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Elz Castle. A fine relic of feudal times near Carden in Rhenish Prussia, pronounced "an almost solitary example of a feudal residence spared by fire, war, and time, and remaining in nearly the same condition that it was two or three centuries ago." It is inhabited, and contains a curious collection of antiquities. ,

Elzevir Editions. A name applied to certain carefully printed and elegant editions of the works of Latin and Greek authors, issued by printers of the name of Elzevir in Amsterdam and Leyden, Holland, and mostly published between 1595 and 1G80.

The old. tlcatl authors thronged him round

about. And Ehevir'g gray ghosts from leathern

graves looked out. Whittier.

Emancipation Proclamation. A picture by Francis Bicknell Carpenter (b. 1830), and well known through the engraving by Ritchie. This painting was purchased and presented to Congress in 1877. It is now in the House of Representatives in the National Capitol, Washington.

Emanuel. See Temple Emanuel.

Emanuel College. A foundation of the University of Cambridge, England. Established in 1584.

Embarkation of St. Ursula. A picture by Vittore Carpaccio (14501520?). In the Accadernia della Belle Arti at Venice, Italy.

Embarkation of the Pilgrims. A picture in one of the panels of the Kotunda in the Capitol at Washington, representing the departure of the pilgrims from Holland. It was painted by Robert Weir (b. 1803), and was completed and placed in position during the administration of President Polk. The artist is considered to have sacrificed historical truth in order that he might produce a picture full of (Strong effects. The sum of ten thousand dollars was paid tor th/s work. Familiar from its rePrr,luction upon bills of the natknal currency.

Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba. A celebrated picture by Claude Lorrain (KJOO-llW-'). In the National Gallery, London.

Emma Mine. A mine of precious ore in Utah Territory, south-east of Salt Lako City. The sale of this mine to a stock-company, some years ago, most of the stock being held in London, was a matter of great notoriety, and caused much sensation.

Emperor of Bells. [Russian, Tzar Kolokol.] A renowned bell preserved in the Kremlin at Moscow, Russia, cast by order of tho Empress Anne in 1730. It was broken a few years afterward by the burning of the wooden tower in which it was suspended. It is said to be over 21 feet in height, about 22 feet in diameter at the bottom, to weigh between 100 and 200 tons, and to contain an amount of gold, silver, and copper, estimated to be worth 81,500,000. The "New Bell" of Moscow is 21 feet in height, and 18 feet in diameter.

,8®-"From the time of Herodotus, the Scythians were great casters of metal,and famous for their bells. The specimens of casting of this sort in Russia reduce all the great bells of Western Europe to comparative insigniftcance. It of course became necessary to provide places in which to hang these bells; and ns nothing in Byzantine or Armenian architecture afforded a hint for amalgamating the belfry with the church, they went to work in their own way, and constructed towers wholly independent of tho churches."


Emperors, Hall of the. See Hall


Empire. See Course Of Empire and Star Of Empire.

Endowment House. A building in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, in which many of the rites of the Mormon worship, such as "sealings," and baptisms for the dead, are performed, and where they claim to receive their "endowments" from heaven. The edifice is constructed of unburnt brick.

Enf ana d* Edouard. [Edward's Children.] A picture by Paul Delaroche (1797-1850).

«3-"The 'Enfans d'Edouard' in renowned over Europe, and haa appeared in a hundred different ways in print. It is properly pathetic nnd gloomy, nnd mcrita fully its high reputation." Thackeray.

Unzelberg Abbey. A noted Benedictine abbey near the town of the same name in Switzerland. It was founded in tho twelfth century, but tho present building was erected in tlie early part of the last century. There is a tradition that angels, chose the site of the monastery.

Whose authentic lay
Sung from that heavenly ground in mid-
dle air,
Made known the spot where Piety should

A holy structure to th' Almighty's praise.

Engliinderhubel. [English Hillock.] A mound in Switzerland, about 11 miles from Lucerne, containing the bones of 3,000 Englishmen, followers of the Duke of Bedford, who were defeated in battle while devastating the Swiss cantons.

English Coasts. See Oub English Coasts.

English Opera House. See LyCeum Theatre .

Enterprise, The. 1. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed to the Northern seas under Sir James Ross in 1848.

2. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched Feb. 9, 1804.

Entombment, The. A subject very often treated by the great religious painters of the Middle Ages, exhibiting the burial of Christ in accordance with the Scriptural account of that event. Of the great number of pictures upon this subject, among the more celebrated are those given below.

Entombment, The. A picture by Oiotto di Bondone (1276-1336). In the Chapel of the Arena, Padua, Italy.

Entombment, Tlie. A magnificent picture bv Taddeo Gaddi (1300-1300?), executed for the church of Or-San-Michele. Now in the Academy at Florence, Italy.

Entombment, The. A picture by Pietro Perogino (1440-1524). In the Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy.

Entombment, Tlie. A picture by Jan Mostaert (1474-1555), the Flemish painter. It is now in the possession of Rev. Mr. Heath at Enfield, England.

Entombment, The. A famous picture by Titian (1477-1570), representing! this well-known subject. It is in the Louvre, Paris. There i9 a copy in the Manfrin Gallery, Venice, Italy.

jRff-" An Instance of the manner in which all subjects ministered to hie favorite forms of dignity nnd tranquillity. The grief of such noble beings aa support the hftlf-concealed body of the Lord is one of the most dignified and impressive things in this world. Though all intent on the sacred object they bear, the fact of their bearing it is a fiction. Such strength and strain as would actually have been needed, would have overturned ali the gravity which was Titian's chief aim, and the cloth by which they sustain the great weight of a well-developed body is not even drawn tight beneath their grasp." Eaitlakt.

Entombment, The. A celebrated altar-piece by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1K0), painted for the church of S. Francesco at Perugia, Italy, and now in the Borghese Gallery .'t Rome.

I»y "This is the first of Raphael's compositions in which a historical subject is dramatically treated; and, as Is evident fiom the number of designs and studies hi made for the picture, it tasked his powe.s to the utmost."


O- "The Virgin pother ia always introduced [in nn "Entombment"). Either she swoons, whict" '" the ancient Greek; conception, or aha, follows with streaming eyes and clasjlfd hands the pious disciples who hear tflf dead form of her Son, as In Raphael'^wonderful picture In tho Borghese I*J»ce, and Titian's hardly less beautlf?1 ,n the Louvre." Mrt. [atneton.

«g- "This picture belongs Indisputably among the chief works of Raphael; and we may even assign it the preeminence over all the oil-paintings of this master in Rome, not even excepting the renowned Transfiguration and the so-called Madonna di Foligno."

Plainer, Trans.

OW "In Raphael's Entombment of Christ, we perceive the first traces of Michael Angelo's influence."

Grimm, Trant.

Entombment, The. A picture by Roger van der Weyden the Younger (d. 1529).

K3- "The picture of the Entombment by him [van der Weyden], in the National Gallery, is as much more sad to the heart than the passionate Italian conception, as a deep sigh sometimes, than a flood of tears. No finer conception of manly sorrow, sternly repressed, exists than in the heads of Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea."

Lady Eustlake.

Entombment, Tlte. A picture l>y Paul Veronese (1530-1588), and re

fanled as one of his chefs d'eeuvre. n the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Entombment, The. A picture by Michelangelo Amerighi, surnamed Caravaggio (15U'J-l(i09), and his most famous work. In the Vatican, Rome.

Entombment, The. A picture by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1M1). In the Antwerp Museum. Entresol, 8ocie5t6 d\ A French club established by the Abbe Alari at Paris in 1724.

Epiphany, The. A picture by Gheerardt David (1484-1523), the Flemish painter. Now at Munich, Bavaria. A replica of the same in the gallery of Brussels, Belgium.

Epping: Forest. Formerly a very large district, extending from Ep

Cing almost to London. It was nown under the name of Walthara Forest. In the same neighborhood was Hainault, which contains more beautiful scenery than any other forest in England. Great inroads have been made upon Epping Forest, and it now contains not more than 4,000 acres. It is much resorted to by the

inhabitants of London. In the forest, about a mile from Epping, is Queen Elizabeth's "Hunting Lodge," which commands a beautiful prospect.

The Cambridge scholars trembled [seventeenth century] when they approached Epping Forest, even in bruad duy.


Erasmus. 1. A portrait bv Hans Holbein the Younger (14118-1543), and considered one of Ms most admirable works. It is.now in the possession of Lord Radnor, at Longford Castle, England. This picture is said to have been sent by Erasmus to Sir Thomas More in 1525. There is also another portrait of Erasmus by Holbein in the Louvre, Paris.

2. A bronze statue of the great scholar in Rotterdam, where ho was born.

Erasmus. See Mabtyrdom Of St. Erasmus.

Erbach Castle. An old family mansion at Erbach in the Odenwald, containing a rare collection of antiquities.

Ercole Farnese. See Fabnese Hercules.

Erebus, The. An Arctic exploring vessel which sailed from England under Sir John Franklin in May, 1845, and never returned. A document dated April 25, 1848, was discovered in a cairn on the shore of King William's Land by Capt. McClintock of the British expedition sent out by Lady Franklin, in which document it was stated that Sir John Franklin died June 11, 1847; that the Erebus and her companion ship, the Terror, were abandoned April 22, 1848; and that the survivors had started for the Great Fish River.

Erechtheum. ['Ep«x«fioi>.] This, the most venerable of the sanctuaries of Greece, and closely linked with the early legends of Attica, was situated upon the Acropolis, and was so called from being the place of interment of Erechtheus, who holds an important place in the Athenian religion. The original Erechtheum was burnt by the Persians; but the new temple, built upon the ancient site, was a very beautiful structure, and one of the chief works of Athenian architecture. It was of the Ionic order, and was situated to the north of the Parthenon, and near the northern wall of the Acropolis. The appearance of the exterior can be judged from the existing ruins, but the interior presents nothing but a heap of confusing ruins.

«S~ " It contained several objects of the greatest interest to every Athenian. Here was the most ancient statue of Athena Polias, that is, Athena, the guardian of the city. This statue was made of oli%-e-wood, and was Baid to have fallen down from heaven. Here was the sacred olive-tree, which Athena called forth from the earth in her contest with Poseidon for the possession of Attica; here also was the well of salt water which Poseidon produced by the stroke of his trUcnt, the impression of which was seen upon the rock; and here, lastly, was the tomb of Cecropa as well as that of Krcchtheus. . . . The form of the Ercchlhcium differs from every other known example of a Grecian temple. Usually a Grecian temple was nn oblong figure, with two porticos, one at its eastern, and the other at its western, end. The Ercchtheium, on the contrary, though oblong in shape and having a portico at the eastern front, bad no portico at its western end; but from cither side of the latter a portico projected to the north and south, thus forming a kind of transept. Consequently, the temple had three porticos."' Smith's Diet.

&g-" Nowhere did the exquisite taste and skill of the Athenians show themselves to greater advantage than here; for, though every detail of the order may he traced back to Nineveh or Perscnolis, nil are so purified, so Imbued with purely Grecian taste nnd feeling, that they have become essential parts of a far more beautiful order that) ever existed in the land in which they had their origin. . . . Owing to thc'Ereehtheium having been converted into a Byzantine church during the Middle Ages, almost all traceB of its original internal arrangements have been obliterated; and this, with the peculiar combination of three temples in one, makes It more than usually difficult to restore." fergrtsson.

Erectheum, The. A London club, founded in 183G, and afterwards

joined with the Parthenon Club. See Parthenon.

Eremitage. A palace in Bayreuth, Germany, erected by the margraves, in the early part of the last century.

Eremo, Sacro (or Santo). See S.\Cko Eremo.

Ericsson, The. A vessel built by John Ericsson (b. 1803), and named after him. She was intended to be propelled by hot air instead of steam; but, after some experimental trials, the caloricengine was taken out iu 1855, and replaced by steam-engines.

Erythraean Sibyl. A figure in one of the frescos of the Sistine Chapel, Rome, executed by Michael Angelo (1475-1564).

Esarhaddon's Palace. A celebrated Assyrian palace, commonly known as the South-West Palace at Nimroud. It was destroyed by Sre; and the existing remains consist of the entrance or southern hall, the dimensions of which are B55 feet in length by 62 feet in width. It is the largest hall yet discovered in Assyria.

Esbekecyah, The. The great square of Cairo, Egypt, containing about 450,000 square feet. On it are the principal hotels and other prominent buildings. It was formerly inundated during the annual rise of the Nile, and a canal was cut around it to prevent this disaster; but since 18B6 this canal has been filled up, some of the ancient houses have been removed and replaced by new ones, and a central space has been enclosed as a public garden, with cafes, theatres, etc. [Wrilr ten also Ezbekeyieh.]

JJST " The great square of the Ejbekceyeh is always gay on Sundays, when the Franks walk there after church, and the Mohammedans lit smoking in groups to watch there. . . . The Eastern and Western groups. — the turbans and burnooses here, and the French bonnets and mantles tbere,— all among the dark acacias, or crowing the gleams of bright sunshine, makes strange picture, not to be likened W any thing I saw afterwards."

Misi Martinta*

Eschernheim Tower. A picturesque and admired watch-tower in Frankfort-on-the-Main.

Escorial. An immense pile of buildings situated near Madrid, Spain, which has sometimes been called the eighth wonder of the world. It wan built by Philip II., as a mausoleum, in accordance with the will of his father, and served at once many purposes, as a palace, convent, treasury, tombbouse, and museum. It was begun by Juan Bautista de Toledo in 156.1, and finished in 1584. Its name, according to some, is derived from Escorias, the dross of iron-mines which still exist here. The building was begun upon the anniversary of St. Lawrence, and, according to the tradition, was made to assume the shape of a gridiron, the instrument upon which that saint is recorded to have suffered martyrdom. This story, however, is now belfeved to be an invention of later date. The huge and sombre structure, standing at an elevation of 2,700 feet above the level of the sea, is part and parcel of the mountain out of which it has been constructed. It is built of granite in the Doric order, and was till lately the country palace and mausoleum of the Spanish sovereigns, a part of the edifice being used for educational purposes. It is now, however, but a mere wreck, and being deprived of its monks and revenues, and exposed to the mountain storms, is constantly subject to injury. [Written also Escurial.]

W "The Ktcorlal is as vulgnr a name a* the Tulleries. It signifies the place where scoria are thrown; and It was so called because there was an Iron manufactory near that threw its scoria on the spot. Its more just name is 8au Lorenzo el Reale, since it is a royal convent dedicated to St. Lorenzo. It is a monument of the magnificence, the splendor, the superstition, and perhaps the personal fears, of Philip II. . . . The convent itself is worthy of the severest influences of the most monkish ages. It Is the only establishment I have ever met that satisfied all the Ideas 1 had formed of the size of a monastery I

such as Mrs. Radcllffe or Dennis Jasper Murphy describes, and which is here so immense that, in the space occupied by its chief staircase alone, a large house might be built."

George Ticknor.

The romance of Tom Jones, that exquisite picture of human manners, will outlive the palace of the Escurial and the Imperial eagle of Austria. Gibbon.

It [Wolfert's Roost] is said. In fact, to have been modelled alter the cocked hat of Peter the Headstrong, as the Escurial was modelled after the gridiron of the blessed St. Lawrence. Irvmu.

No house, though it were the Tulleries. or the Escurial, is good for any thing without a master. Emerson.

Bet as a challenge at the mountain's side,
Afar the dark Escurial Is descried.
Three hundred feet from earth uplifting

On its colossal shoulder (Irmly braced,
Huge elephant, the cupola defaced,
Uranite debauch of Spain's Tiberius.

T. Oaulier,Trans.

Escurial. See Escorial.

Esher (or Asher) Place. A lovely spot in one of the most picturesque vales of the county of Surrey, England, noted as having been the residence of Cardinal Wolsey after his fall and retirement from court. An old brick tower is still standing, which formed part of the palace when it belonged to the See of Winchester. The place is covered with fine groves of fir and beech, oaks and elms.

Esplanade, The. A magnificent promenade in Calcutta, Himlostan, being an open spate of three or four miles in length and nearly a mile in breadth, extending along the banks of the Hoogly, lined with stately mansions, and crowded with fine equipages.

Esquiline Hill. [Lat. Mons Esqiiilimit.'] One of the seven hills of ancient Rome, of wide extent and undefined form, and now covered with ruins. It is less a distinct hill than a projection of the Campagna. The name is derived by Varro from exciilttis, because of the ornamental groves which were planted upon it. In the later days of the republic and in the time of the empire, the Esquiline was a fashionable place for resi

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