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It is one of the greatest memo-
rial monoliths of modern times.
Taller than Luxor'* slialts Hihi grander,
Looms tliv pillar of Alexander,
Guarding ihu palace tliatfrouts the square.
E. D. Proctor.

Alexander in the Tent of Darius. A fresco-painting by Gianantonio Razzi, or Bazzi, called II Soddorna (1474-1549). In the Farnesina, Rome.

Alexander's Tomb. A small structure at Alexandria, Egypt, traditionally identified with the tomb of Alexander. The existence of Alexander's tomb has long been recorded by Arab tradition. Leo Africanus speaks of it as being highly honored by the Moslems, and as being Waited with religious veneration by great numbers of strangers from foreign lands.

Alexandrian Library. This celebrated library at Alexandria, Egypt- was founded, like the Museum, by Ptolemy Soter. Ptolemy Philadelphus, his successor, made great additions to it, and at his death there were 100,000 volumes in the library. A great deal of trouble was taken and expense incurred in forming and adding to this collection, in which it was said that a copy of every known work was included. Here was deposited the Septuagint translation of the Bible. The Alexandrian Library consisted of about 700,000 volumes, of which 400,000 were in the Museum and 300,000 in the Serapeutn. The former collection was destroyed by fire during the war between Julius Crcsar and the Alexandrians, and the latter by order of Caliph Omar in 640. By this act the Caliph Omar is said to have provided the 4,000 hatha of the city with fuel for six mouths.

Alfred Club. A club in London, established in Albemarle Street in 1808, and dissolved about the middle of the century.

#J- Lord Byron, who was a member, characterized It as " pleasant, a little too sober and literary, and " in the

whole, a decent resource in a rainy day, in a dearth of parties, or Parliament, or in ;ui empty season."

flftf* "The Alfred received its coupde-ardce from a well-known Btory to the effect that Mr. Canning, whilst in the zenith of his fame, dropped In accidentally at a house dinner of twelve or fourteen, Btald out the evening, and made himself remarkably agreeable, without any one of the party suspecUng who he was."

Quarterly Review.

Alfred dividing his Loaf with the Pilgrim. A picture by Benjamin West (1738-1820), well known by engravings. In the Hall of the Stationers' Company, London.

Alfred Jewel. A remarkable jewel found near Ethelney Al>oey in Somersetshire, England, and a rare specimen of AngloSaxon art. It bears this inscription in Saxon characters: "Alfred had me wrought."

Alhambra. [The Red Castle.] The palace-fortress of the Moorish kings in Granada, Spain. It was begun in 1248, and finished in 1314. The exterior is plain, and affords little indication of the unrivalled splendor which once characterized the interior apartments. The building has suffered greatly from decay, neglect, and wanton injury, but is still an object of attraction to travellers, as one of the finest existing specimens of Moorish architecture, abounding in colonnades, pavilions, baths, fountains, gilded ceilings, and every kind of Oriental ornamentation. Around the palace and gardens were scattered the establishments of the court and nobility, so that the whole population of the Alhambra consisted of some 40,000 souls. The preservation from absolute ruin of this, the most interesting and beautiful of the historical monuments of Spain, is due to the French, who, when Granada was in their hands, did much to repair and restore the Alhambra.

Kf " To the traveller imbued with a feeling for the historical and poetical, ao inseparably Intertwined in the annals of romantic Spain, tbe Albambra Is as much an object of devotion as is the Caaba to all true Moslems. How many legends and traditions, true and fabulous,—how many songs and ballads, Arabian and Spanish, of love and war and chivalry, —are associated with this Oriental pile! It was the royal abode of the Moorish kings, where, surrounded with tbe splendors and refinements of Asiatic luxury, they held dominion over what they vaunted as a terrestrial paradise, and made their last stand for empire in Spain. The. royal palace forms but a part of a fortress, the walls of which, studded with towers, stretch Irregularly round tbe whole crest of a hill, a spur of the Sierra Nevada or Snowy Mountains, and overlook the city: externally it Is a rude congregation of towers and battlements, with no regularity of plan nor grace of architecture, and giving little promise of the grace and beauty which prevail within. . . . After the kingdom had passed into the hands of the Christians, the Albambra continued to be a roynl demesne, and was occasionally inhabited by the Castiliun monarch**'. The Emperor Charles V. commenced a sumptuous palace within its walls, but was deterred from completing it by repeated shocks of earthquakes. The lost royal residents were Philip V. and his beautiful queen, Elizabelta of Parma, early in the eighteenth century. . . . The desertion of the court, however, was a fatal blow to the Alhambra. Its beautiful halls became desolate, and some of them fell to ruin; the gardens were destroyed, and the fountains ceased to Play-" Irving.

#S* " The Alhambra, a name which will make my blood thrill if I live to the frosts of a century, not that the pleasure I received, on wandering over the immense extent of these most graceful and most picturesque of all ruins, was like the quiet, hallowed delight of a solitary visit to the Coliseum or the Forum, . . . but it was a riotous, tumultuous pleasure, which will remain In my memory like a kind of sensual enjoyment."

George Ticknor. Lonely and still are now thy marble halls. Thou fair Alhambra! there the feast is o'er; And with the murmur of tliy fountain falls Blend the wild tones of nilnstrelsv no more. Felicia Hemans.

And there the Alhambra still recalls

Aladdin's paluce of delight:

Allah il Allah! through Its hulls

Whispers the fountain as It falls.

The Darro darts beneath Its walls.

The hills with snow are white.


On to Alhambra, strong and ruddy heart
Of glorious Morlsma, gasping uow,
A maimed giant in his agony.

Oeorge Eliot,

All Hallows Church. A celebrated old London church, destroyed in 1877. In this church Milton was baptized.

All Saints. A modern church in London, the interior of which is said to be the most gorgeous of any in the kingdom. Finished in 1859.

«J- " Though I have a rather largo acquaintance with English and foreign works executed since the revival of Pointed art, I cannot hcsltau.- for an Instant in allowing that this chunh is not only the most beautiful, but the most vigorous, thoughtful, and original, of them all." O. A. Street.

A116e Verte. [The Green Walk] A fine promenade in Brussels, Belgium, extending along the canal from Brussels to the Scheldt.

Alloway Kirk. A mined church near Ayr, Scotland, immortalized in Burns's poem of " Tarn O'Shanter." The old bell of the kirk is still hanging in it, though hardly more than the four walls of the structure are now standing. She prophesy'd that late or soon, Thou, would be found deep drown'd in

Doon; Or catch'd wP warlocks In the mirk. By Alloicai/'s auld haunted kirk. Burns.

Almack's. Noted assembly-rooms in King Street, St. James's, London, so called after tlie proprietor, Almack, a Scotchman. They were opened Feb. 12, 17U5, with an assembly at which the Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Cullodeti, was present. The house continued to be the fashionable place of entertainment during the early part of the present century, but has now lost its former importance, — " a clear proof that the palmy days of exelusiveness are gone by in England" (Quarterly Review). The rooms are let for public meetings, dramatic readings, lectures, concerts, balls, and dinners. Almack's is now called " Willis's," from the name of the present proprietor. A novel entitled "Almack's" was issued in 1831, and followed by "A Key to Almack's," by Benjamin Disraeli.

^"We could, however, Btay there but a short time; for we were to go to Alraack's, where, with some exertion, we arrived just before the doors were closed at midnight. It was very brilliant, as it always is; and the arrangements for ease and comfort were perfect, — no ceremony, no supper, no regulation or managing, brilliantly lighted large halls, very fine music, plenty of dancing. ... It struck me, however, that there were fewer of the leading nobility and fashion there than formerly, and that the general cast of the company was younger."

George Tlcknor (in 1835).

The Fraction asked himself: How will this look in Almacfi, and before Lord Mahogsny? The Wlnklemann asked himself: How will this look In the Universe, and befuro the Creator of Man? Carlylc.

Almack's Club. This club in Pall Mall, London, was founded in 1704, and was celebrated for the gambling which took place there. AYalpole writes, in 1770, that the gaming at Almack's is "worthy the decline of our empire, or commonwealth, which you please." He adds: "The young men of the age lose ten, fifteen, twenty thousand pounds, in an evening there." Charles Fox was a member, and also' Gibbon. The latter wrote, that, notwithstanding the rage of play, he found there more entertainment and rational society than in any other club to which he belonged. Almack's afterwards became Goosetree's Club, of which, in 1780, Pitt and "Wilberforce were members. See Brookes's Clcb.

Almeidan. The largest and handsomest square in Constantinople, Turkey.

Almond Glen. See Glen AlMond.

Alnwick Castle. The ancient seat of the Duke of Northumberland, in the town of the same name, and historically one of the most interesting baronial mansions in England. It dates from before the Conquest, but has undergone several restorations.

*?""Ai no pains or expense was spared to make the new part harmonize with the old, so far as It was possible to combine ancient architecture with modern requirements, the structure, as a whole, presents the most magnificent specimen in Great Britain — perhaps in the world — of the feudal castle of mediaeval days."

The Timet, 1880.

Home of the Percy's high-born race.
Homo of their beautiful and brave,
Alike their birth and burial place,
Their cradle and their grave I
Still sternly o'er the castle's gate
Their house's Lion stands in state.

As in his proud departed hours:
And warriors frown In stone on high.
And feudal banners" flout the sky,"

Above his princely towers.

Fitz-Oreme Halleck.

Alphonaine Tables. A series of astronomical tables intended to correct those contained in Ptolemy's "Almagest," composed by order of Alphonso of Castile in 1252.

Alsatia. See "whitefriars.

A later, The. A basin or lake in

the city of Hamburg, Germany,

surrounded with fine buildings.

It is a favorite pleasure-resort of

the inhabitants.

AlteMarkt. [Old Market.] A public square in Dresden, Germany.

Altenahr Castle. An ancient feudal fortress, now in ruins, in the valley of the Ahr, in Germany.

Altenberg Abbey. A very interesting monastic establishment of the Cistercian order in a sequestered valley near Cologne, Germany. The church is of the thirteenth century.

Altenburg. An ancient and noted castle near Bamberg, in Franconia, Germany. It is now in ruins.

Althorp. A noble manor near Weedon in England, the seat of Earl Spencer.

Alton Towers. A noble mansion, the seat of the Earl of Shrewsbury, In the parish of Alton, England.

Altotting. See Shrink Of Thb Black Virgin.

Altoviti, Bindo. A portrait ol this youth, which has been wrongly taken to be that of the painter himself, by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). It was formerly in the Casa Altoviti, Rome, but is now in the gallery at Munich, Bavaria.

Amalienborg. A royal palace in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the ordinary residence of the royal family.

Amazon, The. 1. A celebrated work of ancient sculpture in the Vatican, Rome. Also another in the Museum of the Capitol.

2. A celebrated relic of ancient sculpture in the Museum of Berlin, Prussia. It has been by some ascribed to Polycleites the Elder (452 ?^J12? B. C), the Greek statuary. Amazons, Battle of the. See

Battle Of The Amazons. Ambassadors, The. See Two

Ambassadors. Ambassadors' Club. See CovenTry Club. Ambras Armoury. [Ger. Ambraser Sammlunf).] A famous collection of ancient armor, jewels, and curiosities, in the Belvedere, Vienna, Austria. It derives its name from the Castle of Ambras in the Tyrol, from which place it was brought to Vienna in the early part ol this century. Ambrosian Library. [Ital. /.'/UioUca Ambrosiana.] A noted library in Milan, Italy, containing some celebrated manuscripts. It was founded in 1602, and was named after St. Ambrose, the patron saint of the city. Ambush, The. A picture by George H. Boughton, a contemporary painter of landscapes and genre. Amer, Mosque of. See Mosque

Of Amer. America, The. 1. A war-vessel of the old American navy, built between 1775 and 1783. She carried 74 guns, and was pronounced by Commodore Jones "the largest of seventy-fours in the world."

She was presented to the French government before she went to sea, and was finally captured from the French by the British.

2. A noted schooner-rigged yacht, celebrated for her speed and the excellence of her model. The victory of this yacht over R. Stephenson's iron yacht Titania in a race, August, 1851, demonstrated the superiority of the model upon which the America was built. She is now in the

gossession of Gen. Benjamin F. ;utler.

Amiens Cathedral. See Notre Dame [d'Amiens].

Amphion, The. A British frigate destroyed by an explosion in the harbor of Plymouth, England, Sept. 22, 1796. Nearly all on board perished.

Amphitrite, The. A ship which was wrecked off Boulogne, France, in 1833, with a loss of over 100 passengers.

Amrita Saras. [Fount of Immortality.] A famous temple in Ainritsar, India, one of the sacred places of the Hindus. The temple is situated on an island in the centre of a reservoir or tank about 150 paces square. It was constructed in 1581.

Amsterdam Vegetable Market. A picture by Gabriel Metzu (b. 1630), a Dutch ffmre-painter. In the Louvre, Paris.

Ananias, Death of. See Death Of Ananias.

Anatomical Lecture. A celebrated picture bv Rembrandt van Ryn (1607-1669), the Dutch painter. It bears date 1632, and is now in the Museum of the Hague, Holland.

Ancajani Madonna. See MadonNa Ancajani.

Ancaster House. See Lindsey House.

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. The oldest regular military company in the United States, organized" in 1638. Its armory and interesting collection of military and other relics are in Faneuil Hall, Boston. An Artillery Company was incorporated in England under Henry VIII. J

And the old books In uniforms a* varied as those of the Ancient and Honorable ArtxUtry Company u*vd to be. If my memory serves nie right. Uolma.

Ancient Italy. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1857), the eminent English painter.

Andersonville Prison. A noted military prison in Sumter Co., Georgia, in which, during the civil war in the United States, many Union soldiers were confined, and subjected to great cruelty.

Andes, Heart of the. See Heart


Andrea del Sarto. A portrait of himself by the painter (14881530). In the collection of autograph portraits in the Uffizi, Florence, Italy.

Andromeda. A picture by Guido Reni (1575-1642), in the casino, or summer-house, of the Rospigliosi palace, in Rome.

Angel, The. An old and famous inn in the parish of Islington, London, rebuilt in 1819.

4E5" This name has been a common designation of inns and public-houses in England, which were formerly known by the various devices upon their signs.

Angel appearing to the Shepherds. A picture by Thomas Cole (1801-1848). In the Boston Athenxum.

Angelo. See Bridge Of St. AnOelo, Michael Angelo, MiChael Angelo's House, and St. Anoelo.

Angels, Fall of the. See Fall Of The Angels.

Angels'Heads. 1. A well-known picture, called by this name, by Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792). "The head of Miss Gordon, the niece of 'No-Popery' Lord Gordon, appears in five" different positions, with cherubs' wings." This picture is in the National

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Gallery, London, and has been often reproduced.

2. Picture-groups bearing this name, by Correggio, and by others, are very familiar through photographic reproductions.

Angerstein Gallery. The collection of pictures which formed the nucleus of the present National Gallery, London. See National Galleky.

Animali, Bala degli. See Sala Degli Animali.

Anna, St. See St. Anna.

Anne Hathaway's Cottage. A house in the village of Shottery, near Stratford-on-Avon, England, which is pointed out as the cottage in which Anne Hathaway lived prior to her becoming the wife of Shakespeare.

*S~" It Is a timber and piaster house, like John Shakespeare's, standing on a bank, with a roughly paved terrace in front. The parlor is wainscoted high in oak, and in the principal chamber is an enormous and heuvly carved bedstead. Though a ruutio and even rude habitation when measured by our standard, it was evidently a comfortable nonic tor a substantial yeoman in the time of Quee-i Elizabeth, and is picturesque enough for the cradle of a poet's love."

Richard Grant White Anne's, St. See St. Anne's. Annitshkoff Palace. A noted palace in St. Petersburg, Russia, a favorite residence of the imperial family. It is situated on the Nevskoi Prospekt, the main avenue of the city. Annunciation, The. [Ital. L'Anenunciazione, Fr. VAnnoncialion, Ger. Die Verkiindigvnr/.] A very common subject of representation by the mediaeval painters, exhibiting the interview between the angel and the Virgin Mary, according to the account in Luke i. 26-29. Of numerous compositions treating of this subject, the following may be mentioned as among the more celebrated.

Annunciation, The. A picture regarded as miraculous, and formerly held in the highest veneration by all Christendom, It is

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