much convivial company.

Definition of History. - David Hume, English, eighteenth century, wrote History of England. William Robertson, Scotch, eighteenth century, several histories. Herodotus, Greek, fifth century B.C., history of the Persian invasion of Greece. Jean Froissart, French, fourteenth century, history of several countries of Europe. 25. Carlyle probably has in mind the definition of Thucydides: "History is philosophy teaching by examples." 31 ff. The first Duke of Marlborough, hero of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1713), asserted that he knew no English history except what he learned from Shakspere. 44. Monkish Annalists, monks who kept record of events year by year. 46. missal, church service book. breviary, prayer book. Carlyle means that the monks wrote, not as unprejudiced historians, but from the point of view of the Church.

DICKENS. Preface to Oliver Twist.- 16. Hogarth, English satiric painter of the eighteenth century; famous for his subjects from low life. 44. The editor has been unable to identify Massaroni. He offers the guess that the name is an invention of Dickens, to give a high-sounding foreign designation to the typical, more or less attractive, rogue of the earlier picaresque novels. 45. Bill Sikes is one of the most vicious of the criminal gang in Oliver Twist. Nancy is his life companion. 56. “The Artful


Dodger" is a member of the gang who does nothing worse than steal. 99. Jacob's Island, described in chapter 50 of the novel, was in the worst part of London's shipping quarter. It was “surrounded by a muddy ditch known in the days of this story as Folly Ditch. every repulsive lineament of poverty, every loa some indication of filth, rot, and garbage; all these ornament the banks of Folly Ditch.”

Mr. Micawber is one of the most famous and delightfully amusing characters in Dickens's most famous novel. His characteristics are shown in the selection an “imposing” appearance, a grandiloquent manner of speaking, frequent and fragmentary literary allusions, and some pet phrases such as “in short,” “waiting for something to turn up.” 25. Murdstone, David's stepfather. 93. This “in short” refers to visits to the pawnbroker. 115. Take him, etc. A comic reminiscence of Hamlet's eulogy on his father :

“He was a man, take him for all in all,
I shall not look upon his like again.”

127. nineteen (pounds) nineteen (shillings) six (pence); that is, ten or fifteen cents less than twenty pounds. Twenty pounds ought (for “naught”) and six means sixpence more than twenty pounds.

Uriah Heep is the “villain" of David's story, though in our selection he appears to be merely an unattractive character. His peculiarities, like Mr. Micawber's, are on the surface, and the author seldom writes a page about him without mentioning them—his red hair, his long, “clammy” hands, his “umble” disposition, his


of writhing (line 114). 57. William Tidd's Practice of the Court of King's Bench was a real authority on common-law practice in Dickens's day. 76. a numble is merely, of course, Uriah's way of saying “an umble.”'

GEORGE ELIOT. Mrs. Tulliver, with her children, Tom and Maggie, and her niece, Lucy Deane, is visiting her sister, Mrs. Pullet, at Garum Firs. Maggie has been guilty of several accidents before this chapter, being so exceptionally unfortunate as to offend her beloved brother. She feels that she is in everybody's disfavor, and is therefore not inclined to be agreeable to anybody.

18. Medusa's hair was so beautiful that Minerva out of jealousy transformed it into snakes. Her head was then so terrible to look upon that all who did so were turned into stone. All the author

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