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in a chapel of the church styled dclla Santiaima Nunziata in Florence, Italy. It is concealed from the public, and only exhibited to the devout on great occasions. There is a copy of this picture in the Pitti Palace, by Carlo Dolce. 4IS-"The name of the painter Is disputed; but, according to tradition, it is the work of a certain Bartotomeo, who, while he sat meditating upon the various excellencies and perfections of Our Lady, and most especially on her divine beauty, and thinking with humility how inadequate were his own powers to represent her worthily, fell asleep; and, on awaking, found the head of the Virgin hud been wondrously completed, either by the hand of an angel, or by that of St. Luke, who had X descended from heaven on purpose. "Though this curious relic has been frequently restored, no one has presumed to touch the features of the Virgin, which are, I am told, — for I have never been blessed with a sight of the original picture, — marvellously sweet and beautiful. It is concealed by a veil, on which is painted a fine head of the Redeemer, by Andrea del Sarto; and forty-two lamps of silver burn continually round it." Mr*. Jameson.
Annunciation, Thr. A picture by Giovanni >d»-^Fiesole. called Fra^cTTgoiieo (1:387-1455). In the
ffseum of St. Mark, Florence, -Italy. / Annunciation, Tlie. A picture by Hans Memling (d. 1495), the Flemish painter, bearing date 1482, and described as a work of very original conception and marvellous delicacy. It is in possession of Prince Radzivil at Berlin, Germany.
Annunciation, The. A remarkable picture by Baccio della Porta, called Fra Bartolommeo (1461*1517), representing the Virgin on a throne, the angel descending with a lily, and around the throne various saints. In the gallery at Bologna, Italy.
Annunciation, The. A picture by Francesco Francia (1450-1517). In the Brera, Milan, Italy.
Annunciation, The. A small picture by Fra Bartolommeo (1469-1517),' the Italian painter. Now in the Louvre, Paris.
Annunciation, The. A picture by Francesco Albani (1578-1600).
In the church of S. Bartolomeo, Bologna, Italy. Anthony's Nose. A well-known promontory on the Hudson River, at the entrance to the Highlands, said to have been so called from Anthony Van Corlear, a trumpeter of Gov. Stuyvesant.
£&~ " It must be known, then, that the nose of Anthony, the trumpeter, was of a very lusty size. . . . Now thus it happened, that, bright and early In the morning, the good Anthony, having washed his burly visage, was leaning over the quarter-railing of the galley, contemplating It in the glassy wave below. Just at this moment the illustrious sun, breaking in all his splendor from behind a high bluff of the Highlands, did dart one of his most potent beams full upon the refulgent nose of the sounder of brass, the reflection of which shot straightway down hissing hot into the water, and killed a mighty sturgeon that was disporting near the vessel. The huge monster, being with infinite labor hoisted on board, furnished a luxurious repaBt to the crew. . . . When this aatonlshing miracle became known to Peter Stuyvesant, and that he lasted of the unknown fish, be, as may be supposed, marvelled exceedingly, and as a monument thereof he gave the name of Anthony's Nose to a stout
f>romontory in the neighborhood, and t has continued to be called Anthony's Nose ever since that time." Irving. E3P" There Is also an Anthony's Nose on the shore of Lake George, and another on the Mohawk in Montgomery Co., N.V.
Antinous, The. A name given to several statues supposed to represent a young Bithynian of distinguished beauty, and a friend of the Emperor Hadrian. According to some historians he drowned himself in the Nile. Hadrian wept for him, and caused the most famous artists to reproduce his image. Among the statues which represent him, there are two chefs dttnvre. One (Belvedere Antinous) is now in the Belvidore of the Vatican, Koine, the other in the Capitol. (See infra,'1.) The former, which is now called Mercury, was found near S. Martino ai Monti, a church on the Esquiline, and is a statue of great beauty. Its just proportions and graceful posture nave received unqualified praise.
M3- " The Belvedero Antinons la an exquisite image of blooming youth. For soft and delicate beauty, — beauty which, like that of the vernal rose, the sunBet cloud, and the breaking wave, is suggestive of brief continuance and early decay, — this statue has no superior, hardly an equal." Hillard.
t3- " Poussin declared the Mercury, which at that time was called without reason the Antinous, the most perfect model of the proportions of the human body." Ampere, Trans.
MS- " The Belvedere 'Mercnry,' a young mau standing like the Melcager, but still more beautiful. The torso is more vigorous, and the head more refined. A smiling expression flickers lightly over the countenance, the grace and modesty of a well-born youth capable of expressing himself properly, because he is of an intelligent and select race, but who hesitates to speak because his soul is still fresh, getting aaide the Venus of Mllo and the statues of the Parthenon, I know of nothing comparable to it."
Look lonp enoueh On anv peasant's face here, coarse and
lined. You'll catch Antinom somewhere In that
clay. As perfect-featured as he yearns at
Mi a. Browning.
2. An admired statue of Antinous, found in Hadrian's villa, and now in the Capitol, Rome.
*3-"In the Antinous the anatomist would look in vain to detect even the slightest mistako or misconception; yet such is the simplicity of the whole composition, so fine and undulating the forms, that a trifling error would appear a gross fault,"
M3- " The Identity of the Cnnltollnc Antinons has only once, I think, been seriously questioned; and yet it may be reckoned more than doubtful. The head is almost certninly not Iiib. How It came to be placed upon a body presenting so much resemblance to the type of Antinons, I do not know. Oareful comparison of the torso and the arms with an Indubitable portrait will raise the question whether this fine statue is not a Hermes or n hero of an earlier age." J. A. Symonda.
3. A famous bas-relief of Antinous, from the Villa Adriana, now in the Villa Albani at Rome, representing the youth crowned with lotus. Winckelmann pronounces it, after the Apollo and the Laocoon, the most beautiful monument of antiquity which time has transmitted to us, "as fresh and as highly finished as if it had just left the studio of the sculptor."
83- " The bas-rcllcf of the Villa Albani, restored to suit the conception of a Vertumnus, has even more of florid beauty, but whether the restoration was wisely made may be doubted." J. A. Symonds.
4. A bust in the Louvre, Paris. tg- " Among the simple busts, by
far the finest, to my thinking, are the colossal head of the Louvre and the ivv-crowned bronze nt Naples. The latter Is not only flawless in its execution, but Is animated with a pensive beauty of expression. The former, though praised by Winckelmann as among the two or three most precious masterpieces of antique art, must bo criticised for a certain vacancy and llfelessncss." J. A. Symonds.
5. A bronze bust in the Museum at Naples, Italy. (See supra, 4.)
6. Among other statues of Antinous, is that called the Braseln Antinous, from having belonged to Duke Braschi. This colossal statue, found on the site of the ancient Gabii, is now in the Rotunda of the Vatican, Rome.
Antiope. See Jupiter And Anti
AntiparoB, Grotto of. See GrotTo Of Antiparos.
Antoine, Faubourg St. See Faunorito St. Antoine.
Antonia, Fortress of. The site of this structure at Jerusalem has been a subject for controversy, but it is thought to have occupied the whole northern section of the Haram. Josephus describes it as being the fortress of the Temple, as the Temple was that of the city, and as having the apartments and conveniences of a palace. He says that the " general appearance was that of a tower, with other -towers at each of the four corners, three of which were 50 cubits high, while that at the south-east angle rose to an elevation of 70 cubits, so that from thence there was a complete view of the Temple."
Antonine Column. A celebrated relic of ancient Rome, now standing in the Piazza Colonna, to which it gives its name. It was erected to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus by the Senate and Roman people, A.D. 174. The column is surmounted bv a statue of St. Paul, placed there by Sixtus V., and the shaft is surrounded by bas-reliefs arranged in a spiral form'. One of these bas-reliefs, a figure of Jupiter Pluvius, representing him sending down rain which falls from his outstretched arms, is celebrated from its supposed connection with an old legend that a Christian legion from Mitylene caused rain to fall as the result of their prayers. This story is told by Ettsebius, and corroborated by Justin Martyr.
Antoninus and Faustina. See Temple Of Antoninus And Faustina.
Antoninus, 'Wall of. See Wall Of Antoninus.
Antony, St. See St. Antony.
Antwerp Citadel. A famous fortress in Antwerp, Belgium, erects ed for the Duke of Alva. It has undergone several sieges, and at different times has fallen into the hands of the English and the French.
Apis Mausoleum. A large subterranean tomb at Sakkarah, Egypt, also known as the Serapeum, although the latter title is more properly applied to the temple (no longer in existence) which was built over the excavated tomb. M. Mairette discovered the site of the Serapeum and the Apis Mausoleum in 1860-61. He found them buried in the sand; and the remains of the Serapeum, which he excavated with great difficulty, are now re-buried.
The discovery of the Apis Mausoleum was, historically, of much importance. In it were found many inscribed tablets, the most important of which are now in the Louvre at Paris. See SeraPkum.
43- " An avcnno of sphinxes led op to It [the Serapeum], and two pylons stood oefore it; round it was the usual enclosure. But It was distinguished from all other temples by having in one of its chambers an opening, from which descended an inclined passage into the rock below, giving access to the vaults In which reposed the mummied representatives of the god Apis. Living, the sacred bull was worshipped in a magnificent temple at Memphis, and lodged in a palace adjoining, — the Apieum: dead, he was buried in excavated vaults at Sakkarah, and worshipped in a temple built over them — the Serapeum." Murray's Handbook.
Apollinare In Classe. See Sant' Apollinare In Classe.
Apollinarisberg. A hill on the banks of the Rhine, well known to travellers, and crowned with a beautiful modern Gothic church.
Apollino, The. [The little Apollo.] An ancient and admired statue, now in the Tribune of the Uffizi Palace, Florence, Italy.
tg~ " After the vivid truth of these two remarkable works [the Wrestlers, and the Knife-Grlnder], we are hardly prepared to do full justice to the soft, ideal beauty of the Apollino. It is like taking up the Phedre of Racine, after laying down the first part of King Henry IV." Ifillard.
Apollo. An ancient statue in the Louvre, Paris, supposed to be a copy of a work by Praxiteles, the Greek sculptor (b. B.C. 392?). There is another in the Tribune of the Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
Apollo and Daphne. A work of sculpture by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680). In the Villa Borghese, Rome.
Apollo and Python. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the English landscape-painter, regarded one of his best works.
Apollo and the Muses. See Pab
Apollo Eelvidere. A celebrated statue of Apollo found about the beginning of the sixteenth century at Porto d'Anzio, the ancient Antium. It was purchased by Julius II., when Cardinal, and was placed in the Belvidere of the Vatican, Rome, whence it derives its present name. Connoisseurs now think that this statue is not the original work of a Greek sculptor, but a copy.
*3» " Ardently excited, and filled with divine anger, with which la miugied a touch of triumphant scorn, the Intellectual head Is turned sideways, while the figure with elastic step is hastening forward. The eye seems to shoot forth lightning; there Is an expression of contempt in the corners of the mouth; and the distended nostrils seem to breathe forth divine anger."
IS- " The Apollo Belwdere belongs to a more recent and a less simple age. ■Whatever its merit may be, it has the defect of being a little too elegant: it might well please Winckelmann and the critics of the eighteenth century. His plaited locks fall behind the car in the most charming manner, and are gathered above the brow in a kind of diadem, as if arranged by a woman, i This Apollo certainly displays savoirtivre, also consciousness of his rank — I am sure he haB a crowd of domestics." Taint, Trans. Or view the Lord of the unerring bow. The God of life, and poesy, and light, — The sun in human limbs arrayed, and
Apollo Club. Ben Jonson appears to have been the founder of this club, which met at the noted Devil Tavern, between Temple Bar and the Middle Temple gate, in London. The principal room at the tavern was known as the "Oracle of Apollo." The Welcome in gilded letters upon a black-board, a*hd the rules of the Club inscribed in the same manner, were placed over the door and fireplace of the Apollo. The Welcome and the Leges Convivialet are to be found
in Jonson's works. See Devil Tavern.
<a-"Tbc Club at the Devil dooa not appear to have resembled the higher one at the Mermaid, where Shakespeare and Beaumont used to meet him [Jonson]. He most probably had It all to himself." Leigh Hunt.
Apollo OaUery. See Galerie D'apollon.
ApoUo Boom. An apartment in the Raleigh Tavern, an ancient building in Williamsburg, Va., in which the House of Burgesses met to take into consideration the Insurrectionary proceedings then occurring in Massachusetts.
Apollo Sauroctonos. [Lizard-killer.] A bronze statue of Apollo In the Villa Albani at Rome, which in the judgment of Winckelmann is the original statue by Praxiteles, described by Pliny, and the most beautiful bronze statue left in the world. It was found upon the Aventine Mount. There is another statue of the same name in the Vatican.
Apollo, Temple of. See Temple Of Apollo.
Apollonicon. An immense organ first exhibited in 1817 at the manufactory of the builders, Messrs. Flight "and Robson, St. Martin's Lane, London. The instrument was self-acting, and could also be played in the ordinary manner by one or by several performers. The Apollonicon was five years in course of construction, and cost about £10,000.
Apostles, The. See Calling Of The Apostles, Communion Of The Apostles, and Twelve Apostles.
Apotheosis of Hercules. A wellknown picture by Francois Lemoine (1688-1737), the French historical painter. It is 64 feet by 54 feet in size, and is said to be the largest in Europe. "There are 142 figures in it, and it is probably the most magnificent pitlura di machina of the decorative
feriod in which it was executed." t is painted on the ceiling of a room in the palace at Versailles.
Apotheosis of Trajan. See TriUmph Of Trajan.
Apotheosis of 'Washington. An immense fresco on the interior of the dome of the Capitol in Washington, painted by Brumidi. It covers some 5,000 feet, and cost $40,000.
Apoxyomenes. A celebrated statue of an athlete by Lysippus (flourished time of Alexander the Great), the Greek sculptor; a marble copy of which, found at Trasteverc in 1846, is now in the Vatican, Rome.
The !i'(;8 and arm* [of the AntlnotiB] are modelled with exquisite grace of outline; yet they do not show that readiness for active service which in noticeable in the statues of the Meleager, the Aporyomenos, orthe Belvedere Hermes. J. A. Symonds.
Appian Way. See Via Appia.
Apprentices. See Idle And InDustrious Apprentices.
Approach to Venice. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the eminent English painter.
Apsley House. The former wellknown residence of the Duke of Wellington, Piccadilly, London. It immediately adjoins Hyde Park. It was built about 1785 for Charles Batburst, Lord Apsley, and was purchased by Marquis Wellesley, elder brother of the great Duke, in 1828. It contains a collection of pictures.
Ara Cceli. [Altar of Heaven.] A very interesting church in Rome, of high antiquity, occupying the site of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. It was in this church that Gibbon, as he himself informs us, on the 15th of October, 17(U, as he sat musing amidst the ruins of the Capitol, while the barefooted friars were singing vespers, first meditated writing the history of the Decline and Fall of the city. The name Ara Cceli is traditionally derived from the altar consecrated by Augustus in consequence of the sibyl's prophecy about the coming of the Redeemer, a monkish invention wholly unsupported by historical evidence. Some say, however,
that in the middle ages the church was called " S. Maria in Auroewlio." The church of Ara Cceli is held in great reverence by the people, on account of the famous wooden image called the Santissimo Bambino, supposed to be of
f-eat efficacy in curing the sick, he steps of this church are the identical ones which formed the ascent to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. See Bambino.
«S* " On the steps of Ara-Ccel!, nineteen centuries ago, the first great C»sar climbed on his knees after his first triumph. At their bnsc Rienzi, the last of the Roman tribunes, fell. . . . Standing on a spot so thronged with, memories, the dullest imagination takes fire." W. W. Story.
Kg- " A flight of 124 steps of marble leads to the church of Ara-Cceli, on© of the oldest and ugliest In Rome. But no one is held In greater reverence by the people, and none is more frequent, ed by throngs of worshippers."
0. S. mUard.
Jb5" *• A staircase of extraordinary width and length stretches upward to the red facade of the church of AraCcell. On these steps hundreds of beggars, as ragged as those of Callot, clad In tattered hats and rusty brown blank, ets, are warming themselves majestically in the sunshine. You embrace all this in a glance, the convent and the palace, the colossi and the canaille; the hill, loaded with architecture, suddenly rises at the end of a street. Its stone masses spotted with crawllug human Insects. This is peculiar to Rome." Taint, Tram.
Returning home by Ara Calx, we mounted to it by more than 100 marble stops, not In devotion,—as 1 observed some to do on their bare knees,—but to see those two famous statues of Constantino in while marble, placed there out of his llaths. John Evelyn, 1(54-1.
Arbroath Abbey. This ruin of the most spacious abbey in Scotland is in Aberbrothwick. It was built in 1178, and dedicated to St. Thomas a Beeket. There is a tradition that the Abbots of Aberbrothwick placed a bell on a dangerous reef in the German Ocean, and this story gave rise to a ballad of Southey's.
The Abbot of Aberbrothock Had placed that boll ou the Inchcape rock. Southey.
See Inchcape Rock.